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Research Methodology

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Research Methodology ... DESIGN PARAMETER vs PERFORMANCE PARAMETER WHAT STUDY MODELS GIVE US A clear title of project/thesis The scope, and objective (abstract ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Methodology


1
Research Methodology
  • EPH 7112
  • LECTURE 6 RESEARCH PLANNING

2
THE ISSUES
  • Sometime students are not clear on
  • 1. How to start
  • 2. What area, what topic
  • 3. How to choose a supervisor
  • 4. Whats the scope
  • 5. How to get data
  • 6. How to analyze
  • 7. When to stop

3
MATERIALS TO COVER
  • PART A THE PHILOSOPHY
  • PART B THE PLANNING
  • PART C THE IMPLEMENTATION
  • Note the part on What Your Supervisor Expects
    from You is not covered here

4
THE WHOLE PROCESS OF RESEARCH STUDY
5
PRODUCING RESULTS
6
  • Processes in obtaining data (Quantitative/Qualitat
    ive)
  • Theoretical modeling/Software simulation
  • b. Emulation
  • c. Survey
  • d. Experimental
  • Its all about Testing the system under study

7
  • Data normally come in the form of Tables
  • Results normally come in the form of
  • Graphs
  • Charts

8
  • Output/Conclusion (the system under study)
  • Working system
  • Product
  • New Process
  • Ingredients
  • Algorithm
  • Programs
  • Formula

9
Analyzing Results
  • Results consist of
  • 1. Presentation of data
  • 2. Analysis
  • Analysis of results must include the explanation
    on
  • Design Parameters (Cause) and
  • Performance Parameters (Effects) of the System
    Under Study.
  • A comparative analysis is typically required.

10
Output/Conclusion
  • Conclusion
  • Targets/Objectives achieved, how much?
  • Which results directly support the conclusion?
  • Output can be -
  • 1. Formula
  • 2. Process
  • 3. Algorithm/Program
  • 4. Prototype
  • 5. System

11
Novelty
  • 1. Theory
  • 2. Process/techniques/fabrications
  • 3. Ingredients/Materials
  • 4. Design/architecture
  • 5. Properties/Characteristics

12
PART B THE PLANNING
13
Study Plan
  • A Study Plan is a document explaining the plan of
    the study/research project from its start to the
    end. It is normally presented in a Gantt chart,
    and it should clearly show
  • The research activities
  • The continuity of activities
  • The period of activities/timeline
  • Deliverables and milestones
  • The end goal

14
Study Plan
  • It basically addresses the issues of
  • What to do
  • When to do
  • What to achieve
  • When to stop

15
Deliverables and Milestones
  • All outputs are Deliverables
  • Major outputs are Milestones
  • A milestone represents an important stage of a
    project.

16
A sample study plan
  YEAR 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004
  MONTH 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6
No. Activity                                                          
1 Literature Review                                                          
2 Code Development                                                          
3 Computer Simulation                                                          
4 Procurements.                                                          
5 Experimentation                                                          
6 Result Analysis                                                          
7 Report Writing                                                          
17
Weaknesses of a Study Plan
  • 1. It does not clearly show the structure/scope
    depth and width of the project
  • 2. It does not provide the designation of issues
    under study general issues,
  • complementary issues and focused issues
  • 3. It does not adequately indicate the number of
    results expected of a project

18
Study Model (K-Chart)
  • A Study Model is a document explaining the
    structure, issues and sub-issues under study. It
    is usually presented in the form of a Tree
    Diagram. A K-Chart should clearly show
  • 1. The issues of concern
  • 2. The sub-issues of concern
  • 3. The designation of theory, simulation and
  • experiment
  • 4. The Design and Performance parameters
  • 5. The line of focus
  • 6. The scope (depth and width) of a project

19
K-Chart should be able to give an idea on
  1. How many results will be obtained.
  2. Which results are to be highlighted.
  3. How many chapters (and what chapters) will there
    be.
  4. The coverage of the literature review.
  5. How many pages the thesis will be.

20
How to construct a K-Chart
  • Identify the area of study (Main title)
  • Identify the main issues under the area of study
    these issues come as branches under the Title
  • Identify the sub-issues under the main issues
    again as lower layer branches
  • End the issues/sub-issues once you get the
    required info for you to decide (which one you
    want to proceed into the details in)
  • Continue step 3 until you reach the data
    generating methods (experiment, simulation,
    survey etc)
  • End the structure with a list of Design (DP) and
    Performance Parameters (PP)
  • You may have redundant issues and/or redundant
    DPs/PPs not to worry! Whichever way you do, you
    should end with same results
  • Highlight the tree branches that you want to
    study/focus

21
SAMPLE STUDY MODELOPTICAL MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE
22
Sample Study Model(CONSTRUCTION AND
IMPLEMENTAION OF A NEW CODE DIVISION
MULTIPLEXING TECHNIQUE FOR METROPOLITAN AND
ACCESS NETWORK)
23
OS-CDMA APPLICATION
24
Application MAN (Simulation)
25
Application MAN (Experiment)
26
SYSTEM UNDER STUDY(Metropolitan Area Network-
Point To Point)
  1. SYSTEM 1 ( DIRECT MODULATION OSCDMA )
  2. SYSTEM 2 ( EXTERNAL MODULATED OSCDMA)
  3. SYSTEM 3 (MULTIPLE SOURCE OSCDMA)
  4. SYSTEM 4 (SINGLE SOURCE OSCDMA)
  5. SYSTEM 5 (COMPLEMENT SUBTRACTION)
  6. SYSTEM 6 (AND SUBTRACTION)
  7. SYSTEM 7 (SYNCHRONOUS)
  8. SYSTEM 8 (ASYNCHRONOUS)

27
DESIGN PARAMETER vs PERFORMANCE PARAMETER
Design parameters Design parameters
Distance Distance Distance Distance
Input Power(PTX) Input Power(PTX)
Chip spacing Chip spacing
Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate
Design parameters Design parameters
Distance Distance Distance Distance
Input Power(PTX) Input Power(PTX)
Chip spacing Chip spacing
Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate
Design parameters Design parameters
Distance Distance Distance Distance
Input Power(PTX) Input Power(PTX)
Chip spacing Chip spacing
Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate Bit rate
Design Parameters Performance Parameters
1. Distance (Fiber) 1. BER (Bit error rate)
2. Input Power (PTX) 2. Q Factor
3. Chip Width 3. Power Receive (PRX)
4. Bit Rate  
 
28
WHAT STUDY MODELS GIVE US
  • A clear title of project/thesis
  • The scope, and objective (abstract)
  • The un-highlighted issues Literature reviews
    (Background reviews, Critical reviews, Problem
    Statement)
  • 4. Number of results

29
How to Calculate the Number of Results
  • No Of Results No of system x No of Design
    Parameters x No of Performance Parameters

30
Example Total Number Of Results(OSCDMA
Project Metropolitan Area Network Point to Point)
  • Total Result 8 (Number Of system) x 4 (Design
    Parameter) x 3 (Performance Parameter) 96

31
PART C THE IMPLEMENTATIONLITERATURE REVIEWS
AND RESULTS ANALYSIS
32
LITERATURE REVIEWS
  • Consists of
  • Background Review (Introduction)
  • Critical Review (throughout the thesis, typically
    in Problem Statement, conclusions)

33
LITERATURE REVIEWS
  • Start with text books, white papers, review
    papers background review
  • 2. Then, with journal papers (always read more
    than once, at different times)
  • 3. Review until you have enough info to decide
    focus on Advantages Disadvantages
  • 4. How many references gt 50 for MSc, gt100 for
    PhD
  • 5. Index your references

34
LITERATURE REVIEWS, cont
  • 6. Jot down info you get from the references in
    your reference note book
  • 7. Focus on strengths/weaknesses of papers

35
RESULTS PRESENTATION
  • Typically, engineering research results come in
    the form of graphs/curves
  • Graphs Y vs. X
  • Y axis Performance Parameter (Output)
  • X axis Design Parameters (Input)

36
RESULTS PRESENTATION cont
  • For Multiple DPs, always present only one at a
    time. Analyze them individually, then only put
    them together when necessary (i.e, better
    presentation)
  • Note Many times, students end up producing (too)
    many results, look different but similar (only
    realized after going through the analysis).
    Happens when trying to put multiple DPs at the
    same time.

37
RESULTS ANALYSIS, cont
  • There are two main elements of analysis
  • The Trend, 2.The Reason
  • Trend Parameters Max, Min, Average (Mean),
    Slope, Skewness, Mod,Median
  • Reason WHY the trend?

38
  • Characterization curve (CC) Vs Optimization curve
    (OC)
  • CC Y Vs X1 at Fixed X2
  • OC X1 Vs X2 at Fixed Y

39
  • THANK YOU
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