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Process Mapping - Session One Northwest Vista College


Process Mapping - Session One Northwest Vista College Marlene Masten, instructor * * * p. 26 * Multiple endings * P. 28 Can t dead-end: must have a trigger to look ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Process Mapping - Session One Northwest Vista College

Process Mapping - Session OneNorthwest Vista
  • Marlene Masten, instructor

  • A valuable tool
  • An investment by your employer
  • 4 hours with break(s) get back on time!
  • Instructor-led discussion, audience
    participation, activities, exercises
  • Participants Guide left margin for notes
  • Glossary and Appendices back of Guide

Your Instructor
  • Marlene Masten
  • Former teacher, past and current professional
    education and training
  • Industrial engineer, project and personnel
    manager, consultant more than 21 industries and
    14 countries
  • Current local business consultant and animal
    rescue volunteer

Getting to Know You
  • Name?
  • What department are you with?
  • How long have you been with NVC / ACCD?
  • What do you want out of this class?

Course Objectives
  • After this portion of the class, you will be able
  • Understand the benefits of process mapping.
  • Identify different levels of processes (detailed
    versus high-level).
  • Understand how to collect the data necessary for
    basic mapping no small task!

Course Objectives Achieved Through
  • Your instructors skill and experience
  • Hands-on experience
  • Group and independent exercises
  • Guide for reference
  • Questions and answers

Course Agenda
  • First Session
  • Introduction and overview
  • Defining what is a process and what is process
  • Mapping benefits
  • Getting started
  • Collecting data

Course Agenda
  • Your Guide continues with
  • Opening the process mapping toolbox
  • Choosing the right tool for the task at hand
  • Analyzing the process
  • Documenting findings

Why Do All This?
  • Get a better understanding of your departments
  • Focus on core processes and identify ways to
  • Enable all departments to use one tool and one
    consistent, continuous process when looking at
    how they provide services to meet their clients
  • Focus your attention on wasted time and energy.

Overview of the Process Approach
  • Enables client satisfaction and consistency
  • Formal and disciplined to identify, understand,
    manage the activities and elements required by
  • Meet requirements 100 of the time

Process Management
  • Teams who use this method
  • Understand who and what and why
  • Document
  • Measure
  • Implement and improve

Todays Focus
  • Documenting how work is done
  • Allowing focus on core processes, enabling
    identification of opportunities for improvement
  • Your Guide continues with more exercises
    guidelines on two other mapping techniques.

Define process (p. 5)
  • A series of actions or operations which lead to
    an end (Websters Dictionary)
  • Example What process is used to drive a car?
  • Open door, sit, close door, foot to brake,
    seatbelt on, insert key, disengage parking brake
  • Are there any alternative steps or methods?

Define process map (p. 6)
  • A graphic representation of a process, showing
    the sequence of tasks, using standard
    flowcharting symbols
  • Standard, so anyone who picks it up can
    understand it.
  • Document
  • What is really done
  • What takes time
  • What uses resources

Typical Map
Government Bldgs
High School
Franklin St.
Post Office
Johnsons Creek
City Hall
First St.
Thrid St.
Elementary School
Winding Way
Police Station
Utopia Rd.
Middle School
  • How can people get to work?
  • Alternate paths possible?

Benefits of Process Maps (p. 6)
  • Objectively describe how activities are done
  • Document control points (like intersections)
  • Show where variation exists (how many routes are
  • Investigate where problems may occur
  • Highlight handoffs (go from one city to another)

More Benefits of Process Maps
  • Train others on processes
  • Develop process thinking
  • Logically identify areas that need to be improved
    (and with proof!)
  • Identify best practices
  • Monitor and update the process when conditions

Review Process Maps
  • A graphic representation of a process, showing
    the sequence of tasks, using standard
    flowcharting symbols
  • process map flowchart
  • a visual picture of a process

Example Doing the Laundry
Flowcharts show
  • Process as a whole
  • Sequence of steps
  • Relationship between steps
  • Beginning and ending steps the boundaries of
    the process

  • Please answer the questions in your Guide, p.8-9

Common Types of Flowcharts (p. 10-11)
  • Basic / Detailed (Value Stream)
  • Swim Lane (Deployment)
  • Spaghetti (Transportation / Work Flow)

Flowcharting Highlights
  • The basic steps are the same no matter what type
    of map you use.
  • Strive for a level of detail that is useful to
    your project no more, no less.
  • Example sort clothes isnt helpful to someone
    new. Youd get pink laundry.

What to Map?
  • Series of activities or steps contributing to the
    final result or output
  • Start and end of a process (boundaries)
  • Interfaces / transition points / handoffs
  • Inputs outputs
  • Ownership
  • Applies to every organization.
  • Note that boundaries lead to interfaces.

Process Ownership
  • Department?
  • Individual?
  • Who is responsible and accountable for the

Core, Sub, and Activity Level Processes
  • Possible to have one owner at each level
  • Full definitions in Glossary

  • Please answer the questions in your Guide, p.

The SIPOC Form
  • A process snapshot that captures information that
    will help you determine where that process begins
    and ends.

Suppliers (internal or external, vendors or
another dept), inputs, process, outputs, clients
(internal or external)
Creating a SIPOC Form
  • Identify process boundaries and key activities at
    a high level
  • Identify key outputs and clients for each output
  • Identify inputs and suppliers for each input

SIPOC Diagram Format
  • Supplier(s)
  • Input(s)
  • Core process
  • Output(s)
  • Client(s)

  • Please answer the questions in your Guide,
  • Then discuss answers with the person next to you.

  • Please close Guides.

Group Activity Wrap-up
  • Answer the questions on p. 17 in your Guide.
  • How did it feel to wear a blindfold?
  • Thoughts and feelings as moved around navigator
    versus seeing impaired person?
  • What did you wish your partner could have said to
    help you navigator versus seeing impaired
  • What did the observers notice about the
    interaction between the navigators and the seeing
    impaired persons?
  • What could have been done to alleviate the
    navigators thoughts and fears?
  • What could have been done to minimize the seeing
    impaired persons degree of frustration?

Group Activity Wrap-up
  • Navigators had information their partners did
  • What does this exercise suggest about gathering
    information? Or even how to interview people
    about their work?

  • Before mapping, you need to
  • Interview and/or watch the people actually doing
    the work
  • Interview their supervisors and/or managers
  • Leaders clarify scope, involved areas, types of
    measurement, rationale, and related information.
  • But remember - NO JUDGMENT ALLOWED!

Data CollectionPerforming Interviews
  • Ride-along observe an individual and probe for
    more details
  • versus
  • Panel get information from a group of people
    all at once

Data Collection Matrix
  • Required in interviewing
  • Process Activity work being done
  • Input(s) materials, equipment, info,
    environmental conditions required
  • Output(s) product(s)/service(s) created or
    handed off
  • System(s) digital information accessed or
    reviewed to perform an activity
  • Reference(s) manuals, cheat sheets, etc.,
    used to understand how to complete steps

Data CollectionRide-along Interviews
  • DO
  • Observe
  • Take notes
  • Ask for clarification, more detail
  • Use Data Collection Matrix
  • Watch for hidden steps (job aids, cheat sheets,
  • Check often for understanding
  • DO NOT
  • Make assumptions
  • Add detail when it is not there
  • Correct the process

Data CollectionPanel Interviews
  • DO
  • Use checklist on p. 19
  • Facilitate by asking leading questions
  • Give everyone a chance to participate
  • Ask for clarification, more detail
  • Check often for understanding
  • Seek consensus
  • Use Data Collection Matrix
  • DO NOT
  • Make assumptions
  • Add detail when it is not there
  • Correct the process
  • Get too caught up in the format most people
    havent been trained to use this technique

Panel Interviews
  • Use post-it notes for each person to put on blank
    flipchart, whiteboard, or table.
  • Clean up eliminate duplicates, combine similar
    ideas, agree on wording.
  • Use consistent level of detail.
  • Remember
  • You are only collecting information.
  • NOT an audit, check for compliance - NO judgment

Data CollectionChecklist
  • Planning ensures your time and your interviewees
    time is best spent.
  • Use the checklists (p. 18, 19, Appendix D) to
    make sure all of your bases are covered.
  • Practice inquiry techniques (Appendix C)

ReviewApply What Weve Learned
Review Role PlayApply What Weve Learned
  • Part One
  • Get into pairs and turn to p.20
  • Choose an interviewee versus interviewers
  • Introduce yourself and the projects scope
  • Use verbal walk-through to get information
  • Complete SIPOC Form
  • Collect data using Ride-along interview method
    and the Data Collection Matrix
  • Check for understanding

Review Role PlayApply What Weve Learned
  • Part Two
  • Record your groups sub-process steps on sticky
    notes and put on classroom wall.
  • Present your results to the class.

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Exercise Check
  • Inputs
  • Pot
  • Stove
  • Water
  • Mac box
  • Butter
  • Milk
  • Spoon
  • Strainer
  • Plate/bowl
  • Measuring cup
  • Sink
  • Outputs
  • Mac ready to eat
  • Empty box
  • Dirty pan
  • Dirty spoon
  • Dirty pot
  • Dirty strainer
  • Dirty measuring cup
  • Dirty water

When Studying Any Process
  • Define core process using SIPOC Form
  • Interview / observe
  • Complete Data Collection Matrix
  • Map
  • Analyze for accuracy

Process Mapping Toolbox
  • All maps use the same basic steps.
  • Flowcharts use symbols to represent different
    kinds of process steps.

Common Flowcharting Symbols
  • Direction of flow
  • Starting, stopping, or control point
  • Decision point
  • Processing
  • Input or output (optional)

  • As a class, review flowchart in your Guide.

Decision Diamonds
  • Always pose a question inspection or choice
  • Lead to two or more paths
  • Are best if you can put into yes/no format
  • Use objective criteria, not subjective

Basic Flowcharts with Detailed Steps Show
  • Sequence and relationship of steps
  • Different types of actions with different shaped
  • Decision points
  • Steps taken when things go wrong
  • Most common type of flowchart

Use Basic Flowcharts When You Need To
  • Understand, improve, and standardize a process.
  • Show sequence and relationships in detail.
  • Identify where people are doing things
  • Highlight decision points.
  • Use when a SINGLE organization or person is
    responsible for most steps in a process.

Critical Components of Basic Flowcharts
  • Process name
  • Date of creation or update (version)
  • Name of person or group creating it (contact)
  • Clear start and end points (boundaries)
  • Clear direction flow
  • Consistent level of detail
  • Numbered steps
  • Key of symbol definitions

Basic Flowcharts - Steps
  • Clarify purpose
  • Decide level of detail
  • Write down all steps
  • Decide start and end steps
  • Arrange steps sequence
  • Check for completeness
  • Identify decision points (diamonds)
  • Develop alternate paths for decision points
  • Add flow lines and arrows
  • Number each step

Tips for Basic/Detailed Flowcharts
  • Walk the process.
  • Draw first drafts manually.
  • Use numbered reference sheets.
  • Always date or provide version .
  • Maintain version control.
  • Create a parking lot folder.
  • Concentrate on process, not symbols.
  • Ask lots of questions.

More Tips for Basic Flowcharts
  • Avoid confusion
  • Identify contact(s) and boundaries
  • Follow the flow and spot problems
  • Note reference points
  • Be sure it is easy to interpret

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Lets Practice Once More
  • Using the steps in your Guide and examples given
    in class, create a detailed flowchart for how to
    pay your credit card bill with a check (p. 29).
  • Follow along in your Guide, using the
    instructions and all forms provided.

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Detailed Flowchart Activity Debrief
  • Its not easy to maintain a consistent level of
  • Its not always easy to show different paths.
  • Steps often need to be moved as you get clearer
    about the sequence.
  • Numbering the steps is usually arbitrary.

To Remember
  • Selecting the start and end points provides
    boundaries for the flowchart.
  • Its easier to follow when it has a consistent
    level of detail.
  • Be sure you make it clear where decisions are
    made in the process.
  • Sequence is shown by flow lines and arrows.

How Much Detail?
  • The more detail you have, the more information
    you have about how a process actually works.
  • Lots of detail is necessary when it is absolutely
    critical the process be done exactly the same way
    each time.
  • Weigh costs and benefits detail takes time.
  • Dont get bogged down or your users!

Analyzing the Process
  • Review the categories of
  • Who, what, when, where, why
  • People, material, machine, environment, methods
  • Map to see where can improve
  • Have redundant steps?
  • Do things in parallel?
  • Reduce customer wait time or cycle time?
  • Map to document how things are done here
  • Get right level of detail?
  • Is it accurate?

All Good Flowcharts Should Have
  • Process name
  • Date of creation or update (version)
  • Name of person or group creating it
  • Clear start and end points
  • Clear direction flow
  • Consistent level of detail
  • Numbered steps
  • Key of symbol definitions
  • Parking lot folder
  • See appendix checklist for reference.

Remember the Steps
  • Review the process and its boundaries
  • Identify chart type to use
  • Have participants identify steps
  • Use note/card per step, with chosen symbol
  • Arrange steps in order
  • Eliminate duplicates
  • Determine and maintain consistent level of detail
  • Number each step
  • Transfer flowchart to paper or computer
  • Check for completeness

  • Final thoughts or questions?
  • Thanks for coming!