Immigrants in higher education. Factors determining study choices and success for first year immigrant students - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Immigrants in higher education. Factors determining study choices and success for first year immigrant students

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Immigrants in higher education. Factors determining study choices and success for first year immigrant students Promoters M. Lacante, R. Van Esbroeck, W. Lens, M. De ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Immigrants in higher education. Factors determining study choices and success for first year immigrant students


1
Immigrants in higher education. Factors
determining study choices and success for first
year immigrant students
  • Promoters
  • M. Lacante, R. Van Esbroeck, W. Lens, M. De
    Metsenaere
  • researchers
  • M. Almaci, M. De Schryver

2
Research purposes (1)
  • Problem transfer from secondary to higher
    education and success rate of immigrant students
    in H.E. is problematic
  • Tinto model (1993)
  • Social and family background (SES,)
  • Personal characteristics skills and potential
    (cognitive, motivational, affective variables)
  • Earlier schooling
  • Process of choice
  • Academic and social integration

3
Research purposes (2)
  • Participation of immigants in HE
  • Educational career in SE and HE of immigrants
  • Assess socio-economic profile of immigrants
  • Personality characteristics and background
    factors of immigrants in HE
  • Career choice process and motivation in final
    year SE
  • Process of integration in HE
  • Assess presence of risk factors
  • Profile of academic success and failure in HE

4
Research methodology identification of
immigrants
  • Based on
  • Nationality
  • Place of birth
  • Family name
  • Secondary education in Belgium
  • Efficient in the case of non-European immigrants
    (error margin of 14)

5
Research methodology Analysis of existing
data banks
  • Loso-database longitudinal research - started in
    1989
  • Drop out-database 1999-2000
  • SOHO-database career choice development profiles
    in SE (2003-2004)

6
Research methodology New research (2004-2005)
(1)
  • 4 universities 3 institutions of HE
    (professional colleges)
  • Extra group of students from SOHO-project

Etnicity SOHO New research Total
Indigenous 1.019 / 1.019
Immigrant-neighbouring countries 124 95 219
Immigrant-European countries 33 166 199
TMA immigrant 46 322 368
rest 26 162 188
7
Research methodology New research
(2004-2005) (2)
  • 974 immigrant students 5.8 of intake
  • Proportion varies from one institution to
    another
  • proportion of immigrants higher in professional
    colleges (7.2 - 12.3)
  • proportion at universities between 3.3 and 14
  • Association Brussels has highest number of
    immigrant
  • VUB 14 / EHB 12.3.
  • ethnic composition varies from one institution
    to another
  • proportion of TMA-students
  • EHB 55.2 and VUB 55.5
  • other professional colleges 51.8 - 56.1
  • other universities 18.3 - 36.4

8
Results (1)
First year students HE ethnicity by SES
9
Results (2) Study choice
  • TMA-students opt more to go to university
  • Preference for Economics, law, psychology

10
Results (3) Academic success
  • average success rate one quarter of immigrant
    students against one half of indigenous students
  • TMA-students 19.4 success rate

11
Low success rate is resulting from
  • Combination of factors
  • Family and background (SES, )
  • Skills and potential
  • Process of choice
  • Academic and social integration

12
Results (4) Background factors
  • SES and ethnic identity
  • TMA students - low SES - high unemployment rate
    (SE 76,4 fathers unemployed)
  • SES and objective ethnicity - both predictive
    of educational results - interchangeable
  • Within immigrant group SES not related to
    educational results
  • Within indigenous group SES correlates with
    educ. results

13
Results (5) Background factors
  • Study success by ethnicity and SES

14
Results (6) Skills and potential
  • Type secundary education and school career are
    significant predictors of HE results

15
Results (7) Skills and potential
Delayed school career 54.9 of immigrant
students entered HE at the usual time ? 79 of
indigenous students
16
Results (8) Skills and potential
  • Cognitive skills
  • Cognitive tests beginning SE TMA-students scored
    lower on
  • Verbal
  • Numerical
  • Spatial
  • Language (HE)
  • Dutch as first language 36 success rate
  • another first language 22 success rate

17
Results (9) Skills and potential
  • Learning skills and attitudes
  • Start SE
  • No difference in motivation or interest in
    learning tasks
  • Less effort for learning
  • Less positive attitude to homework
  • HE
  • Underestimate importance of effort
  • Spend less time on studies
  • Attend classes less
  • Prepared to undertake self-assessment
  • Lack of appropriate test strategies

18
Recommendations (1)
  • Language
  • First language development often at lower level
    (cf. limited economic and cultural capital)
  • Priority attention
  • Standards at every level of education
  • Special projectsTandem project remedial
    language courses (ATHOS)
  • credits
  • Cognitive skills
  • Flexible learning paths in SE and HE

19
Recommendations (2)
  • Learning skills and attitudes
  • To improve attitudes to homework and effort
  • Different educational and organisational approach
    in HE
  • Information and training in current test
    strategies

20
Results Process of choice
  • Unique importance
  • TMA-students
  • Gather less information
  • Fewer activities to support their choice
  • More doubts in environment
  • Positive view of own SE results
  • Reject advice of others
  • Reasons for choice more material and extrincic
  • Less satisfied with choices - more doubts less
    identifciation with chosen option

21
Recommendations Process of choice (1)
  • Raising awareness of study choices in third grade
  • Broad exploration of study and career options
  • Realistic assessment of students own profile
  • Creation of a study choice file

22
Recommendations Process of choice (2)
  • Importance of role models
  • Use a buddy system
  • HE students
  • Involvement of parents and social environment
  • Recognise importance of reality testing
  • Accept professional support
  • Learn about HE system
  • Role of civil society (parents evenings)

23
Results Academic and social integration
  • No significant differences regarding well-being
    and relations with teaching staff.
  • TMA students identified more strongly with own
    ethnic background
  • Positive relationship with other groups
  • Subjective ethnic identity and study success
  • Belgians 35
  • TMA 21

24
Recommendations Academic and social
integration
  • Offere extra curricular career choice activities
  • Strenghtening cross cultural group activities
  • SE within class activities
  • HE BRUTUS project

25
General conclusion
  • A large number of mutually intertwined factors
    account for lower success rate
  • Static factors (social background) are related
    to remediable factors (skills, attitudes, process
    of choice)
  • Interventions may bring about changes

26
Concluding comments
  • TMA-students are
  • Ambitious
  • they aim high
  • stay longer in HE
  • are prepared to continue
  • Persistent
  • Remain longer in SE and HO
  • Intend to continue the chosen HE educational
    program even after failure
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