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## Maps and Map Skills

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### Maps and Map Skills True-Compass Direction Parallels and meridians appear as straight lines. By following these lines you will be following the cardinal directions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Maps and Map Skills

1
Maps and Map Skills
2
Kinds of Maps
• General Reference Maps
• Provide the reader general information about an
area or place.
• Thematic Maps
• Provide more specific information about an area
or place than general reference maps.

3
General reference
4
Thematic Map
5
• Maps are important tools for geographers.
• A globe is a better model of Earth than a map,
but a globe has disadvantages that a map does not
have

6
Reading Maps
• Map Parts
• Title
• Legend or Key
• Grid System
• Direction
• Scale
• Map orientation This has to do with direction

7
Compass
Title
Scale
8
Grid System
9
Large Scale and Small Scale Maps
• A large-scale map shows a small area such as a
neighborhood street in great detail.
• A small-scale map shows a large area such as a
country or a continent in comparatively lesser
detail.
• Small Area Large Scale
• Large Area Small Scale

10
Large Scale
Small Scale
Small Area Large Scale Large Area Small Scale
11
Compass
• Is used to orient a map toward north

12
Latitude and Longitude
13
• Latitude
• The set of lines crossing the Earths surface
horizontally, Circling east and west.
• Each line of latitude is always an equal distance
from the next.
• They are also known as parallels. All latitude
lines are parallel to each other.

14
• Longitude
• A set of lines that run vertically along Earths
surface from the North Pole to the South Pole

15
Global Grid
• When lines of latitude and longitude cross a grid
is formed. The grid is used to located certain
places on earth

16
• Each line has an Identifying number called
degrees, or parts of a circle. (410 )
• Degrees, can be further divided into minutes, or
parts of a degree. There are 60 minutes, or parts
of a degree. (10)
• Minutes can be divided into even smaller parts
called seconds. There are 60 seconds in each
minute. (10)
• 4101010

410
Degrees
10
Minutes
Seconds
10
17
Direction
• The other part needed to locate places on Earth
is direction.
• Cardinal directions are north, south, east, and
west.
• Intermediate directions are northeast,
southeast, northwest, and southwest. They are
located midway between the cardinal directions.

18
Using Latitude Longitude to Locate Places
• Lines of latitude are numbered based on how far
north or south they are from an imaginary line
called the equator
• This line circles the Earth exactly halfway
between the NP and SP.
• The equators latitude degree is 00. There are
90 degrees between it and each of the poles.
• Area between the equator and NP is north
latitude (220N)
• Area between the equator and SP is south
latitude (220S)

19
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20
• Lines of longitude are numbered based on how far
east or west they are from another imaginary
line.
• This line is called the Prime Meridian.
• Prime Meridians longitude degree is 00.
• There are 1800 of longitude east of the PM and
1800 degrees west of it.
• Area east of the PM is known as east longitude.
(1200E)
• Area west of the PM is known as west longitude.
(1200W)

21
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22
Prime Meridian International Date Line
• The prime meridian does not circle the globe as
the equator does.
• The PM runs from the NP to SP
• At 1800 on the other side of the globe the
meridian is called the international date line.

23
Hemispheres
• The earth can be divided into halves. Each of
these halves is called a hemisphere.

24
Hemispheres at the Equator
• The ½ north of the equator is called the northern
hemisphere
• The ½ south of the equator is called the southern
hemisphere

25
Hemispheres at Prime Meridian and International
Date Line
• Earth can also be divided into hemispheres at the
circle formed by the prime meridian and
International date line
• The ½ east of the prime meridian is called the
eastern hemisphere.
• The ½ west of the prime meridian is called the
western hemisphere.

26
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27
Making Maps
• Gathering Information
• Problem of Distortion
• Map Properties
• Map Projections
• Cartographers (Mapmakers)

28
Gathering Information
• Surveying
• Aerial Photography (Air Planes)
• Remote Sensing (Satellites)

29
Problem of Distortion
• Features are stretched to put Earths information
onto a map.

30
Map Properties
• No map can have all of the properties at once
• Equal areas
• Conformality
• Consistent Scale
• True-Compass Directions

31
• Equal areas
• Places shown have the same proportions as they do
on Earth.
• Example Greenland 1/8 land area of S. America

32
• Conformality
• Having correct shapes.
• Shows true shapes.
• Can show larger areas as closely as possible to
their true shapes

33
• Consistent Scale
• Uses the same scale for all parts of the map.
• Shows the true distances between places on Earth
• In most Cases maps showing large areas cannot be
consistent-scale maps.

34
• True-Compass Direction
• Parallels and meridians appear as straight lines.
• By following these lines you will be following
the cardinal directions of N,S,E,W.
• Straight line between two points on map
determines exact directions and set course.
(Navigators use these maps)

35
Map Projections
• Cylindrical Projections
• Conic Projections
• Flat Plane Projections
• Gnomonic Projection
• Robinson Projection
• Goodes Interrupted

36
Cylindrical Projections
• Straight lines of latitude and Longitude are
Perpendicular
• Little distortion near the equator
• Best Known
• Mercator
• conformal and true-compass direction map, but
distortion near poles makes size of land and
water areas inaccurate. Land shapes correct
areas distorted valuable to navigator

37
Cylindrical
38
Conic Projections
• Cannot map the entire world.
• Used for middle latitudes between 300 and 600
north latitudes, and between 300 and 600 south
latitudes
• Best Known
• Lambert Conformal Conical
• Important because it shows the true shapes of
areas.
• Albers Equal Area Conical
• Consistent scale and is used when the size of
land and water areas must be accurate. (military
and engineering maps)

39
Conic
40
Albers Equal Area Conical
41
Flat Plane Projections
• Used to map areas of the North and South poles.
Areas near that point show little distortion
• Farther away from the point the greater the
distortion of area, shape, and scale.
• Shows no more that ½ of the Earth at one time.
• Also called Azimuthal Projection

42
Flat Plane Map
43
Gnomonic Projection
• Circles of latitude lines and straight longitude
lines form a wheel-like pattern.
• Especially useful to navigators because the
shortest distance between two places on the map
is found by drawing a straight line between them
this line is actually a part of a great circle
any imaginary line that circles Earth and divides
it into 2 equal parts
• Navigators use these along with true-compass
direction maps to make their travel plans.

44
Gnomonic Projection
45
Robinson Projection
• Equal areas shown with high degree of accuracy
• Conformal except near edges of map where
distortion increases
• Valuable for showing entire world.

46
Goodes Interrupted
• High degree of accuracy in area and shape
• Distorted direction and scale.
• Valuable for showing Land masses.

47
Points to Remember
• The projection one chooses to use depends on the
information one wants.
• All Maps are projections they transfer Earths
features from the globe to a flat surface (map).
• When large areas of Earth are mapped, distortion
is more serious.
• When mapping small areas like cities, distortion
is not usually evident.
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