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The Process of Development

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The Process of Development John Sargent, MD Objectives of this lecture to learn 1.) Framework for understanding development 2.) Skill progressions through ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Process of Development


1
The Process of Development
  • John Sargent, MD

2
Objectives of this lecture to learn
  • 1.) Framework for understanding development
  • 2.) Skill progressions through developmental
    process
  • 3.) Aspects of family and community that promote
    development

3
Neurobiology of development
  • Neural tissues begin development and
    differentiation at 2 weeks gestation
  • By 8 weeks cells begin to divide into cortical
    and subcortical neurons
  • Between 12 and 20 weeks neurons migrate toward
    cortical destination

4
  • The next step is connections among neurons
    occurring throughout central nervous system
  • These connections are refined to organize
    cortical circuits and subcortical structures (24
    to 28 weeks gestation)

5
  • Number of neurons in humans peaks at 28 weeks
    gestation (40 more than in adult)

6
  • Further processes occurring during fetal life
    include dendritic growth, synaptogenesis and
    myelinization

7
  • Rapid growth and differentiation of central
    nervous system tissues underlies the
    vulnerability to toxins, drugs and alcohol and
    nutritional status during fetal growth

8
  • Continued maturation of central nervous system
    tissue includes both myelinization and synaptic
    pruning which continues from childhood through
    adolescence

9
  • Gray matter formation follows an inverted
    U-shaped curve with peaks occurring between 12
    and 16 years of age

10
  • Gray matter areas that organize sensorimotor
    activity mature first

11
  • Higher order association areas that govern
    language and memory mature later in preschool
    period

12
  • Frontal and prefrontal cortex continue maturing
    through adolescence into young adulthood
    reflecting maturation in judgment, values,
    planning and impulse control

13
  • Developing brain structures support developing
    reading and language skills, with interference
    with brain development leading to dyslexia

14
  • Development of inhibitory control the
    capacity to control behaviors that conflict with
    personal and societal norms also occurs with age
    into young adulthood

15
  • This capacity is at the heart of cognitive and
    emotional maturation, including the ability to
    suppress automatic responses in favor of less
    automatic responses

16
  • This capacity relies upon activation of
    prefrontal cortices as well as thinning of cortex
    and continuing myelination of frontostriatal
    fibers

17
  • The capacity to read social and emotional cues,
    including facial cues depends upon the developing
    capacity of prefrontal cortex to modulate limbic
    activity which occurs during adolescence

18
  • Pruning of synaptic connections occurs in unused
    connections

19
  • Mirror neurons and biobehavioral reactivity
    have a great deal to do with the development of
    empathy

20
  • Cognitive processing improvement is also related
    to enhanced myelination increasing the speed of
    neuronal transmission and communication developed
    through childhood

21
  • During infancy the infants capacities smell,
    suck, grasp, capacity to be comforted reinforce
    maternal investment and care

22
  • Further infant abilities gaze, smile, nuanced
    cry, social engagement, snuggle, pleasure upon
    satiation further reinforce parental engagement

23
  • The influence of post partum depression, chaotic
    home life, domestic violence, parental substance
    abuse can be significant especially in early
    childhood

24
  • Attachment relationship between child and
    caretaker also significantly promotes and
    regulates development

25
  • Secure attachment is a description of a
    relationship that the child trusts to bring hurt
    and emotional distress to, trusting that the
    adult will assist with calming and regulation

26
  • In a secure attachment relationship the child is
    upset, the parent becomes upset, calms herself
    and the child calms in response

27
  • 2 types of insecure attachment relationships have
    been described avoidant and resistant

28
  • Avoidant children suppress emotion while
    resistant children persist in being upset

29
  • In situations of abuse children do not develop a
    unified strategy for regulating disruption and
    behave in an erratic and dysregulated fashion

30
  • Secure attachment leads to more social capacity,
    successful regulation of emotional upset,
    improved peer relationships and improved behavior
    regulation in school

31
  • Parental connections also lead to optimal
    cognitive development in first 2 years of life

32
  • Neural plasticity facilitates recovery from early
    maltreatment, parental loss and early adversity
    of other types

33
  • Plasticity is facilitated by consistency,
    availability of support and coherent family
    narratives

34
  • Competency, novelty and praise drive development

35
  • Capacity to do things and consistent availability
    of parental support assist navigation of
    insecurity associated with new challenges

36
  • Development leads to new skills language, peer
    relationships, learning and following rules,
    gaining success in school and on playground

37
  • Parental availability and responsiveness play
    significant roles in reinforcement of childrens
    developing skills

38
Important aspects of the community that support
development include
  • A.) Pediatric care, child mental health care
  • B.) Access to safe and supportive child care and
    preschool
  • C.) Early childhood intervention to support
    maximal development
  • D.) Home visiting, supportive neighborhoods

39
  • E.) Adequate effective schools with committed
    engaged teachers
  • F.) After school opportunities
  • G.) Engaging spiritual communities

40
  • H.) Safe neighborhoods, meeting places
    playgrounds
  • I.) Coaches, leaders and programs to build and
    develop individual talents
  • J.) Groups (like 4-A, scouts) which support
    group participation and group success

41
  • Be aware of the role of temperament and intrinsic
    capacities in engaging in family and community
    supports
  • Development is based on genetic endowment
    influenced by environmental circumstances
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