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Co-Teaching

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Title: Co-Teaching


1
Co-Teaching
  • Is what we are doing good for the both of us?
  • Is what we are doing good for all of our students?

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2
Every class has a variety of learners
  • Every teacher is faced with the challenge of
    meeting the needs of a classroom filled with a
    variety of learners their abilities, learning
    styles, motivation for learning.
  • With a co-teacher, the possibilities of reaching
    all of those students increases exponentially.

3
  • Educators must pull together by sharing their
    work through collaboration too much knowledge
    and too many skills are needed for any single
    professional to keep up with and master all of
    them.
  • Marilyn Friend

4
Four key elements to co-teaching
  1. Two or more professionals working together in a
    classroom.
  2. Instruction occurs with the same physical space,
    which is typically the general education
    classroom
  3. Sharing of teaching responsibilities
  4. Instruction is provided to a heterogeneous group
    of students

5
Lets chat
  • Benefits of co-teaching
  • The research
  • Selection and scheduling issues
  • Barriers and cautions
  • Assessment
  • Student assessment
  • Assessing the co-teacher relationship
  • Change

6
collaboration
inclusion
teaming
team teaching
mainstreaming
job sharing
co-teaching
7
Collaboration
  • Although it is generally preferred that
    co-teaching be
  • collaborative, it might or might not be.
    Collaboration
  • generally refers to how individuals interact, not
    the
  • activity theyre doing.
  • Thus, any activityincluding co-teaching, and
  • problem solving, consultation--may or may not be
  • collaborative.

8
  • Collaboration an ongoing process whereby
    professionals
  • with different expertise voluntarily work
    together to create
  • solutions to problems that are impeding students
    success,
  • as well as to carefully monitor and refine those
    solutions.
  • Collaboration is enhanced by trust, respect,
    openness, and
  • clear communication among the participants.
  • Collaboration is a process rather than a specific
    service
  • delivery model.

  • -
    Knackendoffel

9
Inclusion
  • Although co-teaching is integral to the inclusive
    practices in
  • many schools, it is not a requirement for
    inclusion to occur.
  • Inclusion refers to a broad belief system or
    philosophy
  • embracing the notion that all students should be
    welcomed
  • members of a learning community, that all
    students are part of
  • their classrooms even if their abilities differ.

10
Teaming or Team Teaching
  • The term team teaching is often used to describe
    the situation in which
  • two general education teachers combine classes
    and share instruction. In an
  • elementary school, this might occur when two
    fourth grade teachers decide
  • to open the portable that divides their rooms
    and teach the entire group
  • as one. In a secondary school, this might occur
    when an English teacher and
  • a history teacher combine two classes to present
    an American studies course.
  • Co-teaching is different from this type of team
    teaching in two important ways
  • First, in co-teaching the teacher-student ratio
    is drastically improved. Second,
  • in co-teaching, two significantly different
    orientations toward teaching are
  • blended. Finally, team teaching in the middle
    school literature often refers
  • to a process for planning interdisciplinary
    instruction, but not sharing
  • instructional delivery.

11
Mainstreaming
  • Mainstreaming refers to the practice of educating
    students
  • with special needs in regular classes during
    specific time
  • periods based on their skill. This means regular
    education
  • classes are combined with special education
    classes. Schools
  • that practice mainstreaming believe that special
    needs
  • students who cannot function in a regular
    classroom to a
  • certain extent belong to the special education
  • environment.

12
Job Sharing
  • Job Sharing is an employment arrangement where
    two
  • people are retained on a part-time or reduced
    basis to fulfill
  • the job normally performed by one person.
    Collaboration is
  • implicit in the performance of the job to ensure
    that there is
  • Continuity in the classroom.

13
Co-Teaching
  • Thats our job today define
  • co-teaching as it fits our needs.

14
The Nuts and Bolts of
Co-Teaching
  • Co-teaching is a proactive approach to
    education.
  • Co-teaching pairs general and special
    educators.
  • Co-teaching takes place in heterogeneous,
    integrated settings.
  • Co-teachers are simultaneously present in
    the classroom setting.
  • Co-teachers maintain joint responsibility
    for classroom instruction.
  • Co-teachers work in a coactive and
    coordinated fashion.
  • Co-teachers design instruction to meet the
    needs of all students in the class.

15
  • What do you see when you observe
  • co-teaching in action at Nissitissit?

Nissitissit
16
Building a Culture for Co-Teaching
  • Belief in a collaborative school culture
  • Commitment to inclusive practices
  • Understanding of co-teaching
  • Visible reminders
  • Assigning partners
  • Observing implementation
  • Professional development
  • Problem solving when dilemmas occur
  • Communicating beyond the school
  • Letters to parents

17
Marilyn Friends definition of co-teaching
includes these elements
  • Co-teaching is a service delivery mechanism.
  • Two or more professionals with equivalent
    licensure and employment status are the
    participants in co-teaching.
  • Co-teachers share instructional responsibility
    and accountability for a single group of students
    for whom they both have ownership.
  • Co-teaching occurs primarily in a shared
    classroom or workspace.
  • Co-teachers specific level of participation may
    vary based on their skills and the instructional
    needs of the student group.

18
My characteristics that are strengths for co-teaching that could interfere with co-teaching
Personal traits
General understanding about schools and students
Knowledge/skills related to my primary area of expertise
19
Time to Chat
  • Can the role of each co-teacher be defined at any
    given point in the lesson?
  • Is each role meaningful and does it enhance the
    learning process?
  • Is each teacher well-suited to the role(s) he or
    she is assuming?
  • Are both teachers comfortable with process and
    content?
  • What evidence is there that both teachers engaged
    in co-planning the lesson?
  • What evidence is there that all students are
    being appropriately challenged?

20
  • Our Essential Question
  • What co-teaching models are best matched to our
    needs and those of our students?

21
1 Teach, 1 Observe
  • One instructs, one observes and collects data
  • Roles should not be static
  • Teachers should create systematic method for
    taking down observations

22
1 Teach, 1 Observe
  • Benefits
  • Teacher can receive immediate feedback on his/her
    desired moves
  • Cautions

23
Suggestions for One Teach/One Observe
  • Modeling notetaking/writing instructions on
    board.
  • Taking roll, following up with students who were
    absent in previous days.
  • Collecting homework and scheduling help sessions
    for students who do not have it complete.
  • Asking aloud questions students may feel shy
    about asking or questions needed for
    clarification.
  • Proximity control
  • Setting up materials for stations, labs
  • Providing additional examples of work
  • On-the-spot help for students who struggle during
    work time.
  • Implementing accommodations, assistive tech

24
  • WHEN TO USE
  • In new co-teaching situations
  • When questions arise about students
  • To check student progress
  • To compare target students to others in class
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • Low
  •  
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • Which students initiate conversations in
    cooperative groups?
  • Which students begin/do not being work
    promptly?
  • Is Annes inattentive behavior less, about the
    same, or greater
  • than that of other students in the class?
  • What does James do when he is confused during
    an
  • assignment?
  •  
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • If you use blank NCR form or carbon paper, you
    can make two copies of your data at once--and
    share immediately.

25
Station Teaching
  • Divide and concur
  • Students rotate around stations
  • Teachers offer support to all students

26
Station Teaching
  • Benefits
  • Cautions

27
  • WHEN TO USE
  • When content is complex but not hierarchical
  • In lessons in which part of planned instruction
    is review
  • When several topics comprise instruction
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • Medium
  •  
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • During language arts instruction when one
    station will address comprehension of a
    recently-read piece of literature, one station
    will focus on editing of a writing assignment,
    and one station will consist of an activity
    related to a skill being taught.
  • In social studies to examine the geography,
    economy, and culture of a region or country.
  • In math, to teach a new process while reviewing
    applications of other concepts already presented.
  •  
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • Variations of station teacher, carried out
    across two days, are sometimes more appropriate
    in secondary settings with traditional class
    periods.
  • If students cannot work independently, two
    groups can be formed. If a student teacher is
    available, four groups might be arranged.

28
Parallel Teaching
  • joint planning
  • Split the class into two heterogeneous groups
  • Diversity in both groups

29
Parallel Teaching
  • Benefits
  • Cautions

30
  •  
  • WHEN TO USE
  • When a lower adult-student ratio is needed to
    improve instructional efficiency
  • To foster student participation in discussions
  • For activities such as drill and practice,
    re-teaching, and test review
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • Medium
  •  
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • More students would have a chance to share
    their alternative ending to the story if they are
    split into two groups.
  • If each teacher took a group of students and
    presented environmental issues--one from the
    point of view of business and industry and one
    from the point of view of environmentaliststhe
    class could later have a spiritedly discussion on
    the topic.
  • Student use of the science materials could be
    more closely monitored if the group is divided in
    half.
  •  
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • This approach gives each teacher an active--but
    separate--instructional role in the classroom.
  • Any topic with multiple dimensions can be
    presented using this approach if the groups are
    then brought back together for discussion.
  • Students can be strategically placed in the two
    groups.

31
Alternative Teaching
  • Small group of students receives separate
    instruction
  • Teachers roles should not be static
  • Small group membership and composition should be
    fluid

32
Alternative Teaching
  • Benefits
  • Cautions

33
  • WHEN TO USE
  • In situations where students mastery of
    concepts taught or about to be taught varies
    tremendously
  • When extremely high levels of mastery are
    expected for all students
  • When enrichment is desired
  • When some students are working in a parallel
    curriculum
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • High
  •  
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • The large group completes a practice exercise
    related to the concepts just taught the small
    group receives additional direct instruction
  • The large group checks homework the small
    group is pre-taught vocabulary related to the
    days lesson
  • The large group is working on projects in small
    groups the small group is being assessed. All
    students will be assessed across two days.
  •  
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • For this approach to be successful, the purpose
    for the small group and its membership should
    vary.

34
Teaming
  • Both teachers are responsible for planning and
    share in the instruction of all students

35
Teaming
  • Benefits
  • Cautions

36
Suggestions for Routine Involvement by Sped
Teacher in Team Teaching
  • Taking charge of daily warm up/review, priming
    background knowledge
  • Connecting new content to Big Idea Unit Overview
  • Vocabulary Word Wall/notebook
  • Cooperative Learning Process Specialist
  • Creating/demonstrating models/examples of larger
    assignments or projects
  • Modeling self-talk, self-instruction
  • Directly teach and reinforce study skills

37
  • WHEN TO USE
  • When two heads are better than one or
    experience is comparable
  • During a lesson in which instructional
    conversation is appropriate
  • In co-teaching situations in which the teachers
    have considerable experience and a high sense of
    comfort
  • When a goal of instruction is to demonstrate
    some type of interaction to students
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • High
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • In science, one teacher explains the experiment
    while the other demonstrates using the necessary
    materials.
  • In social studies, the teachers debate U.S.
    foreign policy issues.
  • In language arts or English, the teachers act
    out a scene from a piece of literature.
  • As the steps in a math process are taught, one
    explains while the other does a Think Aloud
    activity.
  • One teacher talks while the other demonstrates
    note-taking on the board or an overhead
    projector.
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • This co-teaching approach is affected more than
    any other by individuals teaching styles.
  • This is the most interpersonally complex
    co-teaching approach.

38
One Teaching, One Assisting
  • one teacher teaches while the other supports in
    instructional process

39
One Teaching, One Assisting
  • Benefits
  • Cautions

40
  • WHEN TO USE
  • When the lesson lends itself to delivery by one
    teacher
  • When one teacher has particular expertise for
    the lesson
  • In new co-teaching situations--to get to know
    each other
  • In lessons stressing a process in which student
    work needs close monitoring
  •  
  • AMOUNT OF PLANNING
  • Low
  • SAMPLE APPLICATIONS
  • This is my absolute favorite lesson to teach.
    Am I wrong to want to teach it myself?
  • How well do the students understand the steps
    to follow in long division?
  • Are all students following as they learn how to
    take notes?
  • Ive never taught geometry or worked with this
    teacher. I need to get a sense of the flow of the
    class.
  •  
  • OTHER COMMENTS
  • This approach is not particularly useful to
    help focus student attention. Instead, it has
    the risk of distracting students during
    large-group instruction.
  • Each teacher should have the opportunity to
    lead instruction and assist if this approach is
    used.

41
Reflection
  • What are the five most important points that have
    been made during the just-completed segment of
    the workshop?
  •  
  • a.
  • b.
  • c.
  • d.
  • e.
  • Based on the information most critical to you,
    what points do you wish to remember to take back
    to school to share with others? 
  • a.
  • b.
  • c.
  • d.
  • e.

What are the questions or concerns you have (for
the workshop group or colleagues at school) you
have at this time?
42
Co-Teaching Benefits
  • Lower teacher student ratio
  • Classroom of diverse learners
  • Teachers can respond effectively to varied needs
    of students
  • Another professional can provide different
    viewpoints and more ideas for instruction
  • Teachers can be motivational for one another
  • Co-teaching can positively affect the general
    educators instructional behavior

43
Barriers/Cautions
  • Lack of administrative support
  • Lack of shared planning time
  • Need for in-service training
  • Personality matches the relationship between
    co-teachers is critical to success
  • Misguided perceptions and/or lack of
    communication
  • Poorly defined roles / unclear expectations
  • Dividing the class based on SPED and non-SPED
    students

44
  • Virtually every treatise on inclusive
    practicesconcludes that inclusions success, in
    large part, relies on collaboration among staff
    members and with parents and others, and that
    failures can typically be traced to shortcomings
    in the collaborative dimension of the services to
    students.
  • Friend, 2000

45
Pet Peeves
  • What are your pet peeves about teaching and
    learning and how might they influence a positive
    co-teaching experience?

46
Guidelines for Co-Teaching
  1. not evaluative
  2. share an understanding of goals
  3. Supportive analyze what might have contributed
    to this outcome
  4. interactions confidential
  5. focus can change to meet the needs of the
    teachers
  6. emphasizes probing questions as opposed to
    directive suggestions
  7. opportunities to engage in planning as well as
    reflection
  8. parity

47
Classroom and Behavior Management Considerations
  • Learning environment
  • Use of space for instruction
  • Noise strategies for keeping noise at an
    acceptable level
  • Organizational routines
  • Procedures for substitute teachers
  • Classroom Norms (rules)
  • Discipline procedures

48
Five Fears
  • Fear of MAKING MISTAKES
  • Fear of LOOKING LIKE A FOOL
  • Fear of HAVING A WEAKNESS EXPOSED
  • Fear of NOT BEING LIKED
  • Fear of FAILURE

Fears spring from beliefs!
49
Honest, Open Communication
  • The lynchpin of a strong culture.
  • It doesnt mean saying just what is on your mind.
  • It means creating the conditions, so others can
    say what they are thinking (straight talk)
  • where people can be listened to, and when
    necessary, disagree agreeably (non-defensive)
  • where administrators and teachers learn to read
    and understand how emotions impact working
    relationships and performance (self-awareness and
    social awareness)
  • Where everyone takes responsibility for the
    mistakes they make, thus improving the chances to
    learn from them.

50
Safe Talk Straight Talk
Hints at the real issue and is often unspecific, non-instructive Accurately saying what needs to be said to whom it needs to be said, at the time it needs to be said
Begins with a goal to not hurt or be hurt Behaviorally specific, goal-focused and compassionate
Focused on avoiding discomfort and/or conflict Sensitively timed, usually in the moment
Rarely proactive and rarely supported by meaningful data Objectively serves the speaker, the listener, the organization
Hints at the real issue and is often unspecific, non-instructive Accurately saying what needs to be said to whom it needs to be said, at the time it needs to be said
51
  • Following are some co-teaching scenarios that
    require straight talk. Keep in mind as you
    consider solutions
  • What is the problem?
  • What is getting in the way of the collaboration?
  • What suggestions do you have for addressing the
    issue?
  • How will you start the conversation?
  • What will you respond?
  • What will you do next?

52
Case Study 1
  • Ben and Letitia are co-teaching in an eighth
    grade social studies class. Letitia is a very
    experienced social studies teacher, has been as
    this particular middle school for awhile, and is
    looked up to by her peers. Ben is a newly
    certified special education teacher, and while
    enthusiastic, is learning a lot this year about
    the entire set of responsibilities expected of a
    special education teacher. They discussed how
    they would work together at the beginning of the
    year and determined how Ben would participate in
    the instructional planning and teaching process.
    But as the year has progressed and gotten
    progressively busier, Letitia has asked Ben to be
    a "helper" of particular students, and to do many
    clerical tasks. How do they change this
    situation, which neither is particularly happy
    with, but seems to have settled into a routine?

53
Worksheet
  • Here are the issues
  • Here is what I think should be done

54
Case Study 2
  • Margaret and Lauren have been co-teaching in a
    high school English class for one year. Margaret
    (the general education teacher) has been teaching
    three years and Lauren (the special education
    teacher) about the same, but only one year in the
    same building as Margaret. They have never
    actually designated a time to plan because this
    one co-taught class is the only time that their
    schedules overlap. Therefore, while there are
    substantially different student needs, Lauren
    follows Margaret's lead in what she had planned
    for the day. Little differentiated instruction is
    occurring. Therefore, while they have certainly
    found that two people are better than one for
    getting around to students, these teachers have
    not fully utilized the different expertise that
    they possess.

55
Worksheet
  • Here are the issues
  • Here is what I think should be done

56
Case Study 3
  • Renee and Nicole have been very good friends ever
    since they started at teaching five years ago.
    They have been co-teaching together in Renee's
    math class since they came. They love this
    arrangement and look forward to their time
    together. However, the positive relationship
    between the teachers is the primary focus of the
    co-teaching program. They enjoy units that
    they've created together, as well as the
    strategies for implementing them. The problem
    that has arisen is that the principal would like
    to see Nicole co-teaching in other classrooms
    where significant student needs have appeared.
    Nicole is resisting doing this, because she
    doesn't want to change her comfortable and
    enjoyable teaching situation. She is one of the
    special education teachers in her building.

57
Worksheet
  • Here are the issues
  • Here is what I think should be done

58
Case Study 4
  • Marcus and Toby are co-teaching in a 9th grade
    English class. Marcus has taught in the English
    department at this high-school for 25 years. Toby
    has taught Special Education (primarily in
    Learning Centers) for 15 years, the last 10 in
    this high-school. There is and has been
    resistance from teachers in the English
    department to participate in this school-wide
    effort to provide sections of co-taught classes
    in all the core areas. Marcus and Toby have been
    reluctant partners for half the school year and
    are making a case to their respective department
    heads to pull students with IEPs out of the
    section and teach them in a separate section in
    the Learning Center. Little effort has gone into
    co-planning and coordinating instruction between
    the two teachers. Toby has taken a "hands off"
    approach because she perceives Marcus to be
    unwilling to change Marcus feels he knows how to
    teach English well, and that some students just
    shouldn't be in general education classes if they
    do not put forth the "effort".

59
Worksheet
  • Here are the issues
  • Here is what I think should be done

60
Case Study 5
  • Ellen is a middle school teacher in an urban
    school district in a school with many "at risk"
    students. She has been there for two years. Alden
    in a new special education teacher in the
    district with an emergency certificate in
    teaching. She has started a Special Education
    teacher education program at a local university,
    but can only take one class each semester.
    Learning "on-the-job" describes her situation
    aptly. Ellen and Alden are co-teaching during the
    language arts block. While there are two teachers
    in the classroom, Ellen often feels that Alden is
    as needy as her students. She also feels that she
    is barely above water herself in learning the
    curriculum and addressing the needs of the
    students. Alden feels the same. How can these two
    teachers turn this novice learning experience
    into one that works for students and assists them
    (the teachers) in learning the instructional
    skills that they obviously do not have yet and
    need to be successful with many students "at
    risk" or with special needs?

61
Worksheet
  • Here are the issues
  • Here is what I think should be done

62
Finding Time for Collaboration
  •  Most professionals express concern about the
    time needed to form collaborative working
    relationships with their colleagues, particularly
    for activities such as co-teaching. They also
    worry about setting realistic expectations
    regarding time for collaboration. Although there
    is no secret to enable you to make more minutes
    in the day, there are some ways professionals can
    make the most of the time they do have available.

63
  • 1. Have two classes team to release one teacher
    (e.g., two English teachers, a social studies
    teacher and an English teacher, a math teacher
    and a science teacher).
  • 2. Use other adults to help cover
    classes--including principals, assistant
    principals, counselors, social workers,
    volunteers, paraprofessionals, psychologists, and
    supervisors. Of course, be sure to follow local
    policies on who can supervise groups of students.
  • 3. Find funds for substitute teachers--some
    sources include grants from your state or local
    foundations, parent-teacher organizations, and
    disability advocacy groups.
  • 4. Find volunteer substitutes--retired
    teachers, members of social or civic
    organizations, teacher trainees from local
    universities
  • 5. Use instructionally relevant videotapes or
    other programs supervised by part of the staff to
    release the other part of the staff for planning.

64
  • 6. When school-based staff development sessions
    are scheduled, arrange for them to begin late or
    conclude early with the saved time being used to
    collaboration.
  • 7. Experiment with a late arrival or early
    dismissal day. This time can occur once per week,
    once per month, or once per grading period.
    Typically, the school day is lengthened and the
    additional minutes are banked to provide the
    release. The time thus created must be used in
    working with colleagues. It is not additional
    individual preparation time nor is it time to be
    spent on large-group, formal meetings.
  • 8. Stay late after school once per month, but
    make it enjoyable by bringing snacks, flowers,
    music, or other pleasant atmosphere items. If
    you bring walking shoes, you can accomplish both
    exercise and collaboration!
  • 9. Treat collaboration as the equivalent of
    school committee responsibilities, especially if
    you are operating a pilot program. Time that
    others in school spend in committee meetings is
    spent working collaboratively.
  • 10.Divide labor for instruction to save time.
    That is, have each teacher take the lead for
    preparing materials for different lessons, making
    enough copies for all involved.
  • 11. Reduce other work to have time to meet--for
    example, have students correct each others work
    or create self-correcting materials.
  • 12. For special educators, reserve time in the
    daily schedule that is not obligated to specific
    responsibilities. Use this time flexibly with
    lunch, planning, and other time to meet with
    teachers.

65
Reflection
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