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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Odyssey Museum Tom Harkin Global Communications Center June 6-10, 2011

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Title: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Global Health Odyssey Museum Tom Harkin Global Communications Center June 6-10, 2011


1
Day 2
Teach Epidemiology
Professional Development Workshop
Centers for Disease Control and PreventionGlobal
Health Odyssey MuseumTom Harkin Global
Communications Center
June 6-10, 2011
2
(No Transcript)
3
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
4
Time Check 815 AM
5
(No Transcript)
6
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
7
Time Check 845 AM
8
(No Transcript)
9
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
10
Teachers Team-Teaching Teachers (TTTT)
Existing Lesson   Team leads other workshop
participants
in
a portion of a selected existing epidemiological
lesson.
Teach Epidemiology
11
Epi Grades 6-12
Metacognition
They can then use that ability to think about
their own thinking to grasp
how other people might learn.
They know what
has to come first,
and they can
distinguish between foundational concepts
and elaborations or
illustrations of those ideas. They realize
where people are likely to face
difficulties developing
their own comprehension,
and
they can use that understanding
to
simplify and clarify complex topics for others,
tell the right story, or raise a powerfully
provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best
College Teachers Do
Teach Epidemiology
12
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
13
Time Check 930 AM
14
(No Transcript)
15
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
16
Teachers Team-Teaching Teachers (TTT)
Teach Existing Epidemiological Lessons (EL) (4
Groups)   Team leads other workshop participants

in a portion of a
selected existing epidemiological lesson.
Teach Epidemiology
17
Epi Grades 6-12
Metacognition
They can then use that ability to think about
their own thinking to grasp
how other people might learn.
They know what
has to come first,
and they can
distinguish between foundational concepts
and elaborations or
illustrations of those ideas. They realize
where people are likely to face
difficulties developing
their own comprehension,
and
they can use that understanding
to
simplify and clarify complex topics for others,
tell the right story, or raise a powerfully
provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best
College Teachers Do
Teach Epidemiology
18
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
19
Time Check 1015 AM
20
(No Transcript)
21
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
22
Time Check 1100 AM
23
(No Transcript)
24
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
25
Teachers Team-Teaching Teachers (TTT)
Teach Existing Epidemiological Lessons (EL) (4
Groups)   Team leads other workshop participants

in a portion of a
selected existing epidemiological lesson.
TTTT 3 EL
Teach Epidemiology
26
Epi Grades 6-12
Metacognition
They can then use that ability to think about
their own thinking to grasp
how other people might learn.
They know what
has to come first,
and they can
distinguish between foundational concepts
and elaborations or
illustrations of those ideas. They realize
where people are likely to face
difficulties developing
their own comprehension,
and
they can use that understanding
to
simplify and clarify complex topics for others,
tell the right story, or raise a powerfully
provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best
College Teachers Do
Teach Epidemiology
27
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
28
Time Check 1015 AM
29
(No Transcript)
30
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
31
Time Check 1030 AM
32
(No Transcript)
33
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
34
Teachers Team-Teaching Teachers (TTT)
View a News Item from an Epidemiological
Perspective   Team leads other workshop
participants

in the analysis of a news item from an
epidemiological perspective.
Teach Epidemiology
35
Epi Grades 6-12
Metacognition
They can then use that ability to think about
their own thinking to grasp
how other people might learn.
They know what
has to come first,
and they can
distinguish between foundational concepts
and elaborations or
illustrations of those ideas. They realize
where people are likely to face
difficulties developing
their own comprehension,
and
they can use that understanding
to
simplify and clarify complex topics for others,
tell the right story, or raise a powerfully
provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best
College Teachers Do
Teach Epidemiology
36
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
37
Time Check 1130 AM
38
(No Transcript)
39
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
40
Time Check 1230 PM
41
(No Transcript)
42
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
43
http//prezi.com/ghtd8j_zll-w/now-for-something-a-
little-different/
44
Epi Grades 6-12
Metacognition
They can then use that ability to think about
their own thinking to grasp
how other people might learn.
They know what
has to come first,
and they can
distinguish between foundational concepts
and elaborations or
illustrations of those ideas. They realize
where people are likely to face
difficulties developing
their own comprehension,
and
they can use that understanding
to
simplify and clarify complex topics for others,
tell the right story, or raise a powerfully
provocative question. Ken Bain, What the Best
College Teachers Do
Teach Epidemiology
45
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
46
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Teach Epidemiology
47
Time Check 115 PM
48
(No Transcript)
49
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
50
Teach Epidemiology
EPI-501
Marian R Passannante, PhD Associate
Professor University of Medicine and Dentistry of
New Jersey New Jersey Medical School School of
Public Health
51
Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Descriptive
  • concentrates on examining the distribution of
    diseases in the population in terms of person,
    (who gets the disease), place (where they get the
    disease) and time (when they get the disease)
  • Generates hypotheses

51
Teach Epidemiology
52
Descriptive Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Person

Source Reported Tuberculosis in the United
States, 2009 http//www.cdc.gov/tb/statistics/surv
/surv2009/slides/surv9.htm
52
Teach Epidemiology
53
Descriptive Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Place
  • Reference
  • Hootman JM, Pan L, Helmick CG, Hannan C.
    State-specific trends in obesity prevalence among
    adults with arthritis, Behavioral Risk Factor
    Surveillance System, 20032009.MMWR
    201160(16)509-513.

                                                
                                             
53
Teach Epidemiology
54
Descriptive Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Time

 source http//www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resourc
es/publications/aag/osh.htm                       
                                                  
                                                  
               
54
Teach Epidemiology
55
Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Descriptive
  • Analytic

55
Teach Epidemiology
56
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • What is the relationship between physical
    activity and health status among high school
    students?
  • Define outcome and how it will be measured.
  • Define the exposure and how it will be measured.

56
Teach Epidemiology
57
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • What is the relationship between physical
    activity and health status among high school
    students?
  • Define outcome and how it will be measured.
  • Health status absenteeism
  • Define the exposure and how it will be measured.
  • Physical Activity participation in varsity
    sports

57
Teach Epidemiology
58
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ecological Studies
  • Information is collected on groups, not
    individuals
  • Often called correlation studies
  • Easy to perform- data often already available

58
Teach Epidemiology
59
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ecological Study
  • High school
  • Absenteeism Rate
  • Number of lost school days due to
  • absence /(Number of students) x
  • (Number of schooldays) x 100
  • of high school
  • students on varsity sports teams

59
Teach Epidemiology
60
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ecological Studies
  • Advantages
  • Information is collected on groups, not
    individuals
  • Easy to perform- data often already available
  • Disadvantages
  • Doesnt control for other factors (confounders)
  • Individual associations may not be the same as
    group associations

60
Teach Epidemiology
61
Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Analytic
  • concerned with studying the relationship between
    an exposure and an outcome
  • test hypotheses
  • Includes a comparison group

61
Teach Epidemiology
62
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Outcomes
  • Health or Disease outcomes
  • Dependent variable
  • Y variable
  • Exposures
  • Risk or Protective Factor
  • Independent or Predictor variable
  • X variable

62
Teach Epidemiology
63
Analytic Epidemiology
  • Outcome

Exposure -
A B
- C D
64
Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Analytic
  • Observational
  • Cross-Sectional
  • Case-Control
  • Cohort
  • Experimental
  • Behavioral Trials
  • Clinical Trials

64
Teach Epidemiology
65
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data on possible risk factors and disease
    outcomes are collected at the same time.
  • These studies are sometimes called prevalence
    studies since the information collected can be
    used to provide prevalence (the proportion in a
    population with a particular outcome).

65
Teach Epidemiology
66
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you measure the exposure and outcome?
  • Physical Activity Health Status

66
Teach Epidemiology
67
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you measure the exposure and outcome?
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • 1. Participation in organized sports 1. Days
    Absent
  • 2. Amount of daily/weekly exercise 2. Body Mass
    Index
  • 3. Amount of vigorous exercise 3. Blood Pressure

67
Teach Epidemiology
68
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cross sectional study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students? Health
    Status (BMI)

Physical Activity Obese - Non-Obese
High A B
- Low C D
68
Teach Epidemiology
69
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cross sectional study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students? Obesity
  • Conduct a Survey asking
  • questions about current
  • Physical activity, height and
  • Body weight.

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
69
Teach Epidemiology
70
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cross sectional study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Obesity
  • Conduct a Survey
  • Calculate Prevalence of Health Outcome
  • In both Physical Activity Groups
  • A/AB and C/CD
  • Calculate a Prevalence Ratio to compare groups
  • (A/AB)/(C/CD)

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
70
Teach Epidemiology
71
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cross sectional study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Advantages
  • Good for generating prevalence Obese
  • Can be done over a short period of time
  • Disadvantages
  • Survey data difficult to verify
  • Can not provide information on causal
    associations
  • Unclear whether exposure or disease came first
  • (e.g. Are students obese because they are less
    physically
  • active or are they less physically active
    because they are
  • obese?)

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
71
Teach Epidemiology
72
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a case-control study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Obesity
  • 1) Identify cases and controls
  • 2) Interview cases and control to ask
  • about physical activity during the past
  • 4 years
  • 3) Fill in the 2 x 2 table and calculate
  • The Odds Ratio

Physical Activity case - control
A B
- C D
72
Teach Epidemiology
73
What is an odds ratio?
  • A measure of association used to quantify the
    relationship between an exposure and an outcome.
    It is also called the cross-products ratio.
  • Outcome obesity
  • Exposure physical activity
  • The ratio of the odds that cases (obese) were
    exposed to a particular risk factor (physical
    activity) as compared with the odds that the
    controls (non-obese) were exposed to that same
    risk factor (physical activity).
  • In a case-control study the odds ratio
  • Odds that a case was exposed / Odds that a
    control was exposed

74
What is an odds ratio?
  • Can be calculated using a simple 2-by-2
    contingency table.
  • Odds of that a case was exposed a/c
  • Odds of that a control was exposed b/d
  • Ratio of the odds or Odds Ratio (a/c)/(b/d)
  • ad/bc (cross-products ratio)
  • Outcome
  • Exposure Case Control
  • yes a b
  • no c d

75
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a case-control study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Identify those with high and low health status
  • ( of cases and controls may or may not be the
    same)
  • Ask them questions about prior physical activity
    level
  • Calculate a measure of risk Odds Ratio
  • A x D 12 x 178 2136 .507
  • B x C 183 x 23 4209
  • Odds that obese students were physically active
    were about 50 lower than the odds that
    non-obese students were physically activity.

Physical Activity Case Obese Controls Non-obese
A 12 B 23
- C 183 D 178
75
Teach Epidemiology
76
Interpretation of the Odds Ratio source
modified from Jekel et al. Epidemiology,
Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine, pg 93.
  • - 4.0 (4/1)
  • - 2.0 (2/1)
  • ----------------1.0 (1/1) equal odds in two
    groups
  • - 0.5 (1/2)
  • - 0.25 (1/4)

77
Interpretation of the Odds Ratio source
modified from Jekel et al. Epidemiology,
Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine, pg 93.
  • - 4.0 (4/1) Odds that cases were exposed are 4
    times higher than
  • the odds that controls were
    exposed
  • - 2.0 (2/1) (the exposure is positively
    related to the disease)
  • ----------------1.0 (1/1) equal odds in two
    groups
  • (the exposure is not related to the disease
    )
  • - 0.5 (1/2)
  • - 0.25 (1/4) Odds that cases were exposed
    are
  • 25 as high or 75
    lower
  • l than the odds that controls were exposed
  • (the exposure is negatively
    related to the disease)

78
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a case-control study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Obesity
  • Advantages
  • Good for studying rare outcomes
  • Do not need very large sample
  • Disadvantages
  • Can not calculate incidence rates
  • Must estimate relative risk using the odds ratio
  • Estimates may be affected by recall bias

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
78
Teach Epidemiology
79
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cohort study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students? Obesity

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
79
Teach Epidemiology
80
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cohort study of
  • Physical Activity Obesity
  • among high school students?
    Obesity
  • 1) Identify students with high and low activity
    level
  • who are not obese at the start of high school
  • 2) Follow them over time and calculate BMI
  • 3) Calculate Incidence of obesity in both
    exposure groups
  • 4) Calculate Relative Risk (incidence in exposed
    group
  • divided by incidence in unexposed group)
  • (A/ AB) / (C/CD) 10/500
    .50

  • 20/500
  • The risk of obesity is 50 lower in those who had
    high levels of physical activity compare d to
    those who did not.

Physical Activity -
A 10 B 490
- C 20 D 480
80
Teach Epidemiology
81
Interpretation of the Relative Risksource
modified from Jekel et al. Epidemiology,
Biostatistics and Preventive Medicine, pg 93.
  • - 4.0 (4/1) Risk of outcome is 4 times higher
    among those with the
  • factor as compared to those without the
    factor
  • - 2.0 (2/1)
  • ----------------1.0 (1/1) equal risk in two
    groups
  • - 0.5 (1/2)
  • - 0.25 (1/4) Risk of outcome is 25 as high or
    75 lower among
  • those with the factor as compared to those
    without the factor

82
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a cohort study of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Advantages Health Status
  • Allow for the direct calculation of incidence
    rates
  • Good for studying rare exposures
  • Allows investigators to assess the progression
    from exposure
  • to disease
  • Disadvantages
  • Need a large sample
  • Can take a long time to complete the study
  • More costly and labor intensive than other
    studies
  • Those who are lost to follow-up can bias the
    outcome

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
82
Teach Epidemiology
83
Epidemiologic Study Designs Experimental
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a behavioral trial of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students? Health Status

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
83
Teach Epidemiology
84
Epidemiologic Study DesignsExperimental
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a behavioral trial of
  • Physical Activity Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Obesity
  • Random assignment of normal weight students
  • to different activity level
  • 2) Follow groups over time to calculate
    incidence of
  • health status outcome (blind evaluation)
  • Calculate Relative Risk (incidence in exposed
    group
  • divided by incidence in unexposed group)
  • Would this be ethical?

Physical Activity -
A B
- C D
84
Teach Epidemiology
85
Epidemiologic Study DesignsExperimental
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • How would you design a clinical trial of
  • Vitamin C Health Status
  • among high school students?
  • Health Status
  • Random assignment of healthy to Vitamin C
  • Follow groups over time to calculate incidence of
  • health status outcome (blind evaluation)
  • Calculate Relative Risk (incidence in exposed
    group
  • divided by incidence in unexposed group)
  • Would this be ethical?

Vitamin C -
A B
- C D
85
Teach Epidemiology
86
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Benefits
  • Informed Consent
  • Confidentiality of information
  • Respect for Human Rights
  • Scientific Integrity

86
Teach Epidemiology
87
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Minimizing Risks and Maximizing Benefits
  • Physical
  • Emotional
  • Especially in vulnerable populations

87
Teach Epidemiology
88
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Informed Consent
  • Investigators must provide clear and complete
    information regarding a research project so that
    potential participants area able to decide
    whether or not to be part of the study..
  • Source Coughlin S, Ethical issues in
    epidemiologic research and public health practice
    . Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006, 316
    open access

88
Teach Epidemiology
89
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Confidentiality of Information
  • Limiting access to study data
  • Study records locked away
  • Limit/delete identifying information on data
    collection forms and in computer files
  • Encrypting of computer databases
  • Limit geographic detail
  • Source Coughlin S, Ethical issues in
    epidemiologic research and public health practice
    . Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006, 316
    open access

89
Teach Epidemiology
90
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Confidentiality of Information
  • Certificate of Confidentiality Certificates
    protect against compulsory legal demands, such as
    court orders and subpoenas, for identifying
    information or identifying characteristics of a
    research participant.
  • Source http//grants.nih.gov/grants/policy/coc/fa
    qs.htm

90
Teach Epidemiology
91
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Respect for Human Rights
  • Individual rites
  • Right of the Population

91
Teach Epidemiology
92
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • Scientific Integrity
  • Research sponsorship
  • Appearance of conflict of interest
  • Possible conflict of interest
  • Conducting and reporting research honestly

92
Teach Epidemiology
93
Epidemiologic Study Designs
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Ethical Issues
  • The institutional review board system (IRB)
  • United States, federal regulations to protect
    human research subjects (45 CFR 46) have
    resulted in a complex IRB system. Similar
    safeguards exist in many other countries.
  • We recommend that students doing epidemiologic
    research
  • Login to the NIH Protecting Human Research
    Participants training modules (http//phrp.nihtrai
    ning.com/users/login.php).
  • Complete three of the seven training modules
    History, Codes and Regulations, and Respect for
    Persons.
  • Source Coughlin S, Ethical issues in
    epidemiologic research and public health practice
    . Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2006, 316
    open access

93
Teach Epidemiology
94
Epidemiologic Study DesignsBreak
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
94
Teach Epidemiology
95
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Analytic Observational Study Type Main Feature Outcome Measure
Cross-sectional Exposure and outcome assessed at the same time Prevalence Prevalence Ratio
Case-Control Assemble Cases and Controls Ask about prior exposure Odds Ratio
Cohort Assemble cohort based on exposure All free of outcome at beginning Follow over time to assess outcome Incidence Rate Relative Risk
95
Teach Epidemiology
96
Epidemiologic Measures of Morbidity
Identifying Patterns of Health and Disease and
Formulating Hypotheses
  • Incidence refers to the occurrence of new cases
    of disease or injury in a population over a
    specified period of time.
  • Prevalence refers to the proportion of persons in
    a population who have a particular disease or
    attribute at a specified point in time or over a
    specified period of time.

Teach Epidemiology
Source of Definitions Principles of Epidemiology
in Public Health Practice Third Edition , U.S.
DHHS, CDC
97
Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data on exposure and outcome are collected at
    the same time.
  • Prevalence Ratio
  • Prevalence of Outcome among those who have the
    exposure
  • A/AB
  • Prevalence of the Outcome among those who did not
    have the exposure C/CD
  • Calculate a Prevalence Ratio to compare groups
    (A/AB)/(C/CD)

Outcome Outcome -
Exposure A B
Exposure - C D
98
Outcome measures
  • Case-Control Study
  • Odds Ratio A x D
  • B x C
  • aka Cross-Products Ratio
  • Cohort study
  • Relative Risk

Exposure Case Control
Yes A B
No C D
Exposure Disease No Disease
Yes A B
No C D
99
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
99
Teach Epidemiology
100
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Self Check

100
Teach Epidemiology
101
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

101
Teach Epidemiology
102
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Answer A and E
  • Experimental Clinical Trial

102
Teach Epidemiology
103
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

103
Teach Epidemiology
104
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Answer A and E
  • Experimental Clinical Trial

104
Teach Epidemiology
105
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

105
Teach Epidemiology
106
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Answer B and C
  • Observational Cohort Study

106
Teach Epidemiology
107
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC
107
Teach Epidemiology
108
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
108
Teach Epidemiology
109
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
109
Teach Epidemiology
110
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • OR (32x60) 12
  • (8 x 20)
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

Storage Case Control
inside 32 20
- outside 8 60
110
Teach Epidemiology
111
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • What is the appropriate measure of risk?
  • Calculate this measure.
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

111
Teach Epidemiology
112
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • Relative Risk
  • Incidence of illness in exposed group (those
    who ate cake) 50/53 .943 6.1
  • Incidence of illness in
    non-exposed group (did not eat cake) 4/26
    .154
  • Source Principles of Epidemiology in Public
    Health Practice Third Edition , U.S. DHHS, CDC

112
Teach Epidemiology
113
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted among
    1000 high school students. Students were asked to
    provide information on their gender and whether
    they had smoked more than 1 cigarette during the
    past week. The study data are provided in the
    table below.
  • What is the prevalence of smoking
  • Among males? Among Females?
  • Calculate a Prevalence Ratio.

Gender Smoked Didnt smoke
Male 40 380
Female 30 570
Teach Epidemiology
114
Analytic Epidemiology
Enduring Epidemiological Understandings
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted among
    1000 randomly selected high school students.
    Students were asked to provide information on
    their gender and whether they had smoked more
    than 1 cigarette during the past week. The study
    data are provided in the table.
  • What is the prevalence of smoking
  • Among males? 40/400 10
  • Among Females? 30/600 5
  • Prevalence Ratio 10/5 2

Gender Smoked Didnt smoke
Male 40 360
Female 30 570
Teach Epidemiology
115
Time Check 245 PM
116
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117
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
118
Time Check 300 PM
119
(No Transcript)
120
Teach Epidemiology
Teach Epidemiology
121
Tours
Teach Epidemiology
122
Tours
Broadcast Studios
Teach Epidemiology
123
Tours
Emergency Operation Center
Teach Epidemiology
124
Time Check 400 PM
125
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126
Extra Slides
127
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