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Background Fulbright


Background Fulbright Fulbright Worldwide Government Program USIEF is funded equally by US and Indian governments Fulbrights for Indian Nationals Brings citizens of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Background Fulbright

  • Fulbright
  • Worldwide Government Program
  • USIEF is funded equally by US and Indian
  • Fulbrights for Indian Nationals
  • Brings citizens of other countries to the US for
    Masters degree or Ph.D. study at U.S.
    universities or other institutions.
  • Early-career professionals who will return to
    take leadership positions in their home
  • Programs for recent grads, lecturers and
    distinguished professors. Including teaching
    assistants for Gujarati.
  • http//
  • My Research
  • Indias Municipal Solid Waste Systems
  • Working with TERI and TERI University
  • Case studies in decentralized waste management.

Garbage in Gujarat
  • Municipal Solid Waste Management in India

Global Garbage Indias GarbageContent and
ProcessingCollection Example
What is Garbage?
What is Garbage?
  • Garbage has always been and always will be.
  • Something that is not longer of monetary or other
    value to you is garbage.
  • However the actual material characteristics of
    Garbage have also changed over time
  • Characteristics are even different from one
    culture to another and from one country to
    another today.

What is Garbage?
  • Survey
  • Where are you from?
  • Would you throw this out, recycle, or sell this
    at home?
  • Did you drop something on the ground today?
  • Did you drop something on the ground this week?

What is Garbage?
  • Survey Answers

What is Garbage?
Broken TV
What is Garbage?
Used Water Jug
What is Garbage?
Cardboard Boxes
What is Garbage?
  • Survey Answers

What is Garbage?
  • Survey Answers from
  • Would you throw this out at home? Broken TV
  • 43 said recycling
  • One person from India said they would get it
  • A few said Curb it
  • Would you throw this out at home? Used Water Tub
  • 90 said they would but this item in
    the recycling
  • One said they would use it to make beer.
  • Would you throw this out at home? Cardboard Box
  • 87.5 said they would but this item in the
  • No one would sell it.
  • Some would save to reuse again

What is Garbage?
  • India has a robust industry of scrap dealers, rag
    pickers, and informal recyclers. The monetary
    value that they give your used goods means that
    those goods are not garbage.
  • Other parts of the world like the United States,
    this is not the case.

Country Comparison
From Waste to Resource
Country Comparison
  • Per capita India is a very small producer of
  • In total waste produced, India is in the top five
    in the world.
  • Indias total waste produced as well as the per
    capita waste generated is likely to increase.
  • World records for waste only as good as the
    countries internal reporting. In this chart the
    numbers are derived from many different sources
    and can vary up to three years.

The Waste Market
  • Municipal Waste
  • India has an estimated municipal waste market of
    570 million Euros.
  • US has about 43 billion
  • China has about 26 billion
  • Recycling Industry
  • India is a major end point for E-Waste
  • Alang Ship-breaking port is the biggest in Asia
  • India is also the largest used plastic recycling
    market in Asia

Garbage in India
Municipal Solid Waste in India
  • Districts and states are responsible for their
    own collection and tracking of msw.
  • Disparity in the quality of research and service
  • Ministries differ from one another. An
    improvement in this recording is continually
    cited as necessary for the overall improvement of
    waste management.
  • Garbage leaves the waste stream before being

Municipal Solid Waste in India
  • How Much Garbage is Produced in India?
  • Over 55 Million Tonnes per (1.5 Lakhs per day)
    Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • 67.5 million Tonnes per year From Waste to

Municipal Solid Waste in India
  • Growth Trends
  • Correlation between Per Capita Economic Growth
    and Waste Generation
  • Indias Waste is Increasing
  • Before it was better, but when people started
    using plastic bags they didnt have any value and
    they didnt care where they left itpeople are
    still having the bad habits and the amount of
    garbage overall is increasing
  • Correlation between per capita growth and waste
  • 1-1.5 increase (MoUD)

National Laws
  • 1986 Environmental Protection and Amendments
  • 1989 Hazardous wastes management and handling
    rules, manufacture storage and import of
    hazardous chemicals rules
  • 1992 National environmental tribunal bill
  • 1995 The national environment tribunal act
  • 1996 Chemical Accidents Rules
  • 1998 Bio-medical waste rules
  • 1999 Recycled plastic manufactured and usage
  • 1999 Solid waste management in Class-1 cities in
    India - guidelines by supreme court of India
  • 2000 Municipal solid waste rules of MSW Rule
    2000, amended in 2003
  • 2000 Ozone depleting substances (regulation)
  • 2001 Batteries (management and handling) rules
  • 2002 Bureau of Energy Efficiency
  • 2003 Corporate responsibility for environmental
    protection charter (CREP), "which encourages
    companies to go beyond existing regulations,
    undertake reduction of waste production and adopt
    clean technologies.
  • 2010 (Under review) E-waste (Management and
    Handling) Rules 2010

Whats in Your Garbage? National Contents of
  • Most of the waste (50-70) is organic.
  • Informal Recycling
  • Developing Economy that is consuming less
    packaged foods and disposable goods
  • As the countrys GDP increases this is likely to
  • Waste in India is wet
  • Organic
  • Climate
  • Collection Practices

National Contents of Waste
Challenges to Processing Waste in India
Challenges to Processing
  • Moisture
  • Low Calorific Content
  • Informal/Formal
  • Transportation and Maintenance

Processing Methods
process Description Requirements Challenges
Incineration and RDF Thermal energy generation Dry/synthetic goods, water Garbage is wet, caloric content too low
Biomethanization Turning organic waste into gas Composting material, Lots of agricultural input Onsite generation, technology
Composting Non-meat food to soil fertilizer Land, trees, sometimes worms Space, market, Public ignorance
Landfill Gather waste together in one controlled location Sanitary Conditions require high-tech engineering Open dumping, Lack of facility and space, overuse
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Pollution Concerns
  • Air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • Disposal of ash and other by-products
  • Water
  • Health, safety, and odor impacts
  • Disincentives for waste reduction
  • Disincentives for recycling

Informal Recycling Industry
  • Higher Re-Use and recycling rate
  • Value of the Garbage increases
  • Regulation
  • Environment
  • Labor

Collection and DisposalGarbage on the street
  • Survey conducted in Bangalore by the Biodiversity
    Conservation India Pvt Ltd found that while 65
    had seen others throwing garbage on the road, 86
    clamed not to have thrown any themselves
  • Dropping garbage on the street causes problems
  • Cost of collection increases
  • Clogged waterways and sewage systems
  • Encourages pests and mosquito growth
  • Waste decreases in value

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  • Dont mix wet and dry waste
  • Create Sanitary Conditions for Collectors and
  • Local Infrastructure

Vejalpur, Ahmedabad
  • Land area of 9.53 sq kms, over 113,000 residents
    and 9 slum colonies
  • Self-Employed Womens Association
  • Shri Karya Siddhi Kargal Kam Mahila Sewa Sahkri
    Mandli - a cooperative of women rag pickers and
    operates across AMC.
  • Vishnu Khadi Co-operative Society.
  • Vejalpur complies with the MSW rules of 2000 -
    providing a standard set of practices, a good
    level of segregation, accountability and working
    with the local rag-pickers.
  • Most functioning systems in India will probably
    end up looking something like this, with a mix of
    decentralized and centralized collection.

Solid Waste Management in India Cities (Ed.
Darshini Mahadevia and Jeanne M. Wolfe) Concept
Publishing Company, 2008 New Delhi. Chapter 9.
Decentralized Waste Management
  • Benefits
  • Community Level
  • Local Support
  • Avoid Inefficiencies of transport and collection
  • Basic Technology and Processing
  • Smaller impact on environment
  • Shortfalls
  • Land Requirements
  • Employment Changes
  • Regulation
  • Cost Dumping

  • What Does the Future Hold?

Contact Information
  • Rachel Leven
  • Website
  • Twitter TheDump