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Basic Nutrition

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Title: Basic Nutrition


1
Basic Nutrition
2
Agenda
  • Introduction
  • The six main classification of nutrients
  • A new system for classifying carbohydrates
  • When sugar management goes away
  • Popular diets
  • Special diets
  • Seven ways to size up your servings
  • Summary/Conclusion

3
Grains Vegetables Fruits Milk Meat Beans
4
Carbohydrates
  • Sources bread, rice, beans, milk, popcorn,
    potatoes, cookies, spaghetti, corn, and peas.
  • Forms sugars, fibers, and starches
  • Categories Simple carbohydrates and Complex
    carbohydrates

5
Proteins
  • Sources
  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Fish
  • Function
  • Promotes growth, repair, and maintenance of
    musculoskeletal and other body tissues.
  • Framework for bones, muscles, blood, hair
  • Serves as a source of energy

6
Fats
  • Saturated fat (meats, lard, eggs, and dairy
    products)
  • Unsaturated fat (vegetable oils and fish oils,
    olive oil, canola oil, and peanut oil).
  • Function
  • Provides a concentrated source of energy
  • Helps to satisfy our appetite

7
Vitamins
  • Sources meats, dairy products, fruits,
    vegetables, whole grains, and legumes
  • Functions formation and maintenance of skin,
    hair and mucous membranes bone
  • and tooth growth, maintain heart action and
    nervous system
  • Vitamins do not supply any calories and thus no
    energy.

8
Minerals
  • Sources by eating a variety of foods in a
    balanced diet of carbohydrates, fat, and protein.
  • Function building of strong teeth and bones
    regulating of a number of body processes (muscle
    contraction, transmission of messages over the
    nerves, blood clotting, and red blood cell
    formation).
  • Minerals do not supply any calories and thus no
    energy.

9
Water
  • Water is a vital nutrient needed for life and
    survival.
  • Function every cell in the body needs water. It
    serves as a medium for all chemical reactions in
    the body.

10
Water(Function)
  • Regulate the body temperature
  • Carries oxygen and nutrients to all cells
  • Lubricate the joints
  • Protects tissues and organs
  • Prevents dehydration
  • Replaces sweat losses during and after exercising
    or exposure to heat or elevated temperature

11
Water
  • Sources
  • Beverages or other liquids
  • Foods, especially vegetables and fruits
  • Water formed in the tissues as the result of
    metabolism

12
Glycemic Index
  • Measures how fast and how far blood sugar rises
    after you eat a food that contains carbohydrates.

13
Glycemic Index
  • Whenever possible, replace highly processed
    grains, cereals, and sugars with minimally
    processed whole-grain products.

14
Carbohydrates
  • The digestive system breaks carbohydrates down
    into single molecules, so they can be absorbed
    into the bloodstream. It also converts
    carbohydrates into glucose (also known as blood
    sugar).

15
Good Carbohydrates
  • Whole wheat bread
  • Brown rice
  • Whole-grain pasta
  • Quinoa, whole oats, and bulgur

16
Adding more whole grains
  • Start the day with whole grains
  • Use whole-grain breads for lunch or snacks
  • Bag the potatoes
  • Pick up some whole wheat pasta

17
High carbohydrate/low fat (Ornish, Pritikin, and
Food for life diets)
  • Not all types of fat are bad
  • Not all types of carbohydrates are good

18
Low carbohydrate/high protein (The Zone, Atkins,
South Beach, and other diets)
  • Dr. Robert Atkins protein is good,
    carbohydrates are evil.
  • High-protein foods may increase the risk for
    heart disease and colon cancer.

19
Popular Diets
  • Keep protein intake at moderate amounts (8 grams
    a day for every 20 pounds of body weight)
  • Vegetable protein is a better choice than animal
    protein
  • Dont skimp on the healthful carbohydrates (whole
    grains, fruits, and vegetables)

20
Clear Liquid Diet
  • Before the patient has certain laboratory tests
  • After episodes of diarrhea or vomiting
  • It provides little nutritional value but does
    provide needed fluids and relieves thirst

21
Foods Recommended
  • Clear soups such as broth or bouillon
  • Clear coffee, tea, or carbonated beverages
  • Clear fruit juices, such as apple or cranberry
  • Plain, flavored gelatin and popsicles
  • Hard, clear candies

22
Full Liquid Diet
  • For a patient who cannot tolerate or chew solid
    foods, who has acute gastritis and infections, or
    for patients before and after surgery

23
Full Liquid Diet
  • All liquids allowed on the clear liquid diet
  • Milk, milkshakes
  • Strained fruit and vegetable juices
  • Creamed soups, strained soups
  • Ice creams, custards, puddings

24
Mechanical Soft/Dental Soft DietFor patients who
have difficulty chewing because of sore gums or
lack of teeth and for those who have difficulty
in swallowing
25
Mechanical Soft Diet/Dental Soft
  • Chopped or ground meats and vegetables
  • Soups
  • All liquids
  • Casseroles
  • Canned fruits
  • Well-cooked vegetables
  • Tender meats such as baked chicken or turkey

26
High-Fiber Diet
  • A patient who has constipation, diverticulosis,
    diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, and for
    everyone as protection against these conditions.
  • It may aid in the prevention of heart disease and
    breast and colon cancer

27
High-Fiber Diet
  • Fiber Function plays the important roles in
    bowel function
  • Sources grain products, fruits, and vegetables
  • Food recommended vegetables and fruits,
    especially raw fruits and vegetables, legumes,
    whole-grain breads, and cereals

28
Low-Residue or Low-Fiber Diet
  • For patients with indigestion, diarrhea,
    colitis, ileitis, as well as for patients who
    have had a colostomy and for those having
    radiation therapy

29
Low-Residue or Low-Fiber Diet
  • Eggs
  • Lean beef, chicken, turkey, veal, lamb
  • Refined flour, breads and rolls, rice, noodles,
    spaghetti
  • Cooked cereals
  • Fruit juices
  • Desserts without milk, milk products, nuts, or
    seeds
  • Soups But No creamed soups or any milk products

30
Low-Fat Diet
  • A patient who has liver, gallbladder, or
    pancreatic disease
  • For everyone to reduce the risk of heart disease
    and cancer of the colon, prostate, and breast, as
    well as obesity

31
Low-Fat Diet
  • Up to 5 ounces of meat per day-baked, broiled,
    roasted, or steamed. In must not be fried or
    served with gravy.
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Skim milk, low fat or nonfat yogurt, and low fat
    cheeses
  • Ice milk-chocolate, strawberry, vanilla

32
Sodium restricted/Low Sodium/Salt-Free/No Added
Salt/Low-Salt Diets
  • For patients with
  • High blood pressure
  • Congestive heart failure (CHF)
  • Fluid retention
  • Renal disease
  • Cirrhosis

33
Sodium Restriction
  • Mild 4000 to 5000 mg of sodium per day (1/2
    teaspoon of table salt is allowed each day)
  • Moderate 2000 mg of sodium per day (1/2
    teaspoon of table salt is allowed each day)
  • Strict 500 mg of sodium per day (no salt is
    allowed in preparation of food or at the table
  • Severe 250 mg of sodium per day (this diet is
    not recommended, but it could be used for short
    term or tests only)

34
Peptic Ulcer (Gastric and Duodenal) Diet
  • Eat small-to-moderate servings at mealtime to
    avoid gastric distention
  • Avoid caffeine-containing foods (coffee, tea,
    colas, chocolate), decaffeinated coffee, all
    alcohol, and black or red pepper.
  • Some individuals must avoid gas-producing foods
    (carbonated beverages, onions, brussel sprouts,
    cauliflower, and cabbage).

35
Reduced-Calorie Diet
  • A reduced-calorie diet is used for patients
    needing to lose weight or to aid in maintaining a
    desirable weight.
  • All of the basic five food groups should be
    included with smaller servings.
  • Low-fat foods are often encouraged.

36
BRAT
  • BANANAS
  • RICE
  • APPLESAUCE
  • TOAST

37
Diabetic Diet
  • Is ordered as part of the treatment program for a
    patient who has diabetic mellitus.
  • Many factors, including the patients activity
    and insulin dosage, have to be considered.
  • The physician and a dietitian provide the patient
    with a diet (set amount of grams of protein, fat,
    and carbohydrates).

38
Seven ways to size up your servings
  • Measure food portions so you know how much food
    youre eating. When a food scale or measuring
    cups arent handy, you can still estimate your
    portion.
  • Remember

39
  • 3 ounces of meat is about the size and thickness
    of a deck of playing cards or an audiotape
    cassette.

40
  • A medium apple or peach is about the size of a
    tennis ball.

41
  • 1 oz of cheese is about the size of 4 stacked dice

42
  • ½ cup of ice cream is about the size of a
    racquetball or tennis ball

43
  • 1 cup of mashed potatoes or broccoli is about the
    size of your fist.

44
  • 1 teaspoon of butter or peanut butter is about
    the size of the tip of your thumb.

45
1 oz.
  • 1 ounce of nuts or small candies equals one
    handful.

46
Most ImportantEspecially if youre cutting
calories, remember to keep your diet nutritious.
  • 2-4 servings from the Milk Group for calcium
  • 2-3 servings from the Meat Group for iron

47
  • 3-5 servings from the Vegetable Group for vitamin
    A
  • 2-4 servings from the Fruit Group for vitamin C
  • 6-11 servings from the Grain Group for fiber

48
Conclusion
  • The medical assistant must work with the patient
    to individualize any diet recommended for
    therapy.
  • The patient needs to know how to select the right
    foods.
  • The medical assistant should be able to identify
    an appropriate food plan for patients.
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