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Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement

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Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement Workshop 7 Questioning Debbie Draper and Julie Fullgrabe Overview of the session Questioning from a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding and Engagement


1
Strategies that Work Teaching for Understanding
and Engagement
Workshop 7 Questioning
Debbie Draper and Julie Fullgrabe
2
Overview of the session
  • Questioning from a teachers perspective
  • Oral language and questioning
  • Questioning models
  • Questions before, during and after reading
  • Activities to try with questioning

3
Why would questioning fit well in these Tfel
domains?
4
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5
Questioning from a teachers perspective
  • How many questions does the average teacher ask
    in a day?
  • What fraction of teaching time is spent asking
    questions?

6
Questioning is an area characterised by a good
deal of instinctive practice.
  • An average teacher asks 400 questions in a day
  • Thats 70,000 a year!
  • One-third of all teaching time is spent asking
    questions
  • Steven HastingsTES 4 July 2003

7
Questioning
  • Why do teachers ask questions?

8
Carmel Crevola- the new friend of NAR
  • She suggests that two-thirds of the school day is
    teacher talk.

9
Listening is receptive language Understanding
the receptive language level of students in the
classroom ensures that communication is
appropriate.
Speaking is expressive/productive language
Receptive language precedes productive
language Listening comprehension precedes reading
comprehension in a spiraling way.
10
From Carmel Crevola
  • Invitational prompts vs interrogation
  • Tweaking questioning
  • Teachers are expert at getting the right answer
    into the air

11
Research on Wait Time
  • In a classroom, the mode time between asking
    questions and requiring an answer is

Less than 1 second.
12
Carmel Crevola suggests..
  • Waiting up to 30 seconds for an answer

13
Wait time
14
Think Time Research Students
  • According to Stahl (1994), when students are
    given three or more seconds of undisturbed think
    time
  • the length and correctness of responses
    increases
  • the frequency of non-answers or I dont know
    decreases
  • more students volunteer appropriate answers and
  • the scores of students on academic achievement
    tests tend to increase.

15
Think Research Teachers
  • Questioning strategies tend to become more varied
    and flexible.
  • The quantity of questions decreases but the
    quality and variety of questions increases.
  • More questions are asked that require more
    complex processing and higher-order thinking.

16
Carmel Crevolas work on Oral Language. The
questions you ask (and dont answer yourself)
make all the difference
17
Levels of questions- 4 teaching foci from
Carmel Crevola
Expressing ideas / thoughts and opinions Listening and responding self, others Questioning/challenging and clarifying their own thoughts before others Justifying an opinion
Level 1 recount (sensory- see hear touch taste smell) Self listening to themselves Model how to ask questions of yourself and others expressing ideas and opinions
Level 2 emotional connection (moving into thinking, wondering) Responding to their own thoughts and ideas expressed Not a time for higher order thinking questions give reasons for opinions and actions
Level 3 extension and reflection (comfortable to be challenged) Others Listen to the prompts of the teacher evaluate information, to judge the value of what they hear, do and read draw inferences and make deductions
Responding to prompts of teachers to develop the criteria for judging their own thoughts and those of others to use precise language to articulate thinking
Listening to peers make judgements and decisions informed by reason and evidence
Responding to peers
18
Carmel Crevola
  • Powerful question a teacher should ask what do
    you think?
  • What is in the students head ?
  • Listening and responding and expressing ideas .
    Don't repeat what kids say, hold back own opinion
    , dont drown the kids with what you know, not
    sure about that, help me understand

19
Expressing ideas / thoughts and opinions
  • Their ideas
  • Their opinions
  • Opportunities to develop complex thoughts
  • Levels of expression
  • Level 1 Recount (sensory- see hear touch taste
    smell)
  • Level 2 Emotional connection (moving into
    thinking, wondering)
  • Level 3 Extension and reflection (comfortable to
    be challenged)

20
Listening and responding self, others
  • Holding their thoughts of themselves and others
  • Did you hear what he said?
  • Self
  • listening to themselves
  • Responding to their own and others thoughts and
    ideas expressed
  • Listen to the prompts of the teacher
  • Responding to prompts of teachers
  • Listening to peers
  • Responding to peers

21
Questioning/challenging and clarifying their own
thoughts before others
  • Model how to ask questions of yourself and others
  • Not a time for higher order thinking questions
  • We want to assist students to ask questions of
    their own minds. pupils need to be able to
    evaluate information, to judge the value of what
    they hear, do and read to develop the criteria
    for judging their own thoughts and those of
    others
  • Pupils need to be able to evaluate information,
    judge the value of what they hear do and see to
    develop the criteria for judging their own
    thoughts and the thoughts of others

22
Justifying an opinion
  • Too often we jump to why questions before the
    student has the confidence in expressing ideas
    and opinions and before they know how to ask
    questions of themselves and others
  • These skills assist students give reasons for
    opinions and actions, to draw inferences and make
    deductions, to use precise language to articulate
    thinking and to make judgments and decisions
    informed by reason and evidence

23
Practise the technique in a group.
  • Have a conversation in a group of 4.
  • Assign a leader of the group. This person is
    directing the conversation, not contributing.
  • Use the prompts for instructional language sheet
    to direct the conversation.
  • Take turns if possible
  • Feedback on how this may have been different for
    you.

24
Question to discuss
  • Should smoking be banned and an offence in
    Rundle Mall?

25
What is questioning when thinking about reading
strategies?
  • Questioning is when the student poses questions
    before, during and after a text.
  • Questioning plays an important part in the
    process of self-monitoring as students ask
    themselves Does this make sense?.
  • Encouraging students to be become aware of and
    value the questions they ask naturally is a way
    of helping them to engage with the text.
  • Sheena Cameron

26
How does questioning support reading
comprehension?
  • Asking and answering questions helps to engage
    the reader with the text.
  • It provides a purpose for reading and gives the
    student a reason to clarify meaning.
  • This connection helps to deepen comprehension.
  • Sheena Cameron

27
Questioning in the Australian Curriculum
235 hits for search of the term
question Equally spread across all 4 areas of
the curriculum. Very important part of being a
successful learner at school.
28
Research tells us....
  • Student generated questions are much more
    effective in raising comprehension achievement
    than teacher questions
  • ...so... how do we teach students to ask relevant
    questions?

29
  • Good thinkers ask questions before, during and
    after reading
  • (or listening)

30
Questioning Models
  • What questioning models do you know and use
    explicitly?

31
Blooms Taxonomy
32
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Question Matrix
(C. Weiderhold Co-operative Learning and
Critical Thinking in Langrehr, Better Questions,
better Thinking Book 2, Longman Cheshire,
Melbourne, 1993)
34
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35
Questions can be
  • Thick or thin

36
Questions can be
  • Open or closed

37
Open and closed questions
38
Questioning models....
  • ...can be useful as a scaffold for question
    generation for teachers and students.
  • ...are not necessarily completely different or
    distinct from each other

39
Your task.
  • Use the cards in the clear envelopes to sort out
    the various questioning models that are in the
    packs.

40
What kinds of questions are being asked of
students?
  • Once they have been sorted, use one of the
    commercially produced comprehension question
    cards and determine what type of questions are
    being asked.
  • Are there the questions about content or the
    structure of the texts?
  • Label them with sticky notes.
  • Discuss and share back

41
How do I teach this strategy?
42
Why?
43
Establish the purpose
  • What is a question?
  • Why do we ask questions?
  • When do we ask questions?

44
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45
  • Modelled
  • Model by think aloud ask questions whilst you
    are reading a text aloud.
  • Talk to students about the different types of
    questions
  • 5W and H
  • open and closed
  • thick and thin
  • here, head and hidden
  • The model you use will depend on your context.

46
  • Read a suitable text to students.
  • Think aloud and jot down your questions on
    post-it notes.
  • As you generate questions ask students to
    contribute their own ideas.
  • Talk to students about the types of questions
    and classify them accordingly
  • Talk to students about the purpose of the
    questions and what sorts of questions are
    suitable for the purpose e.g. Questions for
    fiction texts may be different to questions
    suitable for non-fiction texts.

47
Guided
  • Provide opportunities to students to ask
    questions after shared and guided reading.
    Provide feedback and encourage students to ask a
    range of questions.
  • Continue to model as necessary.

48
Independent
  • Provide opportunities to ask and answer questions
    in all learning areas.
  • Provide scaffolds as required.

49
Independent Strategies- these are explained
further in Module 13
  • Reciprocal Teaching/ Reciprocal Reading
  • After explicit teaching of all strategies,
    students are taught different roles for team work
    e.g.

50
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52
Read the handout how could you use or adapt
these questions for your context? How would you
model, guide and set independent tasks?
53
Using balls to pass around question starters
54
Take a Question Strategy Folder
Read the card and discuss. Is this a useful
model for your context? Why or why not? Swap
folders with another group and repeat.
55
Consider...
  • How can you use the Gradual Release of
    Responsibility to teach the Questioning Strategy
    to staff or students?

Use the handouts to support your thinking
56
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62
Ideas to try to create questioning opportunities
  • Strategies that work and
  • Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies
  • have many ideas that can support explicit
    teaching of questioning.

63
Questioning activities to try
  • Modelling questions about your own reading
  • Double entry diary
  • Wondering tasks-the more we learn, the more we
    wonder,
  • Thick and thin questions
  • Inferential questions using poetry

64
Share your questions about your own reading
Strategies that work p110
  • Share an appropriate adult book with the class
    and highlight what is not understood by you or
    what raised questions (perhaps not read it but
    talk about it)
  • As with monitoring understanding, you need to
    clue yourself into the questions you have.

Robbie commented that he never knew a teacher
could have so many questions. If she can have
questions, so can I Strategies that work, pg 111
65
Share your questions about your own reading
  • Were your questions
  • Before
  • During
  • After
  • Reading?
  • Discuss any text that has raised questions for
  • you- were there answers or no answers?

66
Double entry diary for questions (also used for
monitoring understanding and making connections)
Useful for non-fiction reading Also useful for
journal style reading of fiction
From Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies
p73
67
  • Question prompts include
  • Im wondering
  • What.
  • How many.
  • Where.

68
Not everything will be answered
  • It is important for readers to know that they
    will not always find the answers to their
    questions.

69
The more we learn, the more we wonder Strategies
that work p111
  • Use this technique to help students go deeper
    with their reading.
  • The questions they raise may not be in the text
    so the answers may be found through author and
    you or on your own
  • (QAR- question-answer relationships)
  • Non-fiction research strategy

70
Introductory clip to raise questions about insects
71
The more we learn, the more we wonder
  • I learned

I wonder
72
The more we learn, the more we wonder
  • Using wondering for creative thinking.
  • The students record facts they have learned.
  • They then frame them as a question.
  • Eg Spiders have 8 legs.
  • I wonder why spiders have 8 legs?
  • So they can run after their prey??
  • So they can balance??
  • Its better than having 100 legs for shoes??

73
The more we learn, the more we wonder
  • Using wondering for thinking that can lead to
    research or independent tasks.
  • Open ended wondering in an I wonder book
  • Why do the leaves fall off the trees?
  • Why doesnt the moon fall out of the sky?
  • Why was money invented and who invented it?
  • Class could brainstorm regularly and answers
    sought through various means, eg electronic
    whiteboard, guest experts etc

74
Thick and Thin questions- Strategies that Work p
115
Thick- open ended- Why? Explain..
  • Support readers to understand the difference
    between a closed question and an open ended
    question.

Can use large sticky notes for thick questions
Longer Detailed Conceptual Global
Short Yes / no Factual Clarifying
Can use small sticky notes for thin questions
  • Also From
  • Teaching Reading
  • Comprehension
  • Strategies p74

Thin- straight from text, literal What? How
many?
75
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78
Thick and Thin Questions about the 3 Bears
  • What do you think the Bears did on their walk?
  • Thick
  • Who where the main characters in the story?
  • Thin
  • How would you feel if someone broke into your
    house?
  • Thick
  • Do you thick Goldilocks would try this again?
  • Thick
  • When did this story take place?
  • Thin
  • Why do you think Goldilocks ran from the house?
  • Thick

79
Inferential questions- guided
conversations
  • Hope is the thing... Hope is the thing with
    feathers That perches in the soul, And sings
    the tune without the words, And never stops at
    all, And sweetest in the gale is heard And
    sore must be the storm That could abash the
    little bird That kept so many warm. I've heard
    it in the chillest land, And on the strangest
    sea Yet, never, in extremity, It asked a crumb
    of me. - Emily Dickinson


Extra material on handout
80
Visual representation of poem
81
  • Questions can range from literal to inferential.
  • From not understanding what is stated
    (vocabulary) to words that suggest images.
  • Can be from teacher or students

82
All of these aspects of curriculum are
questioning starting points
  • Eg comparing the 2 forms- why did the visual
    authors choose the music they did?
  • Why did they choose the images?
  • Examining the language choices by Emily Dickinson
  • Making connections to the hope needed by the
    Japanese people after last years tsunami.

83
English Curriculum links
Examining literature- literature strand Examining literature- literature strand Examining literature- literature strand Examining literature- literature strand Examining literature- literature strand
Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7
Discuss the nature and effects of some language devices used to enhance meaning and shape the readers reaction, including rhythm and onomatopoeia in poetry and prose Understand, interpret and experiment with a range of devices and deliberate word play in poetry and other literary texts, for example nonsense words, spoonerisms, neologisms and puns Understand, interpret and experiment with sound devices and imagery, including simile, metaphor and personification in narratives, shape poetry, songs, anthems and odes (ACELT1611 Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617)
84
English Curriculum links
Consider the differences between visual and
written form
Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context Literacy strand- texts in context
R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Identify some familiar texts and the contexts in which they are used Respond to texts drawn from a range of cultures and experiences Discuss different texts on a similar topic, identifying similarities and differences between the texts Identify the point of view in a text and suggest alternative points of view Identify and explain language features of texts from earlier times and compare with the vocabulary, images, layout and content of contemporary texts Show how ideas and points of view in texts are conveyed through the use of vocabulary, including idiomatic expressions, objective and subjective language, and that these can change according to context Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches Analyse and explain the effect of technological innovations on texts, particularly media texts
85
Where to find poems online
  • http//www.poetry-online.org/
  • http//www.poetryarchive.org/poetryarchive/home.do

http//www.poemhunter.com/
86
To finish with a rhetorical question Do dogs
chase cats?
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