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Food, Soil, and Pest Management

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Title: Food, Soil, and Pest Management


1
Food, Soil, and Pest Management
  • Chapter 10

2
Key Concepts
  • How is food produced?
  • Green Revolutions and traditional farming
  • Soil degradation and erosion
  • Increasing food production
  • Malnutrition
  • Environmental impacts of food production
  • Impacts of government policies on food production
  • Sustainable agriculture

3
Caterpillars as Food
Fig. 10-1, p. 206
4
Would You Eat Winged Beans and Bug Cuisine?
  • People need protein
  • Poor cant afford meat
  • Environmental impacts of livestock
  • Winged bean
  • Edible insects
  • Why bugs are not popular food

Fig. 10-2, p. 206
5
Would You Eat Winged Beans and Bug Cuisine?
Fig. 10-2, p. 206
6
Food Production
  • Major food sources croplands, rangelands, and
    oceans
  • Large increase in food production since 1950
  • Need for environmental-friendly food production
  • Impact of genetic engineering
  • Problem of poverty
  • Primary crops wheat, corn, and rice
  • Primary meat sources fish, chicken, pigs, and
    cattle

7
Types of Agriculture
  • Industrialized (high-input) agriculture
  • Plantation agriculture
  • Traditional subsistence agriculture
  • Traditional intensive agriculture

8
Principal Types of Food Production
Industrialized agriculture
Plantation agriculture
Intensive traditional agriculture
Fig. 10-3, p. 208
Shifting cultivation
Nomadic herding
No agriculture
9
Ecological and Economic Services of Croplands
Natural Capital
Croplands
Ecological Services
Economic Services
  • Help maintain water flow and
  • soil infiltration
  • Provide partial erosion protection
  • Can build soil organic matter
  • Store atmospheric carbon
  • Provide wildlife habitat for some
  • species
  • Food crops
  • Fiber crops
  • Crop genetic
  • resources
  • Jobs

Fig. 10-4, p. 209
10
Food Production in the Green Revolution
  • Develop plant monocultures
  • High yields with fertilizers, pesticides, and
    water
  • Multiple cropping
  • First and second revolutions
  • Environmental impacts
  • Energy use

11
Green Revolutions
First green revolution (developed countries)
Second green revolution (developing countries)
Major international agricultural research centers
and seed banks
Fig. 10-5, p. 210
12
High-yield Rice
Fig. 10-6, p. 210
13
US Agriculture
  • Agribusiness
  • Highly productive
  • Greatly increased yields under Green Revolution
  • Very efficient
  • Energy intensive

14
Energy Use in US Agriculture
17 of total commercial energy use
4
2
6
5
Crops
Livestock
Food processing
Food distribution and preparation
Food production
Fig. 10-7, p. 211
15
Traditional Agriculture
  • Interplanting
  • Polyvarietal cultivation
  • Intercropping
  • Agroforestry or alley cropping
  • Polyculture

16
Soil Erosion and Degradation
  • Land degradation
  • Soil erosion flowing water and wind
  • Erosion enhanced by humans
  • Gully erosion
  • Loss of soil fertility
  • Global soil erosion

17
Soil Erosion on Irrigated Cropland
Fig. 10-8, p. 212
18
Gully Erosion
Fig. 10-9, p. 212
19
Global Soil Erosion
Areas of serious concern
Areas of some concern
Stable or nonvegetative areas
Fig. 10-10, p. 213
20
Soil Erosion in the US
  • US soils eroding 16 times faster than forming
  • Great Plains lost 1/3 or more of their topsoil
  • Reductions in US soil losses since 1980s

21
Desertification
  • Soils dry out, degrade, and become less fertile
  • Natural causes
  • Human contributions

22
World Desertification
Moderate
Severe
Very Severe
Fig. 10-11, p. 214
23
Causes and Consequences of Desertification
Consequences
Causes
Overgrazing Deforestation Erosion Salinization
Soil compaction Natural climate change
Worsening drought Famine Economic losses Lower
living standards Environmental refugees
Fig. 10-12, p. 215
24
Salinization and Waterlogging of Soils
  • Impacts of irrigation
  • Salt accumulation in soils (salinization)
  • Salts kill crops and make soils infertile
  • Prevention is cheaper than remediation
  • Waterlogging accumulation of saline water

25
Salinization and Waterlogging in Soils
Transpiration
Evaporation
Evaporation
Evaporation
Waterlogging
Less permeable clay layer
Fig. 10-13, p. 215
26
Salinization from Heavy Irrigation
Fig. 10-14, p. 215
27
Preventing and Cleaning Up Soil Salinization
Solutions
Soil Salinization
Prevention
Cleanup
Flushing soil (expensive and wastes
water) Not growing crops for 2-5
years Installing under- ground
drainage systems (expensive)
Reduce irrigation Switch to
salt- tolerant crops (such as barley, cotton,
sugar beet)
Fig. 10-15, p. 215
28
Conservation Tillage
  • Soil conservation
  • Conservation-tillage farming
  • Minimum-tillage farming
  • No-till farming

29
Other Methods to Reduce Soil Erosion
  • Terracing
  • Contour farming
  • Strip cropping
  • Alley cropping (agroforestry)
  • Windbreaks or shelterbelts

30
Terracing
Fig. 10-16a, p. 217
31
Contour Planting and Strip Cropping
Fig. 10-16b, p. 217
32
Alley Cropping
Fig. 10-16c, p. 217
33
Windbreaks
Fig. 10-16d, p. 217
34
Organic Fertilizers
  • Animal manure
  • Green manure
  • Compost
  • Crop rotation

35
Inorganic Fertilizers
  • Commercially available
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Doesnt replace organic matter

36
World Grain Production
Fig. 10-17, p. 218
37
World Grain Production
2,000
1,500
Grain production (millions of tons)
1,000
500
0
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Year
Total World Grain Production
Fig. 10-17a, p. 218
38
World Grain Production
400
350
Per capita grain production (kilograms per person)
300
250
200
150
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
Year
World Grain Production per Capita
Fig. 10-17b, p. 218
39
Causes of Hunger and Malnutrition
  • Poverty
  • Inequality
  • War
  • Corruption

40
Nutrition
  • Undernutrition
  • Malnutrition
  • Overnutrition

41
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Vitamin A
  • Iron and anemia
  • Iodine

42
Saving Children from Malnutrition and Disease
  • Immunizations against diseases
  • Encouraging breast feeding (except for mothers
    with AIDS)
  • Prevent dehydration from diarrhea
  • Prevent blindness with vitamin A
  • Family planning
  • Increase education for women

43
Consequences of Overnutrition
  • Lower life expectancy
  • Greater susceptibility to disease
  • Lower productivity and life quality
  • Obesity and overweight
  • Leading cause of premature death
  • Serious problem in the US
  • Possible solutions

44
Environmental Effects of Producing Food
  • Environmental degradation may decrease future
    food production
  • Almost 30 of worlds cropland degraded
  • Environmental degradation may limit food
    production in India and China

45
Major Environmental Effects of Food Production
Fig. 10-18a,b, p. 220
46
Increasing Food Production
  • Traditional crossbreeding
  • Genetic engineering (Third Green Revolution)
  • Genetically modified foods (GMF)
  • How Would You Vote exercises
  • Expanding the Green Revolution
  • Environmental impacts
  • Limits of the Green Revolution
  • Irrigation
  • Limits to expansion of cultivatable land

47
Tradeoffs of Genetically Modified Foods
Trade-Offs
Genetically Modified Food and Crops
Projected Disadvantages
Projected Advantages
Need less fertilizer Need less water More
resistant to insects, plant disease, frost,
and drought Faster growth Can grow in slightly
salty soils Less spoilage Better flavor Less
use of conventional pesticides Tolerate higher
levels of pesticide use Higher yields
Irreversible and unpredictable genetic and
ecological effects Harmful toxins in food From
possible plant cell Mutations New allergens in
food Lower nutrition Increased evolution
of Pesticide-resistant Insects and plant
disease Creation of herbicide- Resistant
weeds Harm beneficial insects Lower genetic
diversity
Fig. 10-19, p. 221
48
Producing More Meat
  • Feedlots
  • Environmental impacts
  • Water use and contamination
  • Soil loss from overgrazing
  • Cattle methane and soil nitrous oxide greenhouse
    gases
  • Contamination from animal wastes
  • Overgrazing and desertification
  • Endanger wildlife
  • Sustainable meat production

49
Overgrazed and Lightly Grazed Rangeland
Fig. 10-20, p. 223
50
Efficiency of Converting Grain into Animal
Protein
Kilograms of grain needed per kilogram of body
weight
Beef cattle
7
Pigs
4
Chicken
2.2
Fish (catfish or carp)
2
Fig. 10-21, p. 224
51
Harvesting Fish and Shellfish
  • Fisheries
  • Fishing methods
  • Aquaculture
  • World fish catch
  • Overfishing
  • Commercial extinction
  • Government subsidies How Would You Vote exercise
  • Aquaculture (fish farming and ranching)
  • Sustainable aquaculture

52
Fishing Methods
Spotter airplane
Trawler fishing
Fish farming in cage
sonar
Purse-seine fishing
trawl flap
trawl lines
fish school
trawl bag
Drift-net fishing
Long line fishing
float
buoy
lines with hooks
fish caught by gills
Fig. 10-22, p. 225
53
Fish Catch
Fig. 10-23a, p. 225
54
Fish Catch
100
80
60
Catch (millions of metric tons)
40
20
0
1950
1970
1960
2010
1990
1980
2000
Year Total World Fish Catch
Fig. 10-23a, p. 225
55
Fish Catch
100
80
60
Per capita catch (kilograms per person)
40
20
0
1950
1970
1960
2010
1990
1980
2000
Year World Fish Catch Per Person
Fig. 10-23b, p. 225
56
Tradeoffs of Aquaculture
Trade-Offs
Aquaculture
Advantages
Disadvantages
Highly efficient High yield in small volume of
water Increased yields through cross- breeding
and genetic engineering Can reduce
over- harvesting of conventional
fisheries Little use of fuel Profit not tied to
price of oil High profits
Large inputs of land, feed, And water
needed Produces large and concentrated outputs
of waste Destroys mangrove forests Increased
grain production needed to feed some
species Fish can be killed by pesticide runoff
from nearby cropland Dense populations
vulnerable to disease Tanks too contaminated
to use after about 5 years
Fig. 10-24, p. 226
57
Solutions More Sustainable Aquaculture
Solutions
More Sustainable Aquaculture
  • Reduce use of fishmeal as a feed to reduce
    depletion of other fish
  • Improve pollution management of aquaculture
    wastes
  • Reduce escape of aquaculture species into the
    wild
  • Restrict location of fish farms to reduce loss of
    mangrove forests and other threatened areas
  • Farm some aquaculture species (such as salmon and
    cobia) in deeply submerged cages to protect them
    from wave action and predators and allow dilution
    of wastes into the ocean
  • Set up a system for certifying sustainable forms
    of aquaculture

Fig. 10-25, p. 227
58
Effects of Government Agricultural Policies on
Food Production
  • Protecting US agriculture
  • Keeping food prices artificially low for
    consumers
  • Subsidies and tax breaks for farmers
  • Eliminate government supports?
  • Food aid
  • Reward farmers if they protect the environment?

59
Pests
  • Compete with humans for food
  • Invade lawns and gardens
  • Destroy wood in houses
  • Spread disease
  • Invade ecosystems
  • Simply a nuisance
  • May be controlled by natural enemies
  • Humans too often destroy the natural enemies of
    pests

60
Spiders Enemies of Insect Pests
Fig. 10-26, p. 227
61
Pesticides
  • Chemicals to kill or control undesirable
    organisms
  • Insecticides
  • Herbicides
  • Fungicides
  • Rodenticides
  • Biocides
  • Toxicity and use
  • Broad- and narrow-spectrum agents
  • Persistence

62
Rats as Pests
Fig. 10-27, p. 228
63
Rachel Carson
Fig. 10-A, p. 229
64
The Case for Pesticides
  • Save human lives
  • Increase food supplies and lower costs for
    consumers
  • Profitable for farmers
  • Work faster and better than alternatives
  • When used properly, benefits exceed health risks
  • Newer pesticides are safer and more effective
    than older ones
  • Newer pesticides have low application rates

65
The Ideal Pesticide
  • Kills only target pest
  • Doesnt cause genetic resistance in the target
    organism
  • Disappears or breaks down into harmless
    components after doing its job
  • More cost-effective than doing nothing

66
The Case Against Pesticides
  • Accelerate genetic resistance in pests
  • The pesticide treadmill
  • Kill the pests natural enemies
  • Dont say put pollute
  • May harm wildlife
  • May threaten human health
  • How successful are pesticides? Science
    Spotlight, p. 230

67
US Pesticide Regulations
  • US EPA has banned some pesticides
  • Food Quality Protection Act
  • Problems with federal laws on pesticide use and
    enforcement
  • Besides EPA, FDA and USDA also regulate pesticide
    use
  • Exporting banned pesticides from the US
    (Connections, p. 231)

68
Alternatives to Chemical Pesticides
  • Adjusting cultivation practices
  • Genetic engineering
  • Biological control (use of natural predators)
  • Sex attractant (pheromone) traps
  • Hormones to disrupt the insect life cycle
  • Hot water

69
Genetic Engineering to Reduce Pest Damage
Fig. 10-28, p. 232
70
Biological Pest Control
Fig. 10-29, p. 232
71
Stepped Art
Fig. 10-30, p. 233
72
Integrated Pest Management
  • Ecological system approach
  • Reduce pest populations to economically tolerable
    levels
  • Biological and cultivation methods first used
  • Chemical pesticides are a last resort
  • Results in Indonesia
  • Pollution prevention and other advantages
  • Disadvantages of integrated pest management
  • Methods for promoting integrated pest management
    in the US

73
Why is Integrated Pest Management Not More
Widely Used?
  • Requires expert knowledge
  • Initial costs may be high
  • Hindered by government subsidies
  • Opposition from pesticide companies

74
Solutions Sustainable Agriculture
  • Slow population growth
  • Reduce poverty
  • Sustainable (low-input or organic) agriculture
  • Increase research on sustainable agriculture
  • Establish demonstration projects
  • Support with subsidies and foreign aid
  • Establish training programs

75
Sustainable Organic Agriculture
Solutions
Sustainable Organic Agriculture
More
Less
High-yield polyculture Organic
fertilizers Biological pest control Integrated
pest management Irrigation efficiency Perennial
crops Crop rotation Use of more
water- efficient crops Soil conservation Subsidi
es for more sustainable farming and fishing
Soil erosion Soil salinization Aquifer
depletion Overgrazing Overfishing Loss of
biodiversity Loss of prime cropland Food
waste Subsidies for unsustainable farming and
fishing Population growth Poverty
Fig. 10-31, p. 234
76
What Can We Do?
What Can You Do?
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Waste less food
  • Reduce or eliminate meat consumption
  • Feed pets balanced grain foods instead of meat
  • Use organic farming to grow some of your food
  • Buy organic food
  • Compost your food wastes

Fig. 10-32, p. 234
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