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Individual and Organizational Motivation

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5 -1 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, ... 5 -15 Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 8/E Joyce S. Osland, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Individual and Organizational Motivation


1
Chapter 5 Individual and Organizational
Motivation
2
Objectives
  • Explain and be able to apply the basic theories
    of motivation
  • Explain how managers and organizations can foster
    and reward employee motivation
  • Identify the characteristics of enriched,
    motivating jobs
  • Describe five methods of job redesign
  • Understand what de-motivates employees

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -1
3
Motivation - Defined
  • Motivation refers to the psychological
  • forces that determine the direction of
  • peoples behavior, their level of effort,
  • and level of persistence

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -2
4
Is Every Human Motivated?
  • Yes!
  • But maybe not to do what you
  • want them to do
  • Motivation is an internal state that directs
    individuals toward certain goals and objectives

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -3
5
Sources Of Motivation
  • Intrinsic
  • Where work itself is the motivation
  • I love my job!
  • Extrinsic
  • External consequences (material or social
    rewards, avoidance of punishment)
  • I like the pay and status.

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -4
6
Herzbergs Intrinsic Motivators
The Work Itself
Advancement
Achievement
Growth
Challenge
Recognition
Responsibility
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -5
7
Decoding Motivation Problems Wheres the root
cause?
Person
Leadership
Job Design
Organization
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -6
8
Decoding Motivation Problems Is it the
person-job-reward fit?
Person?
Leadership
Job Design
Organization
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -7
9
Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs
What did Maslow get right?
Self-actualization
Self-esteem
Social Belonging
Security
Physiological
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -8
10
McClellands Theory of Needs
Achievement n-Ach
Power n-Pow
Affiliation n-Aff
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -9
11
McClellands Theory Of Needs
  • Achievement - the need to accomplish goals,
    excel, and strive continually to do things better
  • Power - the need to influence and lead others and
    be in control of ones environment
  • Affiliation - the desire for friendly and close
    interpersonal relationships

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -10
12
Characteristics of People with High N-ach
  • Want to be personally responsible for their
    success or failure
  • Prefer situations of moderate risk
  • Like to receive immediate feedback

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -11
13
Characteristics of People with High N-pow
  • Competitive and aggressive
  • Interested in prestige possessions
  • Prefer action situations
  • Belong to various groups and tend to be officers
    in those groups
  • Preoccupied with their reputation, influence, and
    impact

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -12
14
Two Faces of Power
  • SOCIALIZED POWER - The use of power for the good
    of others
  • PERSONALIZED POWER - An unsocialized concern for
    personal dominance

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -13
15
Two Faces of Affiliation
  • Affiliative Interest - A concern for
    interpersonal relationships, but not at the
    expense of goal-oriented behavior
  • Affiliative Assurance - A concern with obtaining
    assurance about the security and strength of
    ones relationships and with avoiding rejection

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -14
16
Decoding Motivation Problems Is it the job
design?
Person
Leadership
Job Design?
Organization
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -15
17
Job Design
  • How did you fare on the Job Survey in the
  • Class Preparation?
  • Discuss your scores with the person sitting
  • next to you and compare your jobs in terms
  • of how motivating they are

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -16
18
How to Design Motivating Jobs
  • Skill Variety - requires a range of personal
    competencies and abilities
  • Task Identity requires completion of a whole
    and identifiable piece of work
  • Task Significance employees perceive job as
    having a substantial impact on others lives
  • Autonomy employees have freedom, independence,
    and discretion to plan and carry out their task
  • Job Feedback employees receive direct, clear
    information on their performance

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -17
19
Job Characteristics Model
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -18
20
Methods of Job Redesign
  • Job rotation
  • Job enlargement
  • Job enrichment
  • Sociotechnical systems
  • Self-managed work teams

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -19
21
Decoding Motivation Problems Is it the
leader/manager?
Person
Leadership?
Job Design
Organization
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -20
22
Goal-Setting Theory
  • Setting specific goals increases performance
  • Difficult goals accepted by employees result in
    higher performance
  • Feedback causes higher performance than
    non-feedback
  • People are more committed to
  • goals they set themselves and
  • make public

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -21
23
Characteristics of Effective Goals
pecific
S
easurable
M
A
chievable but challenging
R
easonable
imely
T
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -22
24
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -23
25
Expectancy Theory
A. Effort-to-performance expectations B.
Performance-to-outcome expectancies C. Perceived
valence of outcomes
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -24
26
Reinforcement Theory
  • Reinforce desirable behavior through rewards
  • Extinguish undesirable behavior through
    punishment or ignoring

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -25
27
What Have You Observed Effective Leaders Do to
Motivate Others?
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -26
28
The Managers Role
Understand
Channel
Direct
Employee motivation toward tasks that further
the organizations objectives
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -27
29
A Motivating Work Environment
  • Managers should
  • Set performance standards
  • Ensure fit between employee needs and jobs /
    rewards
  • Reward good performance fairly

Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -28
30
Decoding Motivation Problems Is it organizational
practices or culture?
Person
Leadership
Job Design
Organization?
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -29
31
What Demotivators Have You Experienced at Work?
Organizational Behavior An Experiential Approach
8/E Joyce S. Osland, David A. Kolb, Irwin M.
Rubin and Marlene E. Turner
5 -30
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