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Effective Teaching Strategies and Techniques for Adult Learners

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... Organizational Behavior, ... An individual is either primarily Judging or Perceiving Myers-Briggs format Beta approach to experiential learning ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Teaching Strategies and Techniques for Adult Learners


1
Effective Teaching Strategies and Techniques for
Adult Learners
  • Instructor Development Workshop
  • Facilitated by Dr. Lee Winters

2
Agenda
  • Introductions and overview
  • Definitions strategies and techniques
  • Why learn new strategies and techniques?
  • My objectives / your objectives
  • What strategies and techniques do you use now?
  • More strategies and techniques
  • What strategies and techniques will you use now?
  • Feedback on workshop

3
Introductions
  • Who I am
  • Physician
  • Management Consultant for Right Management
  • Senior Professor / Dean Northwestern Polytechnic
    University and University of California,
    Berkeley
  • Teach Human Resources, Organizational Behavior,
    Healthcare Management, Healthcare courses and
    Communications
  • Who you are
  • faculty at DiWan University
  • Who you are (in your personal life)

4
Overview of workshop
  • Ground rules and extraneous issues
  • Mini-lectures
  • Hands-on experiences using a variety of teaching
    strategies
  • Individual, paired, small-group work
  • Plan of action
  • Feedback on workshop

5
Ground rules
  • Share your ideas and ask questions
  • Everyone monitors
  • Equal air time

6
Extraneous Issues
  • Cultural Variations

7
Why learn new strategies for teaching?
  • Discussion

8
My objectives
  • By the end of this session, you will
  • Know how adults learn
  • Be able to
  • Teach to a variety of learning styles
  • Utilize student-centered teaching methods
  • Teach for transfer of learning

9
Your objectives
10
What strategies and techniques do you use now?
  • Fill out comments

11
How adults learn
  • Objective reach agreement on how adults learn
  • Brainstsorm in small groups
  • Report findings from groups
  • Discussion
  • Concepts principles we can agree on
  • How will you apply the learning?

12
Learning styles
  • Sensory modalities
  • Information processing
  • Multiple intelligences
  • Psychological / personality types
  • Experiential models
  • Classroom models / pedagogical styles
  • Orientations to learning
  • Demographics

13
Sensory modalities
  • Aural
  • Visual
  • Tactile / kinesthetic
  • Oral

14
Information processing
  • A cognitive processing theory ( like a PC)
  • Long term memory
  • Declarative knowledge
  • Counting by twos
  • Procedural knowledge
  • How to pronounce and comprehend new words
  • Episodic knowledge
  • I remember when that happened to me.

15
Multiple intelligences page 28 of handout
  • Linguistic (word smart)
  • Spatial (picture smart)
  • Logical / mathematical (logic smart)
  • Bodily-kinesthetic (body smart, sports (athletic)
    smart, eye-hand / manual smart)
  • continued

16
Multiple Intelligences continued
  • Musical (music smart)
  • Social (people smart SI)
  • Intra-personal (self smart)
  • Naturalist (nature smart)
  • Existential (meaning smart)
  • Emotional (emotion smart EI)

17
Emotional intelligence (Goleman)
  • E.I. predicts about 80 percent of a person's
    success in life
  • Personal competence
  • Self-awareness
  • Self-regulation
  • Motivation
  • Social competence
  • Empathy
  • Social skills

18
Experiential models
  • Kolb
  • David A. Kolb's model of experiential learning
    can be found in many discussions of the theory
    and practice of adult education.

19
Kolb diagrams updated May 2006  
20
Kobe Experiential Approach
  • Start-up - introduce the learning experience
  • Experience - an activity, a case study, a
    participatory lecture, a small-group discussion,
    etc.
  • Debrief - discuss the learning experience
  • Unveil Concepts - take a broader view what are
    the concepts and the principles that were
    learned?
  • Execute - discuss application of the concepts and
    principles to everyday work and to the real world

21
Psychological Personality Types
The theory of Personality Types, as it stand
today, contends that An individual is either
primarily Extraverted or Introverted An
individual is either primarily Sensing or
Intuitive An individual is either primarily
Thinking or Feeling An individual is either
primarily Judging or Perceiving Myers-Briggs
format
22
Beta approach to experiential learning
  • Begin - introduce the learning experience
  • Experience - an activity, a participatory
    lecture, a case study, a small-group discussion,
    etc.
  • Talk and capsulize the learning experience
  • Discover Concepts - broader view what are the
    concepts and the principles that were learned?
  • Apply - discuss application of the concepts and
    principles to everyday work and to the real world

23
From didactic to experiential...
  • Didactic - meaning is external to learner, the
    spoon feeding approach
  • Experiential - meaning is internal to learner
  • Reading - highly didactic
  • Lecture
  • Experiential lecture (has interaction)
  • Discussion

24
Didactic to experiential cont.
  • Participation training led by instructor
  • Case study
  • Role playing
  • Instrumentation
  • Structured experience
  • Intensive growth group
  • -highly experiential

25
Utilize student-centered teaching methods
  • What does it mean to be student-centered? Student-
    centered teaching methods shift the focus of
    activity from the teacher to the learners.
  • Active learning
  • cooperative learning
  • inductive teaching and learning

26
Teach for transfer of learning
  • What does it mean to teach for transfer of
    learning?
  • Make use of past lessons in unexpected ways 
  • Awareness and Expectation building 
  • Recognition 
  • Reflection
  • Identify Processes

27
Teach for transfer of learning continued
  • Push Categories  Cross Boundaries
  • Assessment 
  • Written Assessment

28
Lets try some!
  • Examples
  • 1. Use 2. Have all students write a summary of
    the key point of chapter 10. Instructor chooses
    one student, after all finished with the
    assignment, to present his/her findings to the
    class.
  • 2. Use 4 in first class of the semester or
    before each chapter or content area

29
More examples
3. Lecture 20 or less, Item 5 4. Think through
problem solving or decision making to teach
logic/reasoning/legal considerations (9) in
evaluating a ___ (example Human Resources
Management job application) 5. Use concrete
real-life examples (11)
30
Jigsaw
  • Form four expert groups
  • A group - Thought-provoking (p. 15)
  • B group - Probing and Pausing (p. 16)
  • C group - Yes-No, Tugging, and Leading (p. 17)
  • D group - Answering, Over-explaining, Redirecting
    (p. 18)

31
Jigsaw, continued
  • In your expert group, read the material and
    help each other learn how to teach the material
    to your home group
  • Form home groups (ABCD)
  • Starting with A, take turns teaching the
    material. Give examples of how the strategy can
    be used. Answer questions from other students

32
Jigsaw, continued
  • Reflect on your learning
  • Report out to large group

33
Case studies
  • Read Phils Research Method (p. 5)
  • Form a new group
  • Choose a facilitator
  • Choose a recorder
  • Answer the four questions on page 6
  • Reflect on your learning
  • Report out to large group

34
Reading response journals
  • As an individual, read the article on Fostering
    Critical Thinking (p. 10-12)
  • Complete the Reading Response Journal (p. 9)
  • With a partner, discuss the questions at the
    bottom of p. 12
  • Reflect on your learning
  • Report findings to large group

35
Formulating questions
  • Find a partner who teaches in a similar
    discipline
  • Choose a topic
  • Develop six questions that will stimulate
    learning at each of the six levels in the
    cognitive domain
  • (See pp. 13-14, if you need help)
  • Report and reflect

36
Adding interest and variety to your lectures
  • Expository
  • Interactive
  • Problem posing
  • Case study
  • Short (or mini)
  • Critical incident
  • continued

37
Adding interest and variety to your lectures,
continued
  • Form four new groups
  • You will be assigned Problem 1, 2, 3 or 4 (bottom
    of p. 20)
  • Solve that problem
  • Report and reflect

38
Beyond chalk and talk
  • Cognitive (thinking), pp. 21-22)
  • Panel
  • Group discussion
  • Buzz group
  • Reaction panel
  • Screened speech
  • Symposium
  • Case study
  • continued

39
Beyond chalk and talk, continued
  • Cognitive (thinking),
  • continued (pp. 21-22)
  • Game
  • In-basket exercise
  • Critical incident
  • Debate
  • Reflective practice
  • Observation
  • Journal writing

40
Beyond chalk and talk, continued
  • Affective (feeling), p. 22
  • Role playing
  • Group discussion
  • Metaphor analysis
  • Game
  • Structured experience
  • Reflective practice
  • Journal writing

41
Beyond chalk and talk, continued
  • Psychomotor (doing), p. 22
  • Demonstration with return demonstration
  • Simulation
  • Trial and error
  • Behavior modeling
  • Report and reflect

42
Group work basics
  • Read page 23
  • Formulate at least one issue or problem regarding
    group work
  • Form group and brainstorm possible solutions to
    the issue or problem
  • Reflect and report

43
Instructional media and technology
  • What are some advantages / disadvantages of using
    the following media / technologies? (pages 24-25)
  • Chalkboard
  • Flipcharts
  • Transparencies and overhead projectors
  • Films and videotapes
  • Computers and multimedia
  • Reflect and report

44
Students who talk too much
  • Fewer than 35 students
  • 4-5 students account for 75 of the total
    interactions per session
  • Has that been true in this workshop?
  • More than 35 students
  • 2-3 students account for 51 of the total
    interactions per session

45
Students who talk too much, continued
  • Ground rules help
  • Everyone monitors
  • Equal air time
  • Read p. 26 for 10 more strategies
  • Other strategies?
  • Reflect and report

46
Role play
  • Who Gets Hired? handout or example at bottom of
    page 27
  • Two volunteers one man, one woman
  • Go outside to consider your role
  • Large group read handout
  • Which facts are relevant? Which are not?

47
Role play, continued
  • Selection of decision panels
  • Two panels (10 people total)
  • Two men, three women (5)
  • Two women, three men (5)
  • Panels ask questions of Mary and Bill
  • Panels go to separate rooms and make their
    decisions

48
Role play, continued
  • While panels are making their decisions, the
    members of the large group report their decision
  • Panels report their decisions and how their
    decisions were made
  • Large group discussion

49
Role play, continued
  • Male versus female
  • Conventional versus unconventional
  • Educational background
  • Length of work experience
  • Career aspiration, i.e., long term (Mary) versus
    stepping stone (Bill)
  • Possible effects of the decision on the work group

50
Role play, continued
  • Reflect
  • What effect does gender have in the classroom?
  • In your classroom?

51
What strategies will you use now?
  • Whats your plan of action?
  • What will you do?
  • By when?

52
Feedback on workshop
53
Bonus Lesson basics (MOPPP)
  • Motivator (whats in it for you?)
  • Objective(s) (yours and mine)
  • Pre-assessment (what do you know about the
    topic?)
  • Participative, experiential, active, interactive
    learning
  • Post-assessment (now what do you know about the
    topic?)
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