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Title: Models of Work Motivation


1
Models of Work Motivation
  • Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Ph.D.
  • Middle Tennessee State University

2
Elements of Motivation
  • What energizes human behavior (energetic forces),
  • What directs or channels such behavior (goal
    orientation), and
  • How this behavior is maintained or sustained (a
    systems orientation).

3
The Content Theories of Motivation
  • Focus on What motivates people
  • Focus on Factors
  • Identification of important internal elements
  • Elements my be prioritized within the individual

4
The Process Theories of Motivation
  • Focus on How people are motivated
  • Focus on the Psychological Process
  • Function of the individuals decision systems

5
Early Psychological Approaches
  • Hedonism
  • Seek pleasure and avoid pain
  • Bentham (1789) coined the term Hedonic calculus
  • The process by which people calculate the pros
    and cons of various acts of behavior

6
Instinct Theories
  • Instinct and Unconscious Motivation
  • McDougall (1908) defined an instinct as an
    inherited or innate psychological disposition
  • Automatic predispositions
  • Freud (1915) argued that individuals are not
    always aware of all their desires and needs.
  • Dreams, slips of the tongue, the hedonistic
    principle appears at an unconscious level
  • List of instincts continued to grow

7
The Content Theories of Motivation
  • 1. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • 2. Alderfers Existence, Related, Growth (ERG)
    Theory
  • 3. Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • 4. McClellands Learned Needs Theory

8
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self Actualization
  • Self-Esteem
  • Social, Belongingness
  • Safety and Security
  • Physiological

9
(No Transcript)
10
Your Needs
  • Same Order
  • Same Importance
  • Same Shape, Over Time

11
Two Categories
  • Growth Needs Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization
  • Deficiency Needs Physiological, Safety and
    Security, and Belongingness

12
Evaluation Porter (1961)
  • Upper-level managers have more challenging and
    autonomous jobs and are in a better position to
    pursue their growth needs than their lower level
    counterparts.

13
Wahba Bridwell (1976)
  • The theory is widely accepted, but there is
    little research evidence to support it.
  • 5 Distinct categories?
  • Hierarchy?
  • Deficiency vs. Growth?
  • Unsatisfied need is important?
  • Satisfaction of lower-level needs leads to the
    importance of next higher-level needs?

14
Tang West (1997)
  • The Importance of Human Needs During Peacetime,
    Retrospective Peacetime, and the Persian Gulf War
  • International Journal of Stress Management, 4
    (1), 47-62.

15
Main Purpose
  • The effect of War on human needs
  • The importance of needs
  • The satisfaction of needs
  • Peacetime vs. Wartime
  • The US vs. Middle East
  • January of 1990 vs. January of 1991
  • Peacetime in 1993-1994 (Study 1)

16
Design of This Study
  • The US Middle East
  • Peace War Peace War
  • I S I S I S I
    S
  • I Importance S Satisfaction

17
Study 1
  • Participants
  • 137 Employees in the US in 1993 and 1994
  • Age 34.48
  • Education 15.37
  • Income US23,900
  • Organizational Tenure 71.0 months

18
Measures of Needs
  • Porters (1961) Need Satisfaction Questionnaire
  • NSQ does not have items related to physiological
    needs and safety needs.
  • 13-item, 5-point Likert Scale

19
The Need Scale
  • The availability of Water,
  • Food, and
  • Basic Physiological Needs
  • The security and safety of My Own Life,
  • My Family, and
  • My Country

20
The Need Scale
  • Develop close friendships,
  • Give help and offer support to other people
  • Feeling of self-esteem,
  • The prestige and regard received from others
  • The feeling of worthwhile accomplishment,
  • Self-Fulfillment,
  • Personal growth and development.

21
Factors of Needs During Peacetime
  • The Importance of Needs
  • Principal Components Factor Analysis
  • Eigenvalues greater than 1
  • Varimax Rotation
  • Scree test
  • We identified 2 Factors

22
Lower-Order Needs (Peacetime)
  • Item Factor Loading
  • Water .91
  • Food .89
  • Basic physiological needs .78
  • Security and safety of my family .67
  • My own life .66
  • My country .62.

23
Higher-Order Needs (Peacetime)
  • Item Factor Loading
  • Worthwhile accomplishment .87
  • Self-Fulfillment .83
  • Personal growth .75
  • Self-Esteem .74
  • Close friendship .59
  • Give help and offer support .54
  • Prestige and regard .40.

24
Two Levels of Needs
25
Study 2
  • War-related stress began on August 2, 1990 when
    Kuwait was occupied by Iraq.
  • The Persian Gulf War started on January 16, 1991.
  • Data were collected between January 16 and April
    30, 1991.
  • The Retrospective Peacetime in 1990
  • The Persian Gulf War in 1991

26
Participants
  • Psychology students in the Middle Tennessee
    MTSU, APSU, Fort Campbell
  • N 564, Male 184, Female 360
  • Age 23.52
  • Education 14.64
  • Caucasians 441, African-Americans 52,
    Hispanics 6, Asians 14, American Indians 3
  • Married 91, Single 406, Divorced 16

27
Participants
  • Spouse/Relatives in the war?
  • Yes 86, No 441
  • Close friends in the war?
  • Yes 280, No 247.

28
Importance of Lower-Order Needs Peacetime, 1990
  • Item Factor Loading
  • Water .88
  • Food .87
  • Security and safety of My country .74
  • Basic physiological needs .70
  • My own life .65
  • Security and safety of my family .62.

29
Importance of Higher-Order Needs Peacetime, 1990
  • Item Factor Loading
  • Worthwhile accomplishment .82
  • Self-Fulfillment .76
  • Personal growth .74
  • Give help and offer support .72
  • Close friendship .71
  • Self-Esteem .70
  • Prestige and regard .63.

30
Two Levels of Needs
31
Importance of Needs Wartime, 1991
  • Item Factor Loading
  • Security and safety of my family .87
  • Personal growth .85
  • Self-Fulfillment .85
  • Worthwhile accomplishment .84
  • Self-Esteem .83
  • Give help and offer support .80
  • My own life .80
  • Basic physiological needs .80
  • Security and safety of My country .79
  • Close friendship .78
  • Water .73
  • Food .72
  • Prestige and regard .63.

32
Importance of Needs Wartime
  • All Equally Important

33
Peacetime vs. Wartime
  • Peacetime Wartime
    t
  • Own life 3.88 4.16 -5.84
  • Family 3.96 4.25 -6.49
  • Country 3.53 4.22 -11.92
  • The Most Important Need
  • Friendship 4.00 Growth 4.33
  • The Least Important Need
  • Water 3.54 Prestige 3.85

34
With vs. Without Spouse, Relatives, Friends
  • Importance With Without F
  • Basic needs 4.22 4.02 4.12
  • Family 4.40 4.18 4.59
  • Give help 4.25 4.04 4.86
  • Friendship 4.39 4.13 8.23
  • Strain 8.12 9.89 4.08
  • Stress 26.89 25.36 7.11.

35
Tang Ibrahim (1998)
  • Importance of Human Needs During Retrospective
    Peacetime and the Persian Gulf War Mideastern
    Employees
  • International Journal of Stress Management, 5
    (1), 25-37.

36
Mideastern Culture
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Much of the country consists of vast deserts
    where few people live and little or nothing
    grows.
  • Traditional, outer-directed values tribalistic,
    conformist, sociocentric
  • Modern, inner-directed values egocentric,
    manipulative, and existential

37
Participants
  • Large government organizations police officers,
    military personnel,
  • Large universities faculty, staff, clerical
    workers
  • N 378
  • Male 240, Female 126
  • Age 34.04
  • Income US3,259.77

38
Importance of Needs
  • Item Peacetime Wartime
  • The Most Important
  • Water Basic Needs
  • The Least Important
  • Friendships Fulfillment

39
Importance of Needs, Peacetime
  • Factor 1 Factor Loading
  • Self-esteem .76
  • Prestige .70
  • My own life .65
  • Food .61
  • Accomplishment .59
  • Self-Fulfillment .56
  • Water .47.

40
Peacetime
  • Factor 2 Factor Loading
  • Basic needs .70
  • My country .70
  • My family .69
  • Factor 3
    Factor Loading
  • Friendships .82
  • Personal growth .70
  • Give help .54.

41
Importance of Needs,Wartime
  • Factor 1 Factor Loading
  • Fulfillment .81
  • My own life .79
  • Accomplishment .73
  • My country .57
  • Friendships .56.

42
Wartime
  • Factor 2 Factor Loading
  • My family .79
  • Basic needs .73
  • Personal growth .62
  • Give help .58
  • Water .49
  • Factor 3
    Factor Loading
  • Prestige .78
  • Food .69
  • Self-esteem .63

43
Tang, Ibrahim, West
  • Effects of War-Related Stress on the Satisfaction
    of Human Needs The United States vs. the Middle
    East

44
Satisfaction of Needs, The US
  • Needs Peacetime Wartime t
  • Country 3.73 3.37 5.87
  • Friendships 3.63 3.82 -3.59
  • The Most Satisfied
  • Water 4.19 Water 4.15
  • The Least Satisfied
  • Self-Esteem 3.29 Country 3.37.

45
Satisfaction of Needs, Middle East
  • Needs Peacetime Wartime t
  • Food 3.75 3.52 2.71
  • Own Life 3.95 3.50 5.17
  • Family 4.07 3.77 4.37
  • Country 3.58 3.40 2.63
  • Friendships 3.78 3.51 3.32
  • The Most Satisfied
  • Water 4.00 Water
    3.87
  • The Least Satisfied
  • Self-Esteem 3.55 Fulfillment 3.37.

46
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US
  • Factor 1 Higher-Order Factor Loading
  • Fulfillment .83
  • Accomplishment .81
  • Self-Esteem .77
  • Personal Growth .74
  • Prestige and regard .67
  • Give help .66
  • Friendships .59.

47
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The US
  • Factor 2 Lower-Order Factor Loading
  • Water .86
  • Food .86
  • My family .68
  • Basic needs .66
  • My own life .66
  • My country .60.

48
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US
  • Factor 1 Higher-Order Factor Loading
  • Accomplishment .81
  • Fulfillment .81
  • Self-Esteem .80
  • Prestige and regard .72
  • Personal Growth .70
  • Friendships .61
  • Give help .59.

49
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The US
  • Factor 2 Physiological Factor Loading
  • Food .87
  • Water .86
  • Basic needs .55
  • Factor 3 Safety Factor
    Loading
  • My country .85
  • My family .67
  • My own life .64.

50
Three Levels of Needs
51
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East
  • Factor 1 Factor
    Loading
  • My country .75
  • Food .65
  • Self-Esteem .64
  • Prestige and regard .56
  • Fulfillment .54
  • Give help .52.

52
Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, The Middle East
  • Factor 2 Factor
    Loading
  • Friendship .81
  • Personal growth .72
  • Water .53
  • Basic needs .82
  • Factor 3 Factor
    Loading
  • My family .77
  • Accomplishment .48
  • My own life .43.

53
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East
  • Factor 1 Factor
    Loading
  • Food .82
  • Fulfillment .79
  • Self-Esteem .75
  • My own life .74
  • Personal growth .71
  • My country .71
  • Prestige and regard .70
  • Friendships .52.

54
Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, The Middle East
  • Factor 2 Factor Loading
  • My family .81
  • Give help .74
  • Basic needs .70
  • Accomplishment .67
  • Water .60

55
Summary-1
  • The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the US
  • 1993-1994 data 2 levels
  • 1990 data 2 levels
  • Factor 1 Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and
    Self-Actualization
  • Factor 2 Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety

56
Summary-2
  • The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the US
  • 1991 data 1 level
  • All needs are important for students in the US
    during the Persian Gulf War

57
Summary-3
  • The Importance of Needs, Peacetime, in the Middle
    East
  • 1991 data 3 levels
  • Factor 1 Self-Sufficient Needs
  • Factor 2 Other-Oriented needs
  • Factor 3 Social Needs

58
Summary-4
  • The Importance of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle
    East
  • 1991 data 3 levels
  • Factor 1 Fulfillment and Safety
  • Factor 2 Survival and Safety for Others
  • Factor 3 Self-Esteem

59
Summary-5
  • The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the US
  • 1991 data 2 levels
  • Factor 1 Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and
    Self-Actualization
  • Factor 2 Survival Needs--Physiological, Safety

60
Summary-6
  • The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the US
  • 1991 data 3 levels
  • Factor 1 Growth Needs--Social, Self-Esteem, and
    Self-Actualization
  • Factor 2 Physiological Needs
  • Factor 3 Safety Needs

61
Summary-7
  • The Satisfaction of Needs, Peacetime, in the
    Middle East
  • 1991 data 3 levels
  • Factor 1 Overall Self-Sufficient Needs,
  • Factor 2 Social Needs,
  • Factor 3 Personal Needs for Self and Family

62
Summary-8
  • The Satisfaction of Needs, Wartime, in the Middle
    East
  • 1991 data 2 levels
  • Factor 1 Self-Centered Needs,
  • Factor 2 Other-Centered Needs

63
Summary-9
  • The US The Middle East
  • Importance Peacetime
  • 2 3
  • Importance Wartime
  • 1 3
  • Satisfaction Peacetime
  • 2 3
  • Satisfaction Wartime
  • 3 2

64
Summary-10
  • Needs are different across cultures.
  • Needs do change from peacetime to wartime.
  • During peacetime, the pattern for the importance
    and the satisfaction of needs is the same.
  • During wartime, the patterns for the importance
    and the satisfaction of needs change. The
    patterns change differently across cultures.

65
Summary-11
  • Human needs are different and dynamic.
  • Human needs do change over time.
  • Managers need to understand the needs of people
    and manage the diversity of the workforce in a
    global economy effectively and efficiently.

66
Nevis, E. C. (1983)
  • Using an American perspective in understanding
    another culture Toward a hierarchy of needs for
    the Peoples Republic of China
  • Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 19 (3),
    249-264.

67
Cultural Assumptions PRC
  • 1. The nation has priority over everything
    loyalty to the country is of the utmost
    importance
  • 2. Consideration for the family is very
    important
  • 3. Personnel selection is based upon exploits or
    ideological contribution
  • 4. One should have great respect for age

68
Chinese Management
  1. Equity is more important than wealth
  2. Saving and conserving (money, resources) is to be
    valued
  3. It is considered unhealthy for individuals to
    stand out or take personal credit for their
    accomplishments

69
Chinese Management
  1. Every decision must take ideology into account
  2. Communal property is more important than private
    possessions collectivism is the best economic
    mechanism

70
Chinese Management
  • 10. Emphasis focuses upon group forces for
    motivational purposes
  • 11. Emphasis focuses on central planning and the
    powerful state

71
American Management
  1. People believe that they can influence the future
  2. Freedom of expression and opinion is generally
    valued individualism is encouraged
  3. To get ahead is taken for granted

72
American Management
  • Independent enterprises are the most effective
    instruments, competition is the most effective
    mechanism
  • Emphasis focuses on private property, a limited
    state
  • Personnel selection is based on merit

73
American Management
  1. Decisions must be based on objective analysis
  2. One makes a continual quest for improvement
  3. High value is placed on specialization in all
    fields

74
American Management
  1. One views the country as having virtually
    unlimited resources the streets-paved-with-gold
    myth persists.
  2. Fairness is the guiding principle for the
    integration of the individual and group needs.

75
Chinese Hierarchy of Needs
  • Self-Actualization in the Service of Society
  • Safety
  • Physiology
  • Belonging
  • Tends to be defined in terms of Superordinate
    Goals Moral Imperative, Social Confluence

76
Alderfers ERG Theory
  • Existence
  • Related
  • Growth

77
Two Processes
  • Satisfaction-Progression
  • Frustration-Regression

78
(No Transcript)
79
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Snyderman, B. B.
    (1959). The motivation to work. New York John
    Wiley Sons.
  • Herzberg, F. (1966). Work and the nature of man.
    Cleveland World Publishing Co.

80
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Herzberg, F. (1968, January-February). One more
    time How do you motivate employees? Harvard
    Business Review.
  • (1987, September-October). Harvard Business
    Review, 109-120. HBR Classic

81
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Has sold more than 1.2 million reprints (1987).
  • By some 300,000 copies over the runner-up, that
    is the largest sale of any of the thousands of
    articles that have ever appeared between HBRs
    covers.

82
Frederick Herzberg
  • Frederick Herzberg, Distinguished Professor of
    management at the University of Utah, was head of
    the department of psychology at Case Western
    Reserve University when he wrote this article.

83
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • 200 Accountants and Engineers
  • Pittsburgh, PA
  • Use Semi-structured interview
  • Obtain Critical Incidents

84
Interview Question(s)
  • Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally
    good about their jobs. How long did it last?
  • Recall a time when they had felt exceptionally
    bad about their jobs. How long did it last?

85
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivators Hygiene Factors
  • Achievement Co. Policy and Adm.
  • Recognition Supervision-Tech.
  • Work Itself Salary
  • Responsibility Interpersonal Relations
  • Advancement Working Conditions.

86
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivators Hygiene Factors
  • Job Content Job Context
  • Intrinsic Extrinsic
  • Satisfaction Dissatisfaction

87
(No Transcript)
88
Traditional Belief
  • Dissatisfaction ?----------? Satisfaction

89
Herzbergs Theory
  • Two-dimensional need structure
  • Motivator
  • No Job Satisfaction?------?Job Satisfaction
  • Hygiene Factor
  • Dissatisfaction ?---------?No Dissatisfaction

90
Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory
  • Motivators
  • No Job Satisfaction?------?Job Satisfaction
  • Emptiness---------------------------Fulfillment
  • Hygiene Factors
  • Dissatisfaction ?---------?No Dissatisfaction
  • Pain-------------------------------Relief of Pain

91
Herzbergs Hygiene Factor--Money
  • Money is a Hygiene Factor
  • Movement vs. Motivation
  • Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic
  • Money The more you have, the more you want.
  • Satisfaction of money goes back to zero and the
    zero point escalates.

92
Herzbergs Retrospective Commentary
  • Movement is a function of fear of punishment or
    failure to get extrinsic rewards.
  • Movement requires constant reinforcement and
    stresses short-term results.

93
Herzbergs Retrospective Commentary
  • Motivation is a function of growth from getting
    intrinsic rewards out of interesting and
    challenging work.
  • Motivation is based on growth needs.
  • The ultimate reward in motivation is personal
    growth, people dont need to be rewarded
    incrementally.

94
Herzbergs Retrospective Commentary
  • Job enrichment grows out of knowing your product
    and your client with feeling, not just
    intellectually.
  • Motivation encompasses passion movement is
    sterile (incapable of producing others of its
    kind).

95
KITA
  • Acronym (kick in the ass)
  • 1. -- Physical KITA
  • 2. -- Psychological KITA
  • 3. Psychological KITA
  • KITA will generate Movement, not Motivation

96
Across Cultures
  • Japan
  • India
  • South Africa
  • Zambia
  • Italy
  • Israel

97
Criticism
  • Research MethodologyCritical Incident
  • Attribution Theory
  • Provide Self-Serving attribution for Satisfaction
  • Blame others (Co. policy, Supervision, Pay, etc.)
    for Dissatisfaction
  • No consideration for individual differences

98
Hackman Oldham
  • Core Job Dimensions
  • Critical Psychological States
  • Personal and Work Outcomes
  • Employee Growth Need Strength
  • Individual Difference Variable, Moderator

99
(No Transcript)
100
Core Job Dimensions
  • Skill Variety
  • Task Identity
  • Task Significance
  • Autonomy
  • Feedback

101
Psychological States
  • Meaningfulness of work
  • Responsibility for outcomes
  • Knowledge of results

102
Personal and Work Outcomes
  • High Internal Work Motivation
  • High Quality Work Performance
  • High Satisfaction with the Work
  • Low Absenteeism and Turnover

103
Motivating Potential Score
  • (Skill Variety Task Identity Task
    Significance)/3 Autonomy Feedback

104
David McClellands Learned Needs Theory
  • Need for Achievement, n Ach
  • Need for Power, n Pow
  • Need for Affiliation, n Aff

105
TAT
  • McClelland, D. C. Steele, R. S. (1972).
    Motivation Workshops A student workbook for
    experiential learning in human motivation. New
    York General Learning Press.
  • Harvard University

106
Taking TAT
  • Please look at the picture for about 20 seconds.
  • Make up imaginative stories about this picture.
  • Work Rapidly. Dont spend over 5 minutes on this
    story.
  • When you finish writing your story to one
    picture, then, go on to the next picture and
    write a story about it.

107
Taking TAT
  • Please use a blank sheet of paper.
  • Please write your story on one side of the paper.
  • Do not put your paper on your notebook or
    anything.
  • Do not use the lines on your notebook as a guide
    for writing your story.

108
4 Questions
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done? Please
    integrate your answers to these 4 questions into
    your story. Do not answer
    each question separately A1, A2, A3, A4.

109
Picture 1
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done?

110
(No Transcript)
111
Picture 2
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done?

112
(No Transcript)
113
Sentence Completion
  • Speed of Expression
  • On a blank sheet of paper, please complete the
    following sentences, as quickly as possible.

114
Sentence Completion
  1. In the evening, I
  2. The best teacher is
  3. I prefer the company

115
Self-Expression-Name
  • On a blank sheet of paper, please print your name
    once and sign your name 3 times.
  • Please use the signature that you usually use for
    formal documents, e.g., checks.

116
Self-Expression-Experience
  • On a blank sheet of paper, please write as
    quickly as possible the following items in one
    paragraph with 1 margin on each side.
  • Please start this project, after you finish
    reading all the instructions.

117
Self-Expression-Experience
  • Please write continuously in one short paragraph.
  • My name is xxx. I am a student at MTSU and am
    currently in Dr. Tangs xxxx class (e.g., MGMT
    600).
  • Activities that you have done this month, this
    week, or today.

118
Self-Expression-Experience
  • Please tell me all the true facts and events.
  • Insert one lie in the story that only you know
    this is a lie. No one else can detect it. Write
    as quickly as you can.
  • Now you may start.

119
Thematic Apperception Test TAT
  • Each person should read at least one of his/her
    stories to the group.
  • Does the story reflect some aspect of a current
    life situation?
  • What is (are) the common theme or themes in
    these stories?
  • Can you identify the similarities and differences
    between TAT stories and dreams?

120
TAT-n Ach
  • Want to perform or do something better
  • Outperform someone else
  • Surpass some self-imposed standard of excellence
  • Do something unique, inventing something
  • Over a long term in doing something well, being a
    success in life, spent 8 years practicing ballet

121
TAT-n Aff
  • Want to establish, restore, or maintain a close,
    warn, friendly relationship with others
  • Being emotionally concerned over separation from
    another person
  • Desire to participate in friendly activities,
    e.g., club reunion.

122
TAT-n Power
  • Strong, forceful actions that affect others
  • Give help, assistance, advice or support
  • Try to control another person
  • Try to influence, persuade, make a point, or
    argue with another person
  • Try to impress other person or the world at large

123
Handwriting-Books
  • McNichol, A. (1991). Handwriting analysis
    Putting it to work for you. Chicago
    Contemporary Books.
  • Teltscher, H. O. (1971). HandwritingRevelation
    of self. New York Hawthorn Books, Inc.

124
Handwriting Research
  • Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., Bilu, Y.,
    Ben-Abba, E., Flug, A. (1986). Can graphology
    predict occupational success? Two empirical
    studies and some methodological ruminations.
    Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (4), 645-653.
  • Klimoski, R., Rafaeli, A. (1983). Inferring
    personal qualities through handwriting analysis.
    Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 191-202.

125
Handwriting Research
  • Rafaeli, A., Klimoski, R. J. (1983).
    Predicting sales success through handwriting
    analysis An evaluatin of the effects of
    training and handwriting sample content. Journal
    of Applied Psychology, 68 (2), 212-217.
  • Rafaeli, A., Klimoski, R. J. (1988).
    Graphological assessments for personnel
    selection Concerns and suggestions for
    research. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66,
    743-759.
  • Taylor, M. S., Sackheim, K. K. (1988, May).
    Graphology. Personnel Administrator, 71-76.

126
Handwriting Research
  • Nevo, B. (1988). Yes, graphology can predict
    occupational success Rejoinder to Ben-Shakhar,
    et al. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 92-94.
  • Gottlieb, A. (1987, November). What you write
    is what you are. McCalls, CXV (2), 175-180.
  • Tuller, D. (1987, Fall). The write stuff.
    Marriotts Portfolio, 56-59.
  • Patterson, J. (1976). Interpreting handwriting.
    New York McKay.

127
Patterson 12 Factors
  • Size, Slant, Width, Zones,
  • Regularity, Margin, Pressure, Stroke,
  • Lines, Connection, Forms of Connection, and Word
    and Line Spacing

128
Warning
  • Its use in applied settings is premature.
  • Although the literature on this topic suffers
    from significant methodological negligence, the
    gneral trend of findings is to suggest that
    graphology is not a viable assessment method.
    (Klimoski Rafaeli, 1983).

129
Principles of Interpretation
  • To grasp its totality or gestalt or style
  • Not to focus on single strokes or letters
  • To attempt a description of the individual
  • Not to make iron-clad diagnoses

130
Principles of Interpretation
  • Hartford, H. (1973). You are what you write.
    New York Macmillan.
  • You are what you write.
  • You write what you are.
  • Handwriting is brain writing.
  • Graphologist emphasizes the role of personality
    in the development of a handwriting.

131
Principles of Interpretation
  • When hypnotized, one writes according to the
    character suggested by the hypnotist.
  • The pen is an extension of the body and functions
    with it.
  • Alfred Binet called graphology the science of the
    future.

132
Principles of Interpretation
  • If the claims of graphology could be
    scientifically validated, says Zubin, a professor
    of psychology at Columbia University, handwriting
    would offer the most accessible means of
    evaluating the personality of both patients and
    normal people.

133
Principles of Interpretation
  • Gordon W. Allport and Philip E. Vernon (1933)
    stated that Handwriting provides material that
    is less artificial than tests. And more
    convenient for analysis.
  • Dr. Hector Riety, Diplomat in Psychiatry of the
    American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, wrote
    that handwriting analysis has a definite
    advantage over very other projective technique,
    inasmuch as patient is completely unaware of the
    fact that he is undergoing a test while writing.

134
Principles of Interpretation
  • In the whole living human race, there are not two
    individuals who have the same handwriting.
  • Writing changes gradually along with the
    character over a period of years and
    superficially with moods.

135
Principles of Interpretation
  • Upper Zone, Superego
  • Middle, Ego
  • Lower, Id
  • Slant
  • Express your real emotional feelings (Right)
  • Suppress (Vertical)
  • Repress (Left)

136
To Tell A Lie
  • Margins
  • Slant
  • Spacing
  • Baselines
  • Mistakes
  • Pressure
  • Size
  • Speed

137
The most difficult signatures to Forge
  • Written as legibly as possible
  • Written as continuously as possible
  • Written as quickly as possible

138
Content Theories
  • Maslow
  • Alderfer
  • Herzberg
  • McClelland

139
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140
Process Theories of Motivation
  • Vrooms (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • Porter-Lawlers (1968) Expectancy Theory
  • Adams (1963) Equity Theory

141
VIE Theory
  • Vrooms (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • Expectancy Probability 0 - 1
  • Instrumentality Probability -1 0 1
  • Valence of Reward ----

142
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143
Porter-Lawler (1968)
  • Value of Reward, Perceived Effort? Reward
    Probability, Effort, Abilities and Traits, Role
    Perceptions, Performance
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards, Perceived
    Equitable Rewards, Satisfaction.
  • Feedback Loops Satisfaction ? Value of Reward,
    Performance ? Perceived Effort ? Reward
    Probability

144
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145
Adams (1963) Equity Theory
  • Output/Input Ratio
  • Output Salary, benefits, status, vacation,
    perks, etc.
  • Input Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities,
    Education, degrees, experience, effort, time,
    tenure, etc.

146
Adams (1963) Equity Theory
  • Self
    Other
  • Output/Input Ratio Output/Input Ratio
  • gt
  • lt

147
Referents
  • Colleague in the Department
  • Colleague in the Organization
  • Colleague in a comparable Organization
  • Colleague in the Market

148
Actions
  • Reduce I
  • Increase O
  • Increase Referents I
  • Reduce Referents O
  • Change to a different Referent
  • Quite your job
  • Dont Compare

149
Thank You
  • Danke
  • Dankeshaen
  • Grazie
  • Merci
  • Muchas Gracias
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