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Ethics in the Marketplace

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... and ideas skim the 2 essays Maxwell The Mission of Business 1 hr max 1 hr 15 min golden rule in the Bible self-driving car Self ... Autonomous_car legislation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics in the Marketplace


1
Ethics in the Marketplace
  • 213.32
  • Week 2
  • Winter 2013
  • Providence University College

2
What To Start With
  • golden rule in the Bible
  • self-driving car

3
Self-Driving Cars
  • Motor Trend magazine
  • http//www.motortrend.com/features/auto_news/2012/
    1301_the_beginning_of_the_end_of_driving/
  • The Economist
  • http//www.economist.com/news/business/21564821-ca
    rmakers-are-starting-take-autonomous-vehicles-seri
    ously-other-businesses-should-too
  • Wikipedia
  • http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomous_car
  • legislation
  • http//cyberlaw.stanford.edu/wiki/index.php/Automa
    ted_Driving_Legislative_and_Regulatory_Action

4
Self-Driving Cars
  • Creating an ethical algorithm for autonomous
    motor vehicles in emergency situations

5
Self-Driving Cars
  • What is an algorithm?
  • http//mathworld.wolfram.com/Algorithm.html
  • Big Bang Theory
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vk0xgjUhEG3U

6
Self-Driving Cars
  • What is an emergency situation?
  • examples
  • a car on a busy street
  • a kid, a ball, a row of parked cars
  • a truck on a slippery mountain road
  • an oncoming car, a cliff
  • definition/characterization
  • ?

7
Self-Driving Cars
  • How do humans behave in emergency driving
    situations?
  • Do drivers make ethical decisions in these
    situations?
  • Do we make ethical judgments
  • about that behaviour?
  • about those decisions?
  • Are those judgments reasonable?
  • yes/no?
  • more/less?

8
Self-Driving Cars
  • How do can cars behave in emergency driving
    situations?
  • Can cars make ethical decisions in these
    situations?
  • Do we make ethical judgments
  • about that behaviour?
  • about those decisions?
  • Are those judgments reasonable?
  • yes/no?
  • more/less?

9
Self-Driving Cars
  • What precedents do we have to work from?
  • rules of the road
  • http//find-a-driving-school.ca/drivers-handbooks/
    manitoba-drivers-handbook-online/ 4-Way Stop
    Signs
  • non-autonomous machines
  • saws
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/machineguarding/sa
    ws/tablesaws.html
  • http//www.sawstop.com/how-it-works/videos/
  • drones in war zones
  • rules of engagement

10
Self-Driving Cars
  • Who else has thought about this?
  • a number of people have
  • http//commonsenseatheism.com/?p14882
  • 2 starter books
  • Wallach, Wendell Allen, Colin. 2010. Moral
    Machines Teaching Robots Right from Wrong.
  • Anderson, Michael, Leigh Anderson, Susan (eds.)
    2011. Machine Ethics.
  • AMA Artificial Moral Agents

11
Self-Driving Cars
  • What do we actually care about here?
  • That self-driving cars
  • are at least as safe as cars driven by the
    average human driver?
  • are at least as safe as the best human driver?
  • be accident-free?
  • That accidents decrease?
  • That deaths from driving decrease?

12
Self-Driving Cars
  • What do we actually care about here?
  • That self-driving cars make the decisions we
    would makeand execute the behaviours that we
    would executeif we were driving in that
    situation?
  • That they make ethical decisions the same way we
    make ethical decisions?

13
Self-Driving Cars
  • What do we actually care about here?
  • That we prevent self-driving cars from driving on
    our roads?
  • That we feel safe sharing the road with
    self-driving cars?
  • That we dont surrender to our robot overlords
    without a fight?

14
Self-Driving Cars
  • Hmmm

15
Golden Rule in the Bible
  • Love your neighbor as yourself.
  • Lev 1918 Mk 1213
  • Whatever you desire others to do to you, do to
    them.
  • Matt 712 Luke 631

What do you notice?
16
Golden Rule in the Bible
  • what I notice
  • Leviticus
  • love the alien as your self?
  • Mark
  • after the contest, an honest question

17
Golden Rule in the Bible
  • what I notice
  • Matthew
  • in Sermon on the Mount
  • Beatitudes
  • sacrificial love
  • overwhelming generosity of God
  • an appropriate response from us
  • Luke
  • in the Sermon on the Plain
  • Beatitudes
  • love your enemies
  • turn the cheek
  • give them your clothing
  • lend to them without expecting to get anything
    back
  • God is overwhelmingly generous
  • we should be just like Him

18
Golden Rule in the Bible
  • what I notice
  • not
  • all the same
  • always a primary rule
  • a contract between people

19
Golden Rule in the Bible
  • what I conclude
  • overwhelming generosity
  • much more than the golden rule

20
For Fri
  • body of the chapter
  • for quiz
  • continuing in ch 1
  • for discussion
  • cases
  • Made in the USA
  • The A7D Affair
  • if we have time
  • essays
  • Solomon
  • Luban et al.
  • The Social Responsibility Business Is To
    Increase Its Profits
  • Friedman
  • read by Fri
  • on quiz
  • think of 1 thing you want to say

21
Fri
22
Quiz
23
Friedman The Social Responsibility
  • New York Times Magazine
  • 1970
  • Milton Friedman
  • 1912 2006
  • Nobel Prize in Economics
  • Chicago School of Economics
  • "the most influential economist of the second
    half of the 20th centurypossibly of all of it
  • The Economist, obituary, 2006
  • 1 thing you want to say

24
Friedman The Social Responsibility
  • Whats the basic case?
  • Why is it attractive?
  • Why dont business people say it?
  • What objections have been made?
  • How would you respond?

25
Cases
  • Made in the USA
  • The A7D Affair

what you noticed
what I noticed
26
Shaw Berry
  • If we have a bit of time

27
Articles
  • Solomon
  • Its Good Business
  • Luban et al.
  • Moral Responsibility in the Age of Bureaucracy

28
Solomon ? amorality
  • Legal regulation is the natural responseto the
    practice of amorality....regulation is the price
    business pays for bad ethical strategy....
  • pg 37
  • the whole point of business ethics is to define
    and defend the basic goals of prosperity,
    freedom, fairness, and individual dignity.
  • pg 37

29
Solomon ? ethical thinking
  • Ethical thinking is ultimately no more than
    considering oneself and ones company as citizens
    of the business community and of the larger
    society with some concern for the well-being of
    others andthe mirror image of thisrespect for
    oneself and ones character.
  • pg 44

30
Solomon ? business ethics
  • Business ethics is nothing less than the full
    awareness of what one is doing, its consequences
    and complications....It is being aware of
  • the need for compliance....
  • the contributions business can make to
    society....
  • the consequences of business activity....
  • pg 38

31
Solomon ? scum
  • In any system based on trust, a few deceivers
    will prosper.
  • pg 40
  • Strategic ethics begins by emphasizing business
    as a practice with strict rules and expectations
    that acceptable players honor implicitlyor they
    are out of the game.
  • pg 41

32
Solomon ? trapped
  • Most people in business who do wrong do so not
    because they are wicked but because they think
    they are trapped
  • pg 42
  • What sort of person would do such a thing?
  • pg 41
  • A virtue sustains and improves a practice. A
    virtue in business is an ethical trait that makes
    business in general possible.
  • pg 41

33
Articles
  • Solomon
  • Its Good Business
  • Luban et al.
  • Moral Responsibility in the Age of Bureaucracy

34
Luban et al. ? sanctions
  • Riesman
  • tradition-directed
  • inner-directed
  • other-directed
  • pg 45-46

?shame
?guilt
?anxiety
35
Luban et al. ? fragmentation
  • Conot
  • Hitlerenunciated an off-hand, extra-legal
    decree....
  • Brandtordered the scientific implementation of
    the program....
  • The directors and personnel of institutions
    rationalized thatthey were just filling out
    questionnaires....
  • The personnel at the end of the line said that
    they had no power of decision
  • pg 46

36
Luban et al. ? fragmentation
  • Theis Dalkon Shield
  • pg 47

project manager
quality control department
medical department
37
Luban et al. ? fragmentation
  • we remain convinced that fragmented knowledge is
    a genuine phenomenon that we cannot simply
    dismiss as a lame excuse
  • pg 47

38
Luban et al. ? fragmentation
  • Virtually every approach to normative
    ethicsassumes four knowledge conditions are
    satisfied.The decisionmaker recognizes that he
    or she
  • has come to a fork in the road
  • must make the choice in a fairly short, distinct
    period of time
  • confronts a small number of well-defined options
  • has the information needed to make the decision
  • .The failure of these knowledge conditions is
    created or maintained by organizational
    structure.
  • pg 48-49

39
Luban et al. ? culpable
  • Is it possible to formulate satisfactory
    principles of individual responsibility when any
    or all of the four knowledge conditions
    presupposed by standard moral theories fail?
  • pg 49

40
Luban et al. ? obligations
  • ignorance can be culpable
  • obligations of
  • investigation
  • communication
  • protection
  • prevention
  • precaution
  • pg 50-51

management
41
For Next Fri
  • ch 2
  • read 1st half
  • once through
  • 51-91
  • read 3 cases
  • carefully
  • come with thoughts and ideas
  • skim the 2 essays
  • Maxwell
  • The Mission of Business

1 hr max
1 hr
15 min
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