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NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND MALARIA

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The dev. world is rich in natural resourses, including floral resources However, the south's floral wealth has not been utilized for the benefit of its people. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND MALARIA


1
NATURAL PRODUCTS FROM PLANT BIODIVERSITY AND
MALARIA
Dr. Joseph M Nguta, Department of Public Health,
Pharmacology and Toxicology UNIVERSITY OF
NAIROBI
2
Natural products from plants as drug sources
  • The material culture of every civilization
    throughout the world is based more on plants than
    on animals.
  • People of the earth have depended for along time
    on plants as a source of food, clothing, shelter,
    transportation, medicines, rituals and traditions
  • The plant kingdom met the health needs of humans
    when no synthetic drugs were available and no
    concept of surgical management existed

3
Cont.
  • The world has witnessed growing scientific and
    commercial interests in medicinal plants, mainly
    due to their immense economic potential and the
    widespread cultural acceptability of plant based
    products.
  • An inventory of medicinal plants compiled by WHO
    lists 21,000 species of medicinal plants.
  • According to WHO, 80 of the 5 billion people in
    the dev. World rely on herbal remedies for their
    basic health care needs.

4
Cont.
  • The dev. world is rich in natural resourses,
    including floral resources
  • However, the south's floral wealth has not been
    utilized for the benefit of its people.

5
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine
Drug/Chemical Action Plant Source
Acetyldigoxin Cardiotonic Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove)
Adoniside Cardiotonic Adonis vernalis (pheasant's eye, red chamomile)
Aescin Antiinflammatory Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut)
Aesculetin Antidysentery Frazinus rhychophylla
Agrimophol Anthelmintic Agrimonia supatoria
Ajmalicine Treatment for circulatory disorders Rauvolfia sepentina
Allantoin Vulnerary Several plants
Allyl isothiocyanate Rubefacient Brassica nigra (black mustard)
Anabesine Skeletal muscle relaxant Anabasis sphylla
Andrographolide Treatment for baccillary dysentery Andrographis paniculata
Anisodamine Anticholinergic Anisodus tanguticus
Anisodine Anticholinergic Anisodus tanguticus
Arecoline Anthelmintic Areca catechu (betel nut palm)
Asiaticoside Vulnerary Centella asiatica (gotu cola)
6
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine (Cont.)
Drug/Chemical Action Plant Source
Atropine Anticholinergic Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade)
Benzyl benzoate Scabicide Several plants
Berberine Treatment for bacillary dysentery Berberis vulgaris (common barberry)
Bergenin Antitussive Ardisia japonica (marlberry)
Betulinic acid Anticancerous Betula alba (common birch)
Hyoscyamine Anticholinergic Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane, stinking nightshade, henpin)
Irinotecan Anticancer, antitumor agent Camptotheca acuminata
Kaibic acud Ascaricide Digenea simplex (wireweed)
Kawain Tranquilizer Piper methysticum (kava kava)
Kheltin Bronchodilator Ammi visaga
Lanatosides A, B, C Cardiotonic Digitalis lanata (Grecian foxglove, woolly foxglove)
Lapachol Anticancer, antitumor Tabebuia species (trumpet tree)
a-Lobeline Smoking deterrant, respiratory stimulant Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco)
Menthol Rubefacient Mentha species (mint)
7
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine (Cont.)
Drug/Chemical Action Plant Source
Monocrotaline Topical antitumor agent Crotalaria sessiliflora
Morphine Analgesic Papaver somniferum (poppy)
Neoandrographolide Treatment of dysentery Andrographis paniculata
Nicotine Insecticide Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid Antioxidant Larrea divaricata (creosote bush)
Noscapine Antitussive Papaver somniferum (poppy)
Ouabain Cardiotonic Strophanthus gratus (ouabain tree)
Pachycarpine Oxytocic Sophora pschycarpa
Palmatine Antipyretic, detoxicant Coptis japonica (Chinese goldenthread, goldthread, Huang-Lia)
Papain Proteolytic, mucolytic Carica papaya (papaya)
Papavarine Smooth muscle relaxant Papaver somniferum (opium poppy, common poppy)
Phyllodulcin Sweetener Hydrangea macrophylla (bigleaf hydrangea, French hydrangea)
Physostigmine Cholinesterase inhibitor Physostigma venenosum (Calabar bean)
Picrotoxin Analeptic Anamirta cocculus (fish berry)
Pilocarpine Parasympathomimetic Pilocarpus jaborandi (jaborandi, Indian hemp)
8
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine (Cont.)
Drug/Chemical Action Plant Source
Podophyllotoxin Antitumor, anticancer agent Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple)
Protoveratrines A, B Antihypertensives Veratrum album (white false hellebore)
Pseudoephredrine Sympathomimetic Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang)
nor-pseudoephedrine Sympathomimetic Ephedra sinica (ephedra, ma huang)
Quinidine Antiarrhythmic Cinchona ledgeriana (quinine tree)
Quinine Antimalarial, antipyretic Cinchona ledgeriana (quinine tree)
Qulsqualic acid Anthelmintic Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper, drunken sailor)
Rescinnamine Antihypertensive, tranquilizer Rauvolfia serpentina
Reserpine Antihypertensive, tranquilizer Rauvolfia serpentina
Rhomitoxin Antihypertensive, tranquilizer Rhododendron molle (rhododendron)
Rorifone Antitussive Rorippa indica
Rotenone Piscicide, Insecticide Lonchocarpus nicou
Rotundine Analagesic, sedative, traquilizer Stephania sinica
Rutin Treatment for capillary fragility Citrus species (e.g., orange, grapefruit)
9
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine (Cont.)
Drug/Chemical Action Plant Source
Sanguinarine Dental plaque inhibitor Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot)
Santonin Ascaricide Artemisia maritma (wormwood)
Scillarin A Cardiotonic Urginea maritima (squill)
Scopolamine Sedative Datura species (e.g., Jimsonweed)
Sennosides A, B Laxative Cassia species (cinnamon)
Silymarin Antihepatotoxic Silybum marianum (milk thistle)
Sparteine Oxytocic Cytisus scoparius (scotch broom)
Stevioside Sweetener Stevia rebaudiana (stevia)
Strychnine CNS stimulant Strychnos nux-vomica (poison nut tree)
Taxol Antitumor agent Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew)
Teniposide Antitumor agent Podophyllum peltatum (mayapple or mandrake)
a-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Antiemetic, decreases occular tension Cannabis sativa (marijuana)
Tetrahydropalmatine Analgesic, sedative, tranquilizer Corydalis ambigua
Tetrandrine Antihypertensive Stephania tetrandra
Theobromine Diuretic, vasodilator Theobroma cacao (cocoa)
Theophylline Diuretic, bronchodilator Theobroma cacao and others (cocoa, tea)
Thymol Topical antifungal Thymus vulgaris (thyme)
10
Ethnopharmacology to modern medicine (Cont.)
Drug/Chemical Action Plant source
Trichosanthin Trichosanthin Abortifacient Abortifacient Trichosanthes kirilowii (snake gourd) Trichosanthes kirilowii (snake gourd)
Tubocurarine Tubocurarine Skeletal muscle relaxant Skeletal muscle relaxant Chondodendron tomentosum (curare vine) Chondodendron tomentosum (curare vine)
Valapotriates Valapotriates Sedative Sedative Valeriana officinalis (valerian) Valeriana officinalis (valerian)
Vasicine Vasicine Cerebral stimulant Cerebral stimulant Vinca minor (periwinkle) Vinca minor (periwinkle)
Vinblastine Vinblastine Antitumor, Antileukemic agent Antitumor, Antileukemic agent Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)
Vincristine Vincristine Antitumor, Antileukemic agent Antitumor, Antileukemic agent Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle) Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle)
Yohimbine Yohimbine Aphrodisiac Aphrodisiac Pausinystalia yohimbe (yohimbe) Pausinystalia yohimbe (yohimbe)
Yuanhuacine Yuanhuacine Abortifacient Abortifacient Daphne genkwa (lilac) Daphne genkwa (lilac)
Yuanhuadine Yuanhuadine Abortifacient Abortifacient Daphne genkwa (lilac) Daphne genkwa (lilac)




11
Antimalarial plants in South Coast, Kenya
  • Nguta et al., Journal of ethnopharmacology 2010a,
    128 424-432
  • Malaria is the most difficult problem afflicting
    people in the tropics
  • In Africa, more than 100 million people are
    infected annually, with a mortality of 1-1.5m a
    year
  • Currently the drug of choice is artemesinin and
    its derivatives
  • High rate of resistance development to drugs by
    the parasite makes the necessity for research in
    new antimalarial drugs
  • One possible solution is to carry out research on
    to the traditionally used herbal remedies

12
STUDY AREA
  • Msambweni district

13
Conducting an interview
14
Herbal Clinic
15
Objective of the study
  • To establish an inventory of plants and
    formulations used to manage Malaria in Msambweni
    community

16
The study
  • How do they identify malaria?
  • Which plants do they use to manage malaria?
  • Which is the most preferred plant?
  • Which part of plant do they use?
  • How is it formulated
  • Which is the route of administration?
  • Are the plants readily available?
  • Are the plants used safe?

17
How the Study was done
  • Semistructured questionnaires and interviews
  • Focused group discussion
  • Botanical identification of the collected plants
    by a taxonomist
  • Information gathered included
  • plant species
  • parts used
  • plant habit
  • method of preparation
  • dosage
  • vernacular names

18
Ethnodiagnosis
  • The most frequently mentioned symptoms
  • fever
  • joint pains
  • vomiting
  • tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • headache

19
Commonly used plants
  • 27 species in 24 genera distributed in 20
    families were documented.
  • 13 species were reported for the first time
  • The most commonly used species were
  • Azadirachta indica (L) Burm. (95)
  • Zanthoxylum chalybeum (Eng) Engl. (25)
  • Aloe deserti Berger. (25)
  • Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. (15)
  • Ricinus communis L.(10)

20
Habit of the species used in treatment of
malaria
21


Part of the species used in treatment of
malaria.
22
Conclusion
  • The commonly used plants were Azadirachta indica
    (L) Burm, Zanthoxylum chalybeum (Eng) Engl and
    Aloe deserti Berger.
  • 13 plant species are documented for the first
    time for the treatment of malaria
  • Some species documented in this study have been
    widely used as antimalarials in other continents
    e.g Ricinus communis, Lantana camara
  • The leaves were the most commonly used part
  • Roots were the second most commonly used plant
    part-and this calls for conservation and good
    harvesting practices

23
Way forward
  • Toxicological screening of crude extracts as used
    by the south coast community

24
Acknowledgements
  • The Carnegie Corporation of New York
  • Nairobi Node-RISE-AFNNET)
  • The community of Msambweni district
  • University of Nairobi
  • COLLABORATORS
  • KIAMA GITAHI
  • JAMES MBARIA
  • DANIEL GAKUYA
  • PETER GATHUMBI

25
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26
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