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Safety

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Committee Operations An introduction to Oregon Administrative Rule 437, Division 1, Safety Committee Duties and Responsibilities OR-OSHA 101 0201 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety


1
Safety Committee Operations
An introduction to Oregon Administrative Rule
437, Division 1, Safety Committee Duties and
Responsibilities
OR-OSHA 101 0201
Presented by The Public Education Section Oregon
Occupational Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA)

2
Information about this instructor
workbookThis workbook is set up so that a copy
of the workbook page is shown in the order that
it appears in the workbook. The page number from
the workbook is shown in the lower right hand
corner of each page and a box with the word
SLIDE is shown on the page where a
corresponding slide has been provided. Following
the copy of each workbook page is a sheet with
the heading NOTES. These note pages provide a
description of what the developer of the workbook
intended to be covered in this section. You may
also see suggestions for how to present the
material, examples, etc. You are HIGHLY
encouraged to read the entire instructor manual,
add your personalized notations of examples,
additional information you might want to add,
alternative ways you may want to present the
material, etc. You will also find it helpful to
attend an OR-OSHA class on this topic offered by
the OR-OSHA public education instructors. Feel
free to be creative in your presentations and
personalize the material so that it fits your
presentation style and preferences. Variety in
your methods of presentation will improve learner
attention and retention. Try not to use the same
format for more than a 20 minute timeframe
without changing to something at least slightly
different. For example, lecture for 20 minutes,
then have the class do an activity, then have
facilitated group discussion, etc., etc. DO NOT
use these notes as your presentation outline to
the extent that you are trying to present this
material exactly the way you think the developer
would. It will appear unnatural and rote unless
you customize the presentation to fit YOU. You
are also encouraged to offer an opportunity for
the class to critique your presentation either by
using the evaluation sheet in the workbook, or
some other method. Analyzing what people have to
say about how the class went is your most
valuable tool in helping you develop as a
trainer. You are encouraged to provide us with
your feedback on how these materials could be
improved and let us know if you found them
helpful.Your efforts in helping your company
develop self-sufficiency and internal resources
in the important area of staff training are much
appreciated.
3
Introduction Welcome to the Safety Committee
Workshop. This workshop is designed to include
you in the learning experience. The more you
contribute, the more you will get out of this
training, so please dont hold back...participate
and have fun! Purpose The purpose of the
workshop is to give safety committee members
insight into their duties and responsibilities,
and to introduce methods that will help the
safety committee be effective in improving the
safety management system. Goal Provide
information regarding 1. Safety committee
requirements as described in in OAR 437, Div 1,
Rule 765. 2. Safety committee methods
intent.
Form Safety Committees Position
Name Elect a Chairperson ______________________
_____________ Select a Spokesperson ____________
_______________________ Everyone is a
Recorder ___________________________________
Please Note This material or any other material
used to inform employers of compliance
requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through
simplification of the regulations should not be
considered a substitute for any provisions of the
Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards
issued by Oregon OSHA.
1
4
NOTES Introduce the topic
Completion of this course will meet the Safety
Committee requirement that Safety Committee
members receive training on the safety committee
rules and requirements and the intent and purpose
of Safety Committees. Since the material in this
workbook is designed to be interactive, it will
be most effective if your larger groups are
divided into small workgroups of two to six
members. For those individuals training this
topic, or reviewing it on an independent basis,
READ THE SAFETY COMMITTEE RULES WHICH START ON
PAGE 21 AND GO THROUGH PAGE 29 PRIOR TO TEACHING
THIS TOPIC OR DOING INDEPENDENT REVIEW OF THE
WORKBOOK. The workbook is intended to support an
understanding of the rule language, not replace
the text of the rules.
5
Who we are and what we do
OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (1) Purpose. The purpose
of a safety committee is to bring workers and
management together in a non-adversarial,
cooperative effort to promote safety and health
in each workplace. A safety committee assists the
employer and makes recommendations for change.
Safety committee purpose, process and
role Purpose - The intended outcome towards
which a person or group strives. Process - The
means and methods used to achieve the intended
purpose. Role - The function we assume. The
part we play. Mother, father, coach,
supervisor. What does a safety
committee do to accomplish its purpose(s)?
1. _____________________________________________
______________________ 2. _______________________
____________________________________________ 3.
__________________________________________________
_________________ 4. ____________________________
_______________________________________ 5.
__________________________________________________
_________________ What's the role of the
safety committee? The safety
committee performs the role of a(n)
________________________________________________
_
2
6
NOTES Review the definitions
of Purpose, Process and Role. Purpose You
could ask the class to state their understanding
of why OR-OSHA requires Safety Committees. The
central purpose of the Safety committee would be
to provide a safe workplace for all employees.
It is also considered a core component of an
effective Safety and Health Management system.
As people review the Safety Committee rules, they
should be able to identify the fact that all the
components of an effective Safety management
System are built into the Safety Committee rules.
You can identify required activities that
address Management Commitment, Accountability,
Training, Employee Involvement, Hazard
Identification and Control, Accident
Investigations and Program Review. Process
Groups will come up with different lists of what
they do to accomplish their purpose. Activities
they will come up with should be along the lines
of Improve programs, develop work procedures,
do inspections, identify and correct hazardous
conditions and unsafe work practices, communicate
between staff and management on safety issues,
communicate safety in general, model safe work
behaviors, give positive feedback to those
following safe workpractices. Stress the
importance of their responsibilities related to
evaluating how safety is managed in the
organization, including the effectiveness of the
accountability program in relation to requiring
employees to follow safety rules and making sure
that they track the written responses that
management makes to safety recommendations to
make sure they are received and if a
recommendation is accepted, making sure that the
action actually occurs. The list SHOULD NOT
include activities that would make other
employees describe Safety Committee Members as
having the role of Safety Cop. Role The
role of the safety committee is most closely
related to that of consultant.
7
The Safety Management System
OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (6) (d) Hazard
assessment and control. The safety committee
shall assist the employer in evaluating the
employer's accident and illness prevention
program, and shall make written recommendations
to improve the program where applicable
Inputs - Resources Tools Equipment Machinery
Materials Facilities People Time Money
Elements - Using Resources 1. Management
Commitment - leading, following, managing,
planning, funding 2. Accountability -
responsibility, discipline 3. Employee
Involvement - safety committees, suggesting,
recognizing/rewarding 4. Hazard Identification
Control - inspections, surveys, observation
5. Accident/Incident Investigation -
incidents/accidents, tasks 6. Training -
orientation, OJT, periodic 7. Plan Evaluation
- judging effectiveness of conditions, behaviors,
systems, results, and implement improvements
Outputs - Conditions, Behaviors, Results
Safe/Unsafe conditions, behaviors Many/Few
incidents and accidents High/Low accident costs
High/Low productivity, morale, trust
Where do we look for clues that the safety
management system isn't working?
________________________________________________
_____ ____________________________________________
_________
Every system is designed perfectly to produce
what its producing
3
8
NOTES This page provides an
introduction to how safety management works.
The box on Inputs-Resources is there to
indicate that the quality of the resources put
into a safety program are going to have an impact
on how the program works and what types of
outputs you get. For example, if the employer
does not provide resources such as equipment that
is in working order and appropriate to the job
that is being done, it doesnt matter how great
your Work Procedures are, the outcome will not be
good. The second box on Elements references the
Seven elements of a Safety Management System.
When the output is defective (like you are
identifying a lot of incidents involving
ladders), you would want to determine if the
system is failing because one of the elements is
not working as good as is needs to be. For
instance, people are not being required to use
the correct ladder for the job they are
performing (Accountability), or noone is
analyzing the incidents that have happened to
make changes that will keep future incidents from
occurring (Accident/Incident Investigation). If
all of the Elements of the Safety System seem to
be working well, look back even further to the
inputs. Are people being provided with the
ladders they need to safely perform the jobs they
are being asked to do? When a ladder gets
broken, is it removed from service and replaced
with one that is not broken? The third box on
outputs identifies the types of things that
safety committees normally identify during their
safety inspections, hazards that are identified
by co-workers, etc. It is the starting place for
developing a safer workplace. Fix the things
that you can see and list. Then identify and fix
the Process Elements and/or Inputs that are
creating what you saw and listed.
9
What are the duties and responsibilities of the
safety committee?
Evaluation Checklist - 437-001-0765 Rules for
Workplace Safety Committees. Item Question
Yes
No 1. Is the safety committee composed of an
equal number of employer
_______ _______ and employee
representatives? 2. Are the employee
representatives either volunteers or elected by
their peers? _______
_______ 3. For employers of twenty or more
employees, are there at least four members
_______ _______ on the
safety committee? 4. Is the safety committee
chairperson elected by the committee?
_______
_______ 5. Are safety committee members
compensated at their normal hourly wage
_______ _______ during
safety committee training and meetings? 6. Do
employee representatives serve terms that last at
least one year? _______
_______ 7. Are terms of service alternated or
staggered so that at least one experienced
_______ _______ member is
serving on the committee? 8. Are reasonable
efforts made to ensure that committee members
represent the _______
_______ major work activities of the
firm? 9. Does the safety committee hold
regular meetings at least once a month except
_______ _______ in months
in which workplace inspections are
performed? 10. Does the safety committee
work from a written agenda?
_______
_______ 11. Are minutes kept at each
meeting?
_______
_______ 12. Are the minutes made available to
all employees?
_______ _______ 13. Are the
minutes maintained for at least three years?
_______ _______ 14. Are
all reports, evaluations, and recommendations of
the safety committee made part _______
_______ of the safety committee
minutes? 15. Has a reasonable limit been
set within which the employer must respond in
writing to _______ _______ safety
committee suggestions? 16. Has the safety
committee set up a system for collecting
safety-related suggestions,
_______ _______ reports of hazards, or other
information directly from those involved in
workplace operations? 17. Is such information
reviewed during the next safety committee meeting
and recorded _______ _______ in the
minutes?
4
10
NOTES Have participants
answer the questions on this page and page 5 for
their Safety Committee as it now functions.
These questions were designed to follow the
safety committee rules. If an individual answers
no to any of these questions or is unclear as to
what the rule says, refer to the Safety Committee
Rules in the Appendix starting on page 21 to read
the exact rule language. In order to meet the
requirements of the Safety Committee rules and to
assure that no citations would be issued in the
event of an Enforcement Inspection, you need to
be able to answer yes to all 34 questions
and/or meet an exception if one is listed in the
rules.
11
Evaluation Checklist - 437-001-0765 Rules for
Workplace Safety Committees. Item Question
Yes No 18.
Does the safety committee assist the employer in
evaluating the employers accident
_______ _______ and illness prevention
program? 19. Does the safety committee make
written recommendations to improve the safety
_______ _______ and health
program? 20. Has the safety committee
established procedures by which the safety
committee _______
_______ inspection team can find and identify
safety and health hazards? 21. Does the
safety committee conduct workplace inspections at
least quarterly? _______
_______ 22. Does the safety committee
recommend ways for the employer to eliminate or
_______ _______ correct
hazards and unsafe work practices in the
workplace? 23. Does the safety committee
inspection team include employer and employee
_______ _______ representat
ives? 24. Does the safety committee
inspection team document in writing the location
and _______ _______ identity
of hazards? 25. Are quarterly inspections of
satellite locations done by the safety committee
_______
_______ inspection team or by a person
designated at the location? 26. Has the
safety committee established procedures to review
all safety
_______ _______ and health inspection reports
made by the committee? 27. Based on the
results of the above review, does the safety
committee make _______
_______ recommendations for the improvement of
the employers safety and health program? 28.
Has the safety committee evaluated the
employers accountability system?
_______ _______ 29. Has the safety
committee made recommendations to implement
supervisor _______
_______ and employee accountability for safety
and health? 30. Has the safety committee
established procedures for investigating all
safety-related _______
_______ incidents, including injury accidents,
illnesses, and deaths? 31. Has the safety
committee purpose and operation been discussed
with all safety _______
_______ committee members? 32. Have the
safety committee rules and their application been
discussed with all _______
_______ committee members? 33. Do safety
committee members have ready access to applicable
Oregon _______
_______ Occupational Safety and Health
Codes? 34. Have safety committee members
received safety training based on your
_______ _______ companys
activity, hazard identification training, and
effective accident investigation training?
5
12
NOTES Once all the questions
have been answered individually, review them as a
group. At a minimum, review any where one or
more participants answered No or where a
participant asks for more clarification. For any
answered No, have the participants list an
action on their Action Ideas (Pg. 35) that will
bring their committee into compliance with the
rules. You will want to address items on the
Action Ideas page as future Safety Committee
agenda items.
13
OAR 437, Div 001, Rule 0765(6)(f) The safety
committee shall evaluate the employers
accountability system and make recommendations to
implement supervisor and employee accountability
for safety and health.
Accountability The Key to Compliance
  • Six essential elements of an effective
    accountability system
  • 1. Established formal standards of behavior and
    performance.
  • Programs, Policies, Plans, Processes, Procedures,
    Practices (the Six P's)
  • 2. Resources provided to meet those standards.
  • Physical tools, equipment, materials,
    workstations, facilities
  • Psychosocial education, training, scheduling,
    culture
  • 3. An effective system of measurement.
  • Behaviors are observed and quantified
  • Behaviors are detected and corrected before an
    injury
  • Informal and formal observation procedures are
    used
  • 4. Application of effective consequences.


6
14
NOTES Lecture to the importance of
Accountability in a Safety Management System.
Review the elements of an Accountability System.
Stress that Accountability does not equal
discipline, though discipline needs to be a part
of an Accountability Program. The most important
part of consequences is seeing that there are
positive consequence for following the rules.
Reinforce the fact that it doesnt matter what
is written down in a manual about the Safety
Rules if management is modeling something else,
reinforcing something else and/or not holding
people accountable, the rules are being rewritten
and whatever behavior management is displaying
becomes the real rules. For there to be
accountability, the standards need to be defined
and communicated to the workforce, resources
provided to allow the workforce to implement the
rules, someone needs to be checking to see that
the rules are being followed, there need to be
consequences for following or not following the
rules and both ongoing and periodic formal
attention needs to be given to evaluating whether
or not accountability for safety is working in
your company. The safety committee rules
specifically state that Safety Committees are to
evaluate and make recommendations regarding your
companies Accountability Program. If there is no
accountability, there is no safety program.
People will either model what they see management
doing or choose to do whatever they as
individuals believe to be best based upon their
various prior experiences. NOT A GOOD OUTCOME!
15
Creating a Culture of Accountability
  • Three types of consequences
  • Positive - Increases required and voluntary
    behavior.
  • Examples Pay check, individual and group
    recognition, getting to leave early, pizza party,
    safety jacket
  • Other____________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________
  • Negative - Increases required behavior only.
  • Examples verbal reprimand, written reprimand,
    withholding bonuses, threats, time off without
    pay
  • Other____________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________
  • None - Withdrawal of positive and negative
    reinforcement.
  • Examples No verbal, nonverbal or written
    response regardless of the actions of the
    employee.
  • Other____________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    _________________________



If people are taking shortcuts in areas such as
safety and quality, the naturally occurring
positive consequences associated with doing the
job with less effort will cause the undesirable
behaviors to continue. Aubrey, C. Daniels,
Bringing Out the Best in People, p. 29
7
16
NOTES Outlines the different types of
CONSEQUENCES that can occur in regard to safety
issues. Stress that management does not have to
be present every time something happens to
provide consequences. The important thing is to
see that there are at least intermittent times
when management observes and responds to safety
issues. They key is the need to make sure that
people PERCEIVE that if observed doing the right
thing, or doing the wrong thing there will be
CONSEQUENCES. Employees make CHOICES every day
on the job regarding whether or not to follow the
rules, turn in hazards, wear their PPE, etc. The
managers job is to give employees reasons to
believe it is in their best interest to make good
choices and follow the rules when it comes to
issues impacting their safety and the safety of
others in the workgroup.
17
Exercise What general safety behaviors should
managers and employees be held accountable for?
Managers

8
18
NOTES Refer students to Page 21 22
of the appendix where they can read 437-00l-0760
of Division l. This section of the rule defines
the employer and employee responsibilities
related to safety. Once the class has completed
the assignment, use the overhead to go over and
discuss each item. Remember that managers are
employees also and must meet the Employee
responsibilities as well as the Employer
responsibilities.
19
Exercise Accountability establishes
obligation Determine appropriate actions in each
of the following scenarios.
Scenario 1. Bob, a maintenance worker who has
been working for the company for 10 years,
received a serious electrical shock while working
on a conveyor belt motor. When asked why he did
not use the companys established lockout/tagout
procedures he acknowledged that he had thought
about it, but that the old procedures hadnt
been used for years, and he had done this same
task many times before. And, besides, the
production manager yelled at him to get the
conveyor running again or its his job because
the whole system was shut down. Appropriate
actions and justification ______________________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
_________________________ ________________________
_________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_______________________ __________________________
_______________________________________________ __
__________________________________________________
_____________________ Scenario 2. Ralph, an
experienced roofer for Sky High Contractors, was
caught by his supervisor working on a steeply
pitched wood shingled roof without proper fall
protection. When questioned he stated that he
knew he should be using the fall protection, and
that he would be in trouble if caught. He stated
that there was nothing wrong with the equipment,
but it was too big of a hassle to get it out of
the back of his truck. Appropriate actions and
justification __________________________________
_______________________________________ __________
__________________________________________________
_____________ ____________________________________
_____________________________________ ____________
__________________________________________________
___________ ______________________________________
___________________________________ ______________
__________________________________________________
_________
9
20
NOTES Have the class complete the
activities in Scenario 1 and Scenario 2. A key
thing for them to identify in Scenario 1 is that
it would not be appropriate to discipline Bob.
Hopefully, there will be some reference to the
fact that there should be some evaluation
regarding why the manager acted in the way they
did. Do not let the class get into a blame the
manager mode. The same kinds of things that
impact bad choices made by an employee also apply
in terms of why this manager made a bad choice.
Perhaps there is pressure from his superior to
produce, perhaps he has never been trained on
what his role is in regards to safety, perhaps
noone has ever evaluated him in regards to the
safety activities he is involved with, etc. In
Scenario 2 it would be appropriate to apply
negative consequences as this employee knew what
was expected, had the resources he needed to
follow the rules and chose not to.
21
Identifying Hazards
OAR 437, Div 1, Rule (6)(d) Hazard assessment and
control. Additionally, the safety committee
shall establish procedures for workplace
inspections by the safety committee inspection
team to locate and identify safety and health
hazards conduct workplace inspections at least
quarterly
  • 2. Inspection checklist.
  • . Identify hazards in your
    workplace..
  • . Develop additional checklist
    questions that are not addressed in the
    rules. Dont get tunnel vision.
  • 3. Job Hazard Analysis
  • 4. Review rules which apply to your
    workplace.
  • 5. What rules, if violated would result in
    serious harm or fatality?
  • 6. Other? ___________________________________
    _____________________________

What causes accidents in the workplace? __________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
___________ ______________________________________
______________________ SOME TOOLS TO
HELP IDENTIFY HAZARDS
1. Inspections Uncovering controllable
hazards Formal inspection and informal
observation are important processes that can be
effective in identifying hazardous conditions and
unsafe behaviors in your workplace.
Why might the walkaround inspection be
ineffective in identifying the causes of
accidents? _______________________________________
_______________________ __________________________
____________________________________
How can we overcome this weakness in the
inspection process? ______________________________
_________________________________
10
22
NOTES The simple answer to question
1 is unsafe conditions and unsafe
practices. Go over the list of tools for
inspecting a workplace. Encourage use of more
than one method and find out if there is any
other process being used such as behavioral
observations, the STOP program, or other canned
or internally developed methods. Have the class
complete the bottom two questions. The answers
to Why might the walkaround inspection be
ineffective in identifying the causes of
accidents? should include the fact that
walkarounds seldom address behaviors and focus
primarily on hazardous conditions. Ways to
overcome this problem could include ideas like
building into the inspection process things like
observations of the work processes, enlisting
other employees, training people not to limit
themselves to only items listed on Inspection
Checklists, etc.
23
Investigating Incidents and Accidents
OAR 765, Div 1, Rule (6) (g) Accident
investigation. The safety committee shall
establish procedures for investigating all
safety-related incidents including injury
accidents, illnesses and deaths. This rule shall
not be construed to require the committee to
conduct the investigations.
The basic steps for conducting an accident
investigation Step 1 - _________________________
________________ Step 2 - ______________________
___________________ Step 3 - ___________________
______________________ Step 4 -
_________________________________________ Step
5 - _________________________________________ St
ep 6 - _________________________________________
Secure the accident scene Collect facts about
what happened Develop the sequence of
events Determine the causes Recommend
improvements Write the report
Gather information
Analyze the facts
Implement Solutions
Whats the difference between an incident and an
accident? _______________________________________
______________ Why would we want to take time
investigating both incidents and
accidents? ______________________________________
_______________ What two key conditions must
exist before an accident occurs?
H_______________ and E_________________
No-Fault Accident Investigations If someone
deliberately sets out to produce loss or injury,
that is called a crime, not an accident. Yet
many accident investigations get confused with
criminal investigations Whenever the
investigative procedures are used to place blame,
an adversarial relationship is inevitable. The
investigator wants to find out what actually
happened while those involved are trying to be
sure they are not going to be punished for their
actions. The result is an inadequate
investigation. (Kingsley Hendrick, Ludwig Benner,
Investigating Accidents with STEP, p 42. Marcel
Dekker, Inc. 1987.)
11
24
NOTES Review the steps in an
accident investigations process.. Encourage
people to obtain further training on this topic
as it is a requirement of safety committee
members. Even though Safety Committee members
are not required to participate in the Accident
Investigations, they are required to establish
procedures. The requirement for training is to
make certain that the committee members
understand the purpose, process and outcomes they
are trying to obtain so that they can evaluate
the procedure, make it meaningful and make good
recommendations to improve the process. The
reason the steps are listed here is to provide an
introduction to the process and remind you of
this training requirement. Have the groups
complete the bottom three questions. The
difference between an incident and an accident is
normally considered that an incident does not
involve injury to a person or resource. It would
be what is commonly called a near miss or a
near hit. You want to encourage investigations
of incidents as it is an opportunity to be
proactive in assuring that the situation does not
result in an accident next time. May be helpful
to talk about the fact that the more near-misses
you are experiencing as an employer, the higher
the probability that you will have an accident or
fatality. The two conditions that must exist
before an accident occurs is a hazard and
exposure. Hazard can be considered a condition
or a thing and exposure would be things people
do.
25
Weed out the causes of injuries and illness
  • 1. Direct Cause of Injury
  • Always the harmful transfer of energy.
  • Kinetic, thermal, chemical, etc.
  • Contact with, exposure too, etc.
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________
  • 2. Surface Causes of the Accident
  • Specific/unique hazardous conditions and/or
    unsafe actions
  • Produce or contribute to the accident
  • May exist/occur anytime, anyplace
  • Involve the victim and others
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________
  • _______________________________

Strains
Burns
Cuts
Unguarded machine
Horseplay
Create a hazard
Broken tools
Ignore a hazard
Chemical spill
Fails to report injury
Defective PPE
Fails to inspect
Untrained worker
Fails to enforce
Lack of time
Too much work
Fails to train
Inadequate training
No recognition
No discipline procedures
Inadequate labeling
No mission statement
No orientation process
Outdated hazcom program
Inadequate training plan
No recognition plan
No accountability policy
No inspection policy
Lack of vision
Any way you look at it, system design is the key
to effective safety. If design is flawed, yet
perfectly implemented, the system fails. If
design is perfect, yet implementation is flawed,
the system fails as a result of design flaws in
other related processes.
12
26
NOTES This is the often used
Accident Weed. It is a pictorial
representation of the idea that it is important
to address more than just the hazardous
conditions and hazardous practices that are
identified as these are surface causes. Unless
the Root Causes or System Failures are
identified and addressed, you will continue doing
a band aid fix of symptoms which will keep
reappearing over and over again. It is
demoralizing to the safety committee members when
they spend all their time doing work-orders
rather than analyzing why multiple occurrences of
similar hazardous conditions and/or hazardous
practices keep surfacing. Once the system
failures are addressed, you will see a dramatic
drop in the identified surface causes. Any time
you see the same issue more than once, in more
than one location, or which continues to reappear
inspection after inspection, it should tell you
there is a root cause that has not yet been
identified and corrected.
27
Investigating Incidents and Accidents
Surface and Root Cause Identification
Lane was asked by his supervisor to hurry up and
deliver two boxes of Xerox paper to a co-worker
who had just left to deliver supplies to another
office location. As Lane bent over to pick up
the boxes he felt a pull in his back. He ignored
it and ran to catch the co-worker before his car
left the parking lot. As Lane reached the stairs
going down to the street level, he tripped over
an electrical cord. Lane grabbed for the stair
rail to catch himself, but it gave way and he
tumbled to the bottom of the stairs suffering a
broken leg, a concussion and multiple bruises.

How many surface cause(s) can you identify which
contributed to the accident described above.
What are they? __________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
____________________________________________ List
at least one possible root cause for each
surface cause you identified. ___________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_________
13
28
NOTES Have participants circle the
things they can identify in the paragraph that
would be considered surface Causes. They are
the things you can identify by looking at the
actions described. Surface causes include
Supervisor asked him to hurry up, Improper lift,
employee ignored injury rather than report it and
became a walking wounded, electrical cord
hazard, lack of attention paid to trip hazard,
defective stair rail. I recommend that once
participants have circled the surface causes you
talk about what they identified. This will make
sure that everyone is on board with what a
Surface Cause is and that when they complete
the second part of the activity, they are dealing
with real surface issues. Have participants
next identify possible root causes. Tell people
that there may be multiple possible root causes
for any specific surface cause they have
identified. The only way to determine
specifically which root cause(s) are impacting
the situation described would be to talk with the
employees and management to find out how the
system is functioning at the workplace where the
hazard was identified.
29
Writing Recommendations
OAR 437, Div 1, Rule (6)(d) Hazard assessment and
control. and recommend to the employer how to
eliminate hazards and unsafe work practices in
the workplace.
  • The Hierarchy of Controls
  • Engineering controls. Eliminates/reduces hazards
    that existed, through equipment redesign,
    replacement, substitution. Most effective
    strategy.
  • Examples _______________________________________
    _____________________________
  • Management Controls. Reduce the frequency and
    duration of exposure to the hazards primarily
    through scheduling strategies. Strategies might
    include reducing the frequency or duration of a
    particular task, more frequent breaks, reducing
    the number of employees, etc. Again, these
    strategies must be managed, supervised, trained,
    etc.
  • Examples _______________________________________
    _____________________________
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). In
    conjunction with engineering and administrative
    controls, consider personal protective equipment.
  • Examples _______________________________________
    _____________________________

14
30
NOTES Go over the three types of
controls which can form the basis of
recommendations made. After reviewing the
definition, have the participants give examples
of each of the different types of controls. You
may also want to give an example of a hazard such
as noise, a hazardous chemical, or something
present in your worksite. The class can then
identify at least one example of how that hazard
could be addressed through an Engineering
Control, a Management Control and Personal
Protective Equipment. The answer to the question
is that Engineering Controls eliminate the
hazard. By doing so, you eliminate the human
element of choice and assure that no matter what
behaviors an employee displays that would
normally expose them to the hazard they are
protected. You may want to spend some time
talking about the fact that the hierarchy of
controls is focused on how to protect employees
from hazardous conditions. Management Controls
are the only fix which addresses Safety
Management System failures. They tend to be very
broad in their impact, but only work as well as
the individuals who are developing and
implementing them. Management Controls must be
MANAGED!
31
Exercise Perceiving the problem Read the
following scenario and complete each assignment.
Minutes from last months safety committee
meeting. The safety committee chair informed
members that two employees were caught stuffing a
tuna sandwich into the safety suggestion box in
the maintenance shop. Injuries are down 10 from
the year before, but have reversed and actually
increased 7 during each of the last two months.
Injury reports jumped the week after the safety
contest for the quarter was complete. Bob
mentioned that he had to coax Billie to report
her cut hand to the supervisor. When asked why
she did not want to report the injury, she
explained that she didnt want to hurt the
departments chance to win the quarterly safety
award. Gloria expressed her concern that morale
is low because the general attitude about
management is that it doesnt really care about
employee safety. No one is really interested in
the companys incentive program so once again, we
need to do something exciting to increase
involvement. She recommended Safety Bingo.
What conditions and behaviors lead you to
believe there is a problem? ______________________
_________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
_____________________ ____________________________
___________________________________________ ______
__________________________________________________
_______________ How would you solve one or more
of the problems you've identified
above? ___________________________________________
____________________________ _____________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
______________________ ___________________________
____________________________________________ _____
__________________________________________________
________________ _________________________________
______________________________________
15
32
NOTES Have the groups complete this
activity in small groups. Read the scenario.
Groups will come up with a long list of
conditions and behaviors which may include Tuna
sandwiches stuffed into safety suggestion box,
injuries increasing, jump in injury reports the
week following the end of a safety contest,
Billie not wanting to report her cut hand because
of the safety award program, moral is low, staff
do not believe management cares about their
safety, lack of interest in incentive program or
others. Have small groups identify one of the
problems they listed. Then have them decide upon
a root cause that they believe could be
responsible for the condition or behavior
identified as their problem. Have the groups
brain-storm possible solutions to both the
surface and root causes they listed. Obtain
agreement upon two different recommendations that
would address the surface cause and two different
recommendations that would address the root cause
they identified. For the recommendation to fix
the surface cause, remember that you want to make
recommendations that are considered Engineering
Controls whenever possible and reasonable in
terms of money and other considerations you would
expect to limit the chances of your suggestion
being implemented. Not all safety issues can be
addressed through Engineering Controls. For
example, if you were working on addressing
perceptions such as moral and lack of caring
management, you will not be able to Engineer
out this surface condition.
33
OAR 437, Div 1, Rule 765 (6) (c) Employee
involvement. The committee shall establish a
system to allow the members to obtain
safety-related suggestions, reports of hazards,
or other information directly from all persons
involved in the operations of the workplace. The
information obtained shall be reviewed at the
next safety committee meeting, and shall be
recorded in the minutes for review and necessary
action by the employer.
Recognition The Key to Involvement
What methods do you use to get employees
involved? ________________________________________
____________________________________________ _____
__________________________________________________
_____________________________ ____________________
__________________________________________________
______________ ___________________________________
_________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________ _______________
__________________________________________________
___________________ What are some possible
consequences of making a safety related
suggestion or reporting a hazardous
condition? _______________________________________
_____________________________________________ ____
__________________________________________________
______________________________ ___________________
__________________________________________________
_______________ __________________________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
___________________________________ ______________
__________________________________________________
____________________
16
34
NOTES Workgroups independently
answer the two questions, then the trainer can
facilitate a sharing of their ideas. The group
ideas will be as diverse as the group is. Some
ideas you might hear in response to the Methods
of getting employees involved may include Thank
them for their ideas, give credit for suggestions
in the safety committee minutes, basing incentive
awards on involvement in safety, addressing
safety involvement in performance appraisals,
asking for safety related experience when
advertising for promotional opportunities in the
workplace, protecting them from other workload
demands when they are involved with safety
activities, etc. The answer to the second
question may include such things as You will be
made fun of by your co-workers, it will get
fixed, nothing will happen, you will be viewed as
a trouble maker by management, and multiple other
ideas. The thing to stress here is that if the
safety system is not set up to reinforce the
behaviors such as making safety suggestions and
reporting hazards, that is a system that needs to
be changed.
35
Discuss and list obstacles to safety committee
success.
1. _____________________________________________
__________________________ _______________________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
__________________________ 2.
__________________________________________________
_____________________ ____________________________
______________________________________________ ___
__________________________________________________
_____________________ 3. _______________________
________________________________________________ _
__________________________________________________
_______________________ __________________________
________________________________________________
4. ______________________________________________
_________________________ ________________________
__________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
_________________________ Class
Discuss and list remedies to one or
more of the obstacles identified in the
previous page. 1. ____________________________
___________________________________________ ______
__________________________________________________
__________________ _______________________________
___________________________________________ 2.
__________________________________________________
_____________________ ____________________________
______________________________________________ ___
__________________________________________________
_____________________ 3. ______________________
_________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
________________________ _________________________
_________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
________________________ 4. ____________________
__________________________________________________
_ ________________________________________________
__________________________ _______________________
__________________________________________________
_
17
36
NOTES This provides safety committee
members an opportunity to identify the barriers
that keep them from being as effective as they
could be. The list often includes such things
as lack of budget, lack of management support,
lack of peer support, apathy, lack of an
effective safety committee chair, lack of
training, etc. The class will come up with their
own remedies. As with any safety issue, there
are many ways to address these barriers. It is
worth giving some thought to whether or not you
really want to try to make a cultural change in
one clean sweep. The results are likely not
going to be what you hoped for. I am reminded of
the following question How do you eat an
elephant? The answer is One bite at a time.
You will not get a perfect safety system
overnight. In fact, it will take years if there
are major problems with the current safety
culture. Look at the environment you work in.
At a minimum you need to address meeting the
minimum expectations of the OR-OSHA safety
committee rules. This is an excellent starting
place and will give you the structure needed to
have a significant and long-term impact on safety
at your workplace. Over time your successes will
develop a positive track record with the decision
makers in your company and you will be able to
address bigger and bigger bites of that safety
elephant we call your Safety Management System.
37
Reference Materials
19
38
(No Transcript)
39
437-001-0760 Rules for all Workplaces. (1) Employ
ers' Responsibilities. (a) The employer shall
see that workers are properly instructed and
supervised in the safe operation of any
machinery, tools, equipment, process, or practice
which they are authorized to use or apply. This
rule shall not be construed to require a
supervisor on every part of an operation nor to
prohibit workers from working alone. (b) The
employer shall take all reasonable means to
require employees (A) To work and act in a
safe and healthful manner (B) To conduct their
work in compliance with all applicable safety and
health rules (C) To use all means and methods,
including but not limited to, ladders, scaffolds,
guardrails, machine guards, safety belts and
lifelines, that are necessary to safely
accomplish all work where employees are exposed
to a hazard and (D) Not to remove, displace,
damage, destroy or carry off any safety device,
guard, notice or warning provided for use in any
employment or place of employment while such use
is required by applicable safety and health
rules. (c) Every employer shall be responsible
for providing the health hazard control measures
necessary to protect the employees' health from
harmful or hazardous conditions and for
maintaining such control measures in good working
order and in use. (d) Every employer shall
inform the employees regarding the known health
hazards to which they are exposed, the measures
which have been taken for the prevention and
control of such hazards, and the proper methods
for utilizing such control measures. (2) Employee
s' Responsibilities. (a) Employees shall
conduct their work in compliance with the safety
rules contained in this code. (b) All
injuries shall be reported immediately to the
person in charge or other responsible
representative of the employer.
21
40
(c) It is the duty of all workers to make full
use of safeguards provided for their protection.
It shall be a worker's responsibility to abide by
and perform the following requirements (A) A
worker shall not operate a machine unless guard
or method of guarding is in good condition,
working order, in place, and operative. (B) A
worker shall stop the machine or moving parts and
properly tag-out or lock-out the starting control
before oiling, adjusting, or repairing, except
when such machine is provided with means of
oiling or adjusting that will prevent possibility
of hazardous contact with moving parts. (C) A
worker shall not remove guards or render methods
of guarding inopera- tive except for the purpose
of adjustment, oiling, repair, or the setting up
a new job. (D) Workers shall report to their
supervisor any guard or method of guarding that
is not properly adjusted or not accomplishing its
intended function. (E) Workers shall not use
their hands or any portion of their bodies to
reach between moving parts or to remove jams,
hangups, etc. (Use hook, stick, tong, jig or
other accessory.) (F) Workers shall not work
under objects being supported that could
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