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Title: ANATOMY OF SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH TIME {on the web at http://www.oregonstate.edu/instruct/st571/urquhart/anatomy/index.htm}


1
ANATOMY OF SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL
RESPONSES THROUGH TIME on the web at
http//www.oregonstate.edu/instruct/st571/urquhart
/anatomy/index.htm
  • by
  • N. Scott Urquhart
  • Oregon State University, USA
  • and
  • Anthony R. Olsen
  • US EPA

2
STARMAP FUNDING Space-Time Aquatic Resources
Modeling and Analysis Program
  • The work reported here today was developed under
    the STAR Research Assistance Agreement CR-829095
    awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA) to Colorado State University. This
    presentation has not been formally reviewed by
    EPA.  The views expressed here are solely those
    of presenters and STARMAP, the Program they
    represent. EPA does not endorse any products or
    commercial services mentioned in these
    presentation.

3
THE AUTHORS
  • N. SCOTT URQUHART
  • Trained in Statistics
  • About 40 Years of Experience in Applications
  • Worked With Ecologists in Desert, Arctic, Pacific
    Northwest
  • Many Surveys with Rural Sociologists and Ag
    Economists
  • Including 10 years with EPAs Environmental
    Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
  • ACADEMIC And AGENCY PLANT And ANIMAL
  • ANTHONY (Tony) R. OLSEN
  • Trained in Statistics
  • 30 Years of Experience in Private and
    Government Applications
  • Worked With Atmospheric Modelers And Air
    Pollution Field Scientists
  • Survey Experience With Health Professionals And
    Large-scale National Resource Monitoring
  • Now Statistical Lead with EPAs EMAP

4
EVOLUTION OF THE ANATOMY
  • The first step in the development of the ANATOMY
    focused on experimental design situations.
  • Served as the structure for several part-semester
    courses in advanced statistical methods at New
    Mexico State University
  • Eventually published as
  • Urquhart, N. S. (1981). Anatomy of a study.
    HortScience 16621-627.
  • Experience with EMAP led to its expansion to
    surveys

5
TODAYS CONTEXT for SURVEYS
  • EMAP-type Situations EMAP US EPAS
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
    Program
  • Estimate Status, Changes ... In
    Indicators
  • Estimate Status, Changes, ... In Extent
  • Describe Associations ...

6
Objective 1 Estimate the status, changes and
trends in selected indicators of the condition of
our Nation's ecological resources


on a regional scale
on a regional scale

with known confidence
with known confidence
17.6

10
6.8

31.8

6
8
43.8

12
(N258)
Source EMAP Northeast Lakes Study
7
Objective 2 Estimate the status, changes and
trends
in the extent and geographic coverage of our
Nation's
ecological resources on a regional scale with
known
confidence
Adir Adirondacks NEU New England Uplands
C/L/P Coast Lake Plains
Source EMAP Northeast Lakes Study
8



















Source EMAP Mid-Atlantic Highlands Assessment
9
WHO MUST COMMUNICATE
  • Ecologists Other Biologists
  • Statisticians
  • Geographers
  • Geographic Information Specialists (GIS)
  • Information Managers
  • Quality Assurance Personnel
  • Managers, At Various Levels

10
SAMPLING
  • A WORD OF MANY MEANINGS
  • Statisticians Often Associate It With Survey
    Sampling
  • An Ecologist May Associate It with the
    Selection of Local Sites or Material
  • A Laboratory Scientist May Associate It With
    the Selection Of Material to be Analyzed
    from Material Supplied
  • Common General Meaning, Varied Specific
    Meanings

11
THE SPECIAL NEED
  • Communication Demands a Distinction Between
  • The Local Process of Evaluating a Response,
    and
  • The Statistical Selection of a Sampling Unit,
  • For example,
  • A LAKE
  • A POINT ON A STEAM

12
THE SPECIAL NEED - continued
  • The Terms
  • Response Design
  • Sampling Design or Survey Design
  • Can Be Used to Make this Distinction
  • But a Complex Ecological Survey Clearly
    Has More Parts Than These!

13
BASIC ROLES
  • Survey Design Tells Us Where to Go to
    Collect Sample Information or Material
  • Response Design Tells Us What to Do Once
    We Get There
  • But These Two Components Exist in a Broader
    Context

14
AN IMPORTANT DISTINCTION
  • Monitoring Strategy
  • Conceptual
  • Impacted by Objectives
  • Addressable Without Regard to the
    Inference Strategy
  • Inference Strategy

15
AN IMPORTANT DISTINCTION - continued
  • Monitoring Strategy
  • ..........
  • Inference Strategy
  • Places to Evaluate the Response the WHERE
  • Relation Between Points Evaluated and the
    Population
  • IE, the Basis for Inference

16
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • Monitoring Strategy
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • Inference Strategy
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

17
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

18
The MONITORING STRATEGY
  • The MONITORING STRATEGY MUST RESPOND TO
  • Monitoring Objectives
  • State of Knowledge in Ecological Sciences
  • Characteristics of Ecological Resource(s) of
    Interest
  • EXPECTED FUNDING Compared To COSTS
  • Operational Constraints

19
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

20
The UNIVERSE MODEL
  • Reality (Universe) Ecological Entity
    Within a Defined Geographic Area to Be Monitored
  • Model of the Universe
  • Development of a Monitoring Approach Requires
    Construction of a Model for the Universe
  • Elements Of The Universe Model Set of
    Entities Composing The Entire Universe

21
The UNIVERSE MODEL
  • Population Description and Its
    Sampling Require Definition of the Units in
    the Population
  • Discrete Units
  • Lakes May Be Viewed This Way
  • Continuous Structure in Space of
    Some Dimension
  • 2-space forests or agroecosystems
  • 1-space Streams
  • 3-space Ground Water

22
THE MODEL FOR STREAMS Strahler Orders
Third Order
23
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

24
The STATISTICAL POPULATION
  • The Collection of Units (as modeled) Over
    Some Region of Definition
  • Spatial
  • Temporal
  • SPATIAL And TEMPORAL
  • Population Definition Could Include Features
    Which Depend on Response Values
  • EX acid sensitive streams at upper elevations

25
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

26
The DOMAIN Design
  • Specifies Subpopulations or Domains of
    Special Interest
  • May Specify Meaningful Comparisons
    Between Domains
  • Similar to Planned Comparisons in Experimental
    Design Situations
  • Domain Design May Depend on Response Values
  • Ex Warm Versus Cold Water Lakes

27
The DOMAIN DESIGN - continued
  • Specifies Subpopulations or Domains
    of Special Interest
  • Determined From Defining Factors For The
    Monitoring Activity
  • Must Have Critical Connection To Clients
  • Other Domains May Be Used For Analysis,
    Without Having Been Used In Defining The
    Monitoring Strategy
  • EX EMAP domains include ECOAREAS and
    STANDARD FEDERAL REGIONS

28
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

29
The RESPONSE Design
  • The Response Design Specifies
  • The Process of Obtaining A Response
  • At An Individual Element (Site)
  • Of The Resource
  • During A Single Monitoring Period
  • Response What Will Be Determined On An
    Element
  • Needs To Be Responsive to the Objectives of
    the Monitoring Activity

30
The RESPONSE Design - continued
  • EMAP Responses Focus On Indicators of
  • STRESS and
  • Condition
  • The Response Design Also Defines
  • Plot Design
  • Measurement Protocols
  • Support Region area around the site where
    material is collected, or measurements are taken
  • Data Reduction Protocols
  • Calculation Of The Final Indicator Value for
    the Element

31
The RESPONSE Design - Continued
  • For example, consider a response related to
    macroinvertebrates in streams
  • RESPONSE proportion EPT (This is the
    proportion of collected macrobenthos
    organisms, mainly insects, which fall in the
    taxonomic classes of Ephemeroptera ,
    Plecoptera , or Trichoptera. Low values
    indicate polluted streams high values indicate
    rather pristine streams)

32
The RESPONSE Design - continued - 2
  • ... response related to macrobenthos ...
  • The COLLECTION UNITS could be 10 30cm x
    30cm areas, systematically organized, at the
    stream site, sampled with a Surber sampler
  • The EVALUATION UNIT could be a jar containing
    the composite of all macroinvertebrate organisms
    collected at the 10 collection sites, or
  • The EVALUATION UNIT also could be a jar
    containing a 1/6 subsample of the composite of
    macroinvertebrate organisms collected in the
    10 collection units.

33
The RESPONSE Design - continued - 3
  • ... response related to macrobenthos ...
  • The LABORATORY EVALUATION of the material
    would consist of determining and recording
    the taxa (like family, genus, or species) of
    each organism in the evaluation material
  • The RESPONSE would be determined by
    computing the number of organisms in the
    evaluation material belonging to the E, P, T
    taxonomic classes, and dividing this by the
    number of organisms classified.

34
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

35
The INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Is The Basis For Scientific Inference
  • Provides The Connection Between Objectives and
    the Monitoring Strategy
  • Monitoring Strategy Usually Must Rely on
    Obtaining Information on a Subset Of All
    Possible Elements in the Universe
  • Specifies Which Elements of the Universe Will
    Have Responses Determined on Them
  • Can Be Based On Either ... (continued )

36
The INFERENCE STRATEGY (continued)
  • ... Connection ...
  • ... Subset ...
  • ... Have Responses
  • Can Be Based On Either
  • Judgment Selection Of Units
  • Inferential Validity Rests on Knowledge Of
    Relation Between the Universe And the Units
    Evaluated
  • Probability Selection Of Units
  • (The Focus Here)

37
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

38
The SURVEY Design
  • Probability Based Survey Designs Are
    Considered Here
  • May Be Somewhat Limited To Sedentary Resources
  • Positive Features (As An
    Observational Study)
  • Permit Clear Statistical Inference to
    Well-Defined Populations
  • Measurements Often can be Made in Natural
    Settings, Giving Rise to Greater Realism
    Eventual Results

39
The SURVEY DESIGN - CONTINUED
  • Disadvantages
  • Limited Control Over Values of Predictor
    Variables
  • Restricts Causative Inference
  • Usually Will Produce Inaccessible Sampling
    Points
  • Good - For Inference
  • Bad - For Logistics

40
The SURVEY DESIGN - CONTINUED
  • Execution of a Sampling Plan Requires
  • A Sampling Frame
  • A way to identify elements in the population
  • Usually somewhat inaccurate for ecological
    resources
  • Example selecting vegetation sites along the
    Colorado River in the Grand Canyon

41
VIEW DOWN TRANSECT AT MILE 12.3
42
CLIFF AT MILE 135.2 (PARTIAL HEIGHT)
43
The SURVEY DESIGN - CONTINUED
  • Execution of a Sampling Plan Requires
  • A Sampling Frame
  • A way to identify elements in the population
  • Usually somewhat inaccurate for ecological
    resources
  • Example selecting vegetation sites along the
    Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
  • Example Frame for selecting field sites on
    streams in the Western US

44
FRAME ERRORS TO BE DOCUMENTED SHORTLY
  • Water Body Size
  • Flow Status -- re Perennial
  • Identified As Perennial, but not correct
  • Wastes Effort Of Field Crews
  • Identified as Non-perennial, but Really
    is Perennial
  • Missed Resource
  • Inaccurate Assessment

45
EMAP-West Stream/river Length (km 95 CI) from
Peck, et al (2002) - EMAP symposium
46
EMAP-West Stream/river Length (km 95 CI) from
Peck, et al (2002) - EMAP symposium
47
EMAP-West Stream/river Length (km 95 CI) from
Peck, et al (2002) - EMAP symposium
48
The SURVEY DESIGN - CONTINUED
  • Execution of a Sampling Plan Requires
  • A Sampling Frame
  • A way to identify elements in the population
  • Usually somewhat inaccurate for ecological
    resources
  • Example selecting vegetation sites along the
    Colorado River in the Grand Canyon
  • Example Frame for selecting field sites on
    streams in the Western US
  • May change over time
  • As, for example, land use changes

49
SITE SELECTION
  • Needs to Accommodate Realities Such As
  • Frame Imperfection
  • Frame Which Changes Over Time
  • Sites nearly Uniform Over the Resource
  • But with substantial randomization
  • Supports Variable Probability of Selection
  • Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified
    Sampling GRTS
  • The topic of the next session

50
The EMAP SURVEY Design
  • Assures Representation and Inference
    to Populations
  • Adapted to Resource Characteristics
  • Emphasizes Spatial Allocation of Samples
  • Uses Two-phase Sampling Phase I
  • Based on a Randomized Point Grid and
    Associated Areas

51
EMAP EXAMPLE OF SELECTED SITES
  • Mid-Appalachian Highlands Stream Pilot

52
(No Transcript)
53
EMAP EXAMPLE OF SELECTED SITES
  • Western Stream Pilot
  • Non-perennial/perennial survey
  • Survey of perennial streams

54
(No Transcript)
55
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

56
The TEMPORAL Design
  • The TEMPORAL DESIGN specifies the pattern
    of revisits to sites selected by the Survey
    Design
  • Sampled population units are partitioned into
    one (degenerate case) or more PANELS.
  • Each population unit in the same panel has the
    same temporal pattern of revisits.
  • Panel definition could be probabilistic or
    systematic
  • Several temporal designs follow

57
TEMPORAL DESIGN ROTATING PANEL
58
TEMPORAL DESIGN ROTATING PANEL
  • A Rotating Panel Design is the Temporal Design
    Used by the National Agricultural Statistical
    Service (US - NASS) for Some Surveys
  • This Temporal Design is Connected in the
    Experimental Design Sense
  • It is Fairly Well Suited For Estimation Status,
    but not Particularly Powerful For Detecting
    Trend Over Intermediate Time Spans

59
TEMPORAL DESIGN SERIALLY ALTERNATING
  • This Temporal Design is Unconnected in the
    Experimental Design Sense. This was the
    Temporal Design Initially Prescribed For EMAP,
    But ...

60
TEMPORAL DESIGN AUGMENTED SERIALLY ALTERNATING
  • This Temporal Design Is Connected In The
    Experimental Design Sense, but Consider Its
    potential for Trampling Effects.

61
TEMPORAL DESIGN PARTIALLY AUGMENTED SERIALLY
ALTERNATING
  • This Temporal Design is Connected in The
    Experimental Design Sense, but is Weak for
    Estimating Period Effects.

62
TEMPORAL DESIGN SERIALLY ALTERNATING WITH
CONSECUTIVE YEAR REVISITS
  • This Temporal Design is Connected in the
    Experimental Design Sense
  • But It Provides Visits to Only Half as Many
    Sites as the Base Serially Alternating Design.

63
TEMPORAL DESIGN SPLIT PANEL SERIALLY
ALTERNATING PLUS SERIALLY ALTERNATING WITH
CONSECUTIVE YEAR REVISITS
  • This Temporal Design is Connected in the
    Experimental Design Sense

64
TEMPORAL DESIGN SPLIT PANEL SERIALLY
ALTERNATING PLUS SERIALLY ALTERNATING WITH WITHIN
YEAR AND CONSECUTIVE YEAR REVISITS THE TEMPORAL
DESIGN IN USE BY EMAP - SURFACE WATERS
65
THE REVISIT SPLIT PANEL OF THE THE TEMPORAL
DESIGN IN USE BY EMAP - SURFACE WATERS
66
TEMPORAL DESIGN SPLIT PANEL SERIALLY
ALTERNATING PLUS SERIALLY ALTERNATING WITH WITHIN
YEAR AND CONSECUTIVE YEAR REVISITS THE TEMPORAL
DESIGN IN USE BY EMAP - SURFACE WATERS
  • This Temporal Design is Connected in the
    Experimental Design Sense
  • It Also Supports Estimation of the Site by Time
    Period (site by year) Interaction.
  • Revisits To About 10 Of Sites Allocates about
    30 of Resources To Revisits

67
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • Universe Model
  • Statistical Population
  • Domain Design
  • Response Design
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • Survey Design
  • Temporal Design
  • Quality Assurance Design

68
QUALITY ASSURANCE DESIGN
  • Defines Those Activities Intended to Provide
    Data of Known Quality
  • Blind duplicates
  • Accepted chemical standards, Etc
  • Can Provide Valid Estimates of the Variance
    of Pure Measurement Error

69
END OF PLANNED PRESENTATION
70
RELEVANT COMPONENTS OF VARIANCE FOR EMAP
  • POPULATION LAKE or STREAM, for example
  • YEAR -
  • YEAR by SITE -
  • CREW -
  • SHORT TERM TEMPORAL - index window -
  • PROTOCOL ERROR -
  • MEASUREMENT ERROR -

71
RELEVANT COMPONENTS OF VARIANCE FOR EMAP
  • WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO ESTIMATE THESE?
  • WHICH ONES SHOULD BE INCLUDED IN RESIDUAL
    VARIANCE
  • WHICH TREND MUST OVERCOME TO BE DEMONSTRATED?

72
COMPARISONS TO USUAL PERSPECTIVES OF FINITE
POPULATION SAMPLING
  • UNIVERSE MODEL (AS DISTINCT FROM THE
    UNIVERSE)
  • NOT RELEVANT
  • VIEWED AS A LIST
  • POPULATION
  • VERY SIMILAR, OTHER THAN DIFFERENCES
    IMPLICIT IN THE UNIVERSE MODEL

73
COMPARISONS TO USUAL PERSPECTIVES OF FINITE
POPULATION SAMPLING continued
  • DOMAIN DESIGN
  • USUALLY NOT EXPLICITLY ACKNOWLEDGED, BUT
    VIEWED AS PART OF THE DESIGN PROCESS
  • RESPONSE DESIGN
  • QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
  • SOME ELEMENTS OF INTERVIEW PROTOCOLS
  • SURVEY DESIGN
  • RELATIVELY SIMILAR

74
COMPARISONS TO USUAL PERSPECTIVES OF FINITE
POPULATION SAMPLING continued - 2
  • TEMPORAL DESIGN
  • PRESENT, BUT
  • MANY FINITE POPULATION SURVEYS ARE ONE-TIME
  • MANY LARGE SURVEYS HAVE A TEMPORAL
    DIMENSION
  • CHANGE USUALLY IS OF FAR MORE INTEREST THAN
    TREND
  • SURVEY LITERATURE DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN
  • GROSS CHANGE - follows units across time
  • NET CHANGE - recognizes that change can occur
    in both the response and in who is in the
    population

75
COMPARISONS TO USUAL PERSPECTIVES OF FINITE
POPULATION SAMPLING continued - 3
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE DESIGN
  • SURVEYS OF HUMANS (OR BUSINESSES, ETC) HAVE A
    VERY SIMILAR INTENT, BUT DETAILS DIFFER
    SUBSTANTIALLY
  • SUPERVISION IN PHONE SURVEYS
  • QUESTIONS TO CONFIRM RESPONDENT CONSISTENCY
  • REINTERVIEWS and SIMILAR REEVALUATIONS

76
SAMPLING STUDIES OF ECOLOGICAL RESPONSES THROUGH
TIME HAVE
  • MONITORING STRATEGY
  • UNIVERSE MODEL
  • STATISTICAL POPULATION
  • DOMAIN DESIGN
  • RESPONSE DESIGN
  • INFERENCE STRATEGY
  • SURVEY DESIGN
  • TEMPORAL DESIGN
  • QUALITY ASSURANCE DESIGN

77
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
  • Links to various monitoring programs,
  • To the programs site
  • One to its methods, and
  • One to a current report.
  • As links change in an unpredictable fashion,
  • The search words should provide a quick path
    to the current link.
  • Speaker on this program representing that program

78
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • Adelaide Coastal Waters Study
  • Program site http//www.environment.sa.gov.au/epa
    /acws.html http//www.clw.csiro.au/acws/ (more
    technical of the two)
  • Current Report http//www.environment.sa.gov.au/e
    pa/pdfs/acwsnewsno5.pdf
  • Methods http//www.clw.csiro.au/acws/IS1.html
  • Search words adelaide coastal waters study
    acws au
  • Speaker David Fox, University of Adelaide

79
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Program (ABMP)
  • Program site http//www.abmp.arc.ab.ca/
  • Current Report http//www.abmp.arc.ab.ca/AnnualR
    eport2003.pdf
  • Methods http//www.abmp.arc.ab.ca/ScienceProtocol
    s.htm
  • Search words alberta biodiversity monitoring
    program abmp ca
  • Speaker None, unfortunately

80
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
    (EMAP)
  • Program site http//www.epa.gov/emap/
  • Current Report http//www.epa.gov/maia/html/maha.
    html
  • Methods http//www.epa.gov/emap/html/pubs/docs/g
    roupdocs/surfwatr/field/ws_abs.html
  • Search words epa environmental monitoring
    assessment program emap epa
  • Speaker here Tony Olsen

81
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA)
  • Program site http//fia.fs.fed.us/
  • Current Report http//www.fs.fed.us/research/sust
    ain/ (for example)
  • Methods http//fia.fs.fed.us/FIAProgramInformati
    on.htm (accessible at this link)
  • Search words forest inventory analysis FIA USDA
  • Speaker here Mike Williams

82
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS)
  • Program site http//www.usda.gov/nass/
  • Current Reports http//www.usda.gov/nass/pubs/cat
    alog2004.pdf
  • Research http//www.nass.usda.gov/research/SERS
    .htm
  • Search words national agricultural statistical
    service nass
  • Speaker here Carol House

83
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • National Park Inventory and Monitoring Program
  • Program site http//science.nature.nps.gov/im/in
    dex.htm
  • Current Reports http//science.nature.nps.gov/im/
    reports.htm
  • Methods http//science.nature.nps.gov/im/standar
    ds.htm
  • Search words national park monitoring natural
    resources nps im
  • Speaker here Steve Fancy

84
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • National Resources Inventory( NRI)
  • Program site http//www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/N
    RI/
  • Current Report http//www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical
    /land/nri02/
  • Methods http//www.statlab.iastate.edu/survey/nri
    /NusserandGoebel
  • Search words national resources inventory
    web path nrcs to technical to NRI
  • Speakers here Wayne Fuller Jeff Goebel

85
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • National Wetlands Inventory (NWI)
  • Program site http//wetlands.fws.gov/
  • Current Report http//training.fws.gov/library/Pu
    bs9/wetlands86-97_highres.pdf
  • Methods documented in above report
  • Search words national wetlands inventory
  • Speaker here Tom Dahl

86
LINKS TO MONITORING REPORTS/DOCUMENTATION
(Continued)
  • LEARNING MATERIALS RELATED TO ENVIRONMENTAL
    SAMPLING
  • (From a course at Oregon State University)
  • ST571 http//oregonstate.edu/instruct/stat/urquhar
    t/st571/index.htm
  • Presentation materials from talks presented here
    will be available at
  • http//www.stat.colostate.edu/starmap
  • Opportunities-gtmeetings
  • publications -gt presentations
  • Learning materials
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