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Strangers in the Land: Urbanization and Immigration

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Immigration & Urbanization Bell Ringer - Explain why immigration is such a problem today. Objective Analyze and explain how American urban life changed between 1875 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Strangers in the Land: Urbanization and Immigration


1
Immigration Urbanization
Bell Ringer - Explain why immigration is such a
problem today. Objective Analyze and explain how
American urban life changed between 1875 and 1914
2
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3
Strangers in the Land Urbanization and
Immigration
  • Q Was the experience of Second Wave immigrants
    significantly different from that of earlier
    immigrants?

4
  • Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on
    the American industrial worker between 1865 and
    1900. Government actions Labor Unions
    Immigration Technology changes
  • Identify and analyze the factors that changed the
    American city in the second half of the
    nineteenth century.
  • Americans have been a highly mobile people.
    Describe and account for the dominant population
    movements between 1820 and 1900.
  • Although the economic growth of the United States
    between 1860 and 1900 has been attributed to a
    governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in
    fact encouraged and sustained by direct
    governmental intervention. Assess the validity
    of this statement.

5
I. Overview
  • Cities source of hope, conflict, adjustment,
    especially for New Immigrants
  • New urban environment created challenges
  • Farmself-sufficient, citybuy everything (food)
    sprawl (unplanned growth, cost center city) mass
    transit? suburbs inadequate housing (tenements?
    crime, disease)
  • City central to US life (Esp. true new
    immigrants)
  • 51 of Americans urban (1920)
  • Source of diversity pluralism (class, race,
    ethnicity)
  • Cities centers of industrial growth
  • Provided capital, workers, consumers
  • Often specialized in 1 product (NYC clothing
    Chicago meat)

6
II. Urban Population Growth
  • A. Internal Migration
  • 1870 10 million Americans in cities 1920 54
    million (550 increase)
  • Biggest factor migration countryside
    immigration. That is where the money was
  • Rural populace declined Low crop prices high
    debts (sharecropping)? Jobs escape isolation
    (blacks Hispanics hopes for rights)
  • Blacks limited to service jobs (esp. women)
  • Hispanics unskilled labor, esp. construction

7
B. Second Wave Immigration
  • 1820-1860 5 million immigrants (95 NW Europe)?
    very little restriction
  • 1890-1914 15 million (SE Europe)
  • Push pop., land redistribution,
    industrialization, religious persecution (esp.
    Russian Jews pogroms)
  • Pull streets paved with gold propaganda
  • Foreign-born native-born of foreign parents
    formed majority in many US cities
  • Many native-born whites (old immigrant heritage)
    resented new immigrants (they were unskilled
    and overcrowded the cities)
  • Old Immigrants were Irish and German

8
Ellis Island
9
Angel Island
10
Inspection room sick people would be
quarantined, some sick were sent back.   Those
who had family went by train, ferry, or foot to
find them. Those who did not, were in for a
surprise. Crooks used scams to offer fake
housing and jobs to get a chance at stealing
their luggage or money.
11
C. The Melting Pot
  • Initial crowding? multi-ethnic urban
    borderlands
  • But, white immigrants move up out (limited
    mobility)
  • Movies, newspapers, magazines, sports, circuses,
    vaudeville, education, consumerism (American
    buying)? mass culture

12
  • Restrictions
  • 1. Asian Exclusion
  • Chinese 1849-1882 250,000 Chinese (RxR
    mining)? organized labor leads charge? govt
    caves (despite promise to China)? 1882 Chinese
    Exclusion Act (10 yr suspension, ineligible
    citizenship)

13
New language?
  • But native language papers, ethnic stores,
    internal social services? pluralism
  • Racism? urban segregation (restrictive
    covenants) ghettos w/few jobs
  • Race riots Atlanta (1906) East St. Louis, IL
    (1917)
  • Hispanics lose land? barrios far from center
  • Nativists failure melting pot? restrict
    immigration
  • Immigrant change America industrial growth,
    citizenship, politics, and culture
  • Became members of labor unions for protection
    from nativism
  • Political leaders who backed them became powerful

14
D. Nativism
  • Who? 1) Labor unions, 2) reformers Immigration
    Restriction League (1894 Harvard grads) literacy
    test weed out potential criminals welfare cases
    (pass 1917)
  • Rationales
  • 1. Anti-Catholicism, Anti-Semitism
  • 2. Anti-Revolution fear of radicalism (esp.
    socialists anarchists) 1886 Haymarket 1892 H.
    Frick attacked? some businessmen join
    anti-immigration
  • Almost all strikes/violence/radical politics led
    by made up of native born
  • 3. Social Darwinism race suicide immigrants
    high birth rate? drown out WASPs

15
2. Quotas
  • Quota Act, 1921 3 total from country in 1910
    census
  • Immigration Act, 1924 2 total from country in
    US based on 1890 census? fewer SE
  • 1907 685,000 from SE
  • 1924 and on approx. 20,000/year
  • Did not affect Canada or Mexico? greater
    immigration (esp. 1910 Mexican Revolution)

16
Cities Expand Change
Urbanization Technology Problems
City offers advantages. Immigrants take advantage of advantages Farmers move because of poor pay What were the advantages Skyscrapers Mass Transit Suburbs City Planners control growth so we do not have another Black Death! Scary c Housing conditions tenements Water and Sanitation Fire, Crime, Conflict
17
1. Housing
  • Jacob Riis (photojournalist, How the Other Half
    Lives) environment dehumanizing, focus social
    services on children
  • Rear house tenements mortality rate 61.97/1,000
    infant morality 204.54/1,000 (29.03/1000
    mortality for single home on a lot)
  • 1901 NYC outlaws dumbbell tenements (poor
    ventilation, no light, terrible fire protection)

18
  • Riis If there is an open space between them, it
    is never more than a slit a foot or so wide, and
    gets to be the receptacle of garbage and filth of
    every kind so that any opening made in these
    walls for purposes of ventilation becomes a
    source of greater danger than if there were
    noneThe sun cannot reach them. They are damp and
    dark, and the tenants, who are always the poorest
    and most crowded, live as in a cage open only
    toward the front.

19
2. Settlement Houses
  • Jane Addams Hull House (Chicago) education,
    health care, public playgrounds/parks
  • Often seen as outsiders (mid/upper class, WASP,
    undermine bosses), but made advances
  • Acceptable avenue for college-educated women
    still in the home but active, outside male
    control? the New Woman
  • Influence over social policy? expand to higher
    levels of govt politics

20
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21
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22
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23
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24
B. Civic Reform
  • Disorder, corruption, poverty, high taxes (costs
    inflated by corruption)? middle/ upper classes
    opposed bosses? run city like a company city
    managers city commissions to create efficient
    government run by experts
  • Little success late 1800s loyalty to boss b/c
    boss helped w/ real problems e.g. built needed
    infrastructure (water, sanitation, housing),
    although at high cost
  • Major issue of Progressives

25
C. Social Reform
  • Traditional belief poor lazy immoral, aid?
    dependence
  • New attitude 1) Sociology urban environment
    capitalism? systemic poverty? govt action to
    solve social problems (later vanguard
    Progressives)
  • 2) Social Gospel apply teachings of Jesus to
    society (spread to other religions)
  • Reformers young, middle class, often female
    (rise college education of women)
  • Tried to help urban newcomers w/ problems
    (housing, poverty) and Americanize them
    (education)

26
C. Social Reform
  • New forms of amusement
  • Amusement Parks
  • Outdoor events Buffalo Bills Wild West Show
  • Vaudeville Precursor to movies
  • Movies The Great Train Robbery
  • Thank goodness - BASEBALL

27
Sherwood Park, Seattle
28
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29
Advertising Vaudeville shows on Market Street in
St. Louis
30
The plan is made
Stupid conductors
Sheriff Go Getem
Conductor shot AHH
Huntn em down!
31
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32
In groups of 4
  • Each person come up with an answer to one of the
    following questions
  • Analyze the impact of any TWO of the following on
    the American industrial worker between 1865 and
    1900. Government actions Labor Unions
    Immigration Technology changes
  • Identify and analyze the factors that changed the
    American city in the second half of the
    nineteenth century.
  • Americans have been a highly mobile people.
    Describe and account for the dominant population
    movements between 1820 and 1900.
  • Although the economic growth of the United States
    between 1860 and 1900 has been attributed to a
    governmental policy of laissez-faire, it was in
    fact encouraged and sustained by direct
    governmental intervention. Assess the validity
    of this statement.
  • Discuss with your group
  • Now lets discuss with the class
  • The test covering this information will be Sept
    23. Please see Wiki For Study Guide. Under
    discussions tab
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