70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 3: Planning Network Data Flow - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 3: Planning Network Data Flow

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Title: 70-293: MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter 3: Planning Network Data Flow


1
70-293 MCSE Guide to Planning a Microsoft
Windows Server 2003 Network, Enhanced Chapter
3 Planning Network Data Flow
2
Objectives
  • Describe the three types of network traffic
  • Understand unique characteristics of Ethernet
  • Use physical components of a network to control
    data flow
  • Monitor network performance
  • Optimize network settings
  • Use network troubleshooting utilities

3
Types of Network Traffic
  • Network traffic is defined as packets of data
    sent on the network
  • Three types of IPv4 packets
  • Unicast
  • Broadcast
  • Multicast

4
Unicast Packets
  • A unicast packet is addressed to a single
    computer
  • The destination IP address in a unicast packet is
    a Class A, B, or C IP address
  • This type of traffic can communicate on the
    Internet and perform file and printer sharing in
    the network

5
Broadcast Packets
  • Local broadcasts are used by applications to
    announce status and ensure that all interested
    hosts are informed
  • Broadcast packets are inefficient because they
    are processed by all hosts on a subnet
  • On a busy host this may reduce performance levels

6
Activity 3-1 Analyzing a Broadcast
  • The purpose of this activity is to view the
    contents of a broadcast packet

7
Multicast Packets
  • Multicast packets are addressed to a group of
    computers using a Class D IP address
  • Multicast packets are an improvement over
    broadcast packets because multicast packets are
    processed by all hosts up to only the Internet
    layer rather than up to the Application layer
  • This reduces the processing load on busy hosts

8
Ethernet
  • Ethernet is the most common network technology
    used for LAN connectivity
  • Popularity of Ethernet is due to its high
    performance and low price
  • Three important Ethernet concepts are
  • Collisions
  • Collision domains
  • Transmission modes

9
Collisions
  • If two computers happen to transmit information
    on the network at the same time, then a collision
    results
  • Ethernet uses Carrier Sense Multiple
    Access/Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) as the
    access method to determine which computer is
    allowed to send data on the network and when
  • When a collision occurs, the two computers that
    are transmitting data stop and wait for a random
    period of time before resending

10
Transmission Modes
  • A transmission mode is how data is sent on the
    network
  • Ethernet networks are capable of transmitting at
  • Half-duplex mode
  • can send data or receive data, but cannot do both
    at the same time
  • Full-duplex mode
  • can transmit and receive information at the same
    time

11
Activity 3-2 Viewing Ethernet Settings
  • The purpose of this activity is to view various
    Ethernet settings

12
Media
  • Media is the physical component that connects all
    of the devices together
  • The most common media types used in computer
    networks are
  • Twisted-pair
  • Fiber optic
  • Coaxial

13
Media (continued)
  • Twisted-pair cabling is the most common type of
    cabling used in computer networks
  • On an Ethernet network, it can carry data at up
    to 1 Gbps at a maximum distance of 100 meters
    over a single segment

14
Media (continued)
  • Fiber-optic cabling is used for network backbones
    where twisted-pair cabling cannot transmit the
    distance needed
  • On an Ethernet network, it can carry data at up
    to 10 Gbps for a 2 kilometers
  • Two fibers are required for each connection one
    for sending data, the other for receiving

15
Media (continued)
  • Coaxial cabling was common on older Ethernet
    networks, but has been removed from most networks
  • Coaxial cable cannot transmit in full-duplex mode
  • Coaxial cabling is now expensive compared to
    twisted-pair cabling

16
Media (continued)
  • Wireless connectivity is not part of the Ethernet
    standard very popular now
  • A major cost savings in wireless implementations
    is the lack of cabling installation
  • Security is a concern with wireless connectivity

17
Hubs
  • A hub acts as a central connection point on a
    network that allows multiple computers to
    communicate with each other
  • A hub can also be used to extend the network for
    greater distance
  • A hub operates at the Physical layer of the OSI
    model and is responsible for media
    characteristics and electrical signaling

18
Latency
  • When a signal passes through a hub, it takes a
    small amount of time for the signal to be
    regenerated
  • The delay between receiving the signal and
    sending it out again is called latency

19
Latency (continued)
  • When many hubs are linked, a high level of
    latency is introduced and the carrier sense
    portion of CSMA/CD becomes unreliable
  • When the latency is high, the number of
    collisions increases because a computer at one
    end of the collision domain can begin sending a
    packet while another computer at the other end is
    sending a packet at the same time

20
Switches
  • A switch divides network traffic based on MAC
    addresses
  • Switches can operate at full-duplex
  • Switches operate at the Data Link layer of the
    OSI model
  • Switches can perform tasks that deal with full
    packets of data and MAC addresses

21
Switches (continued)
  • A switch has several benefits over a hub
  • Each port on a switch is a separate collision
    domain allowing the division of large networks
    and a reduction in the number of collisions
  • A switch can direct traffic only to the port to
    which the destination computer is attached, which
    reduces overall levels of network traffic
  • Switches can connect dissimilar network
    architectures, such as Ethernet and wireless

22
Switches (continued)
23
Switches (continued)
24
Routers
  • Routers are used to move traffic between networks
  • A router operates at the Network layer of the OSI
    model which allows the control of network traffic
    based on logical IP addresses
  • Routers maintain a list of IP networks called a
    routing table
  • Routers are more scalable than switches
  • Routers can control traffic for hundreds of
    thousands of computers, whereas switches normally
    can track thousands of computers

25
Monitoring and Optimizing Network Performance
  • A bottleneck is any point in the communication
    process that cannot perform at the same level as
    other components
  • Bottlenecks can occur in the physical network or
    in server components
  • Network performance is limited by bottlenecks

26
Network Performance Problems and Solutions
  • The tools used to monitor network performance
    include
  • Protocol analyzers
  • Cable testers
  • Task Manager
  • Performance snap-in

27
Protocol Analyzers
  • Protocol analyzers can capture network traffic
    and monitor network performance
  • A protocol analyzer can be used to look at each
    packet in the communication process to see where
    the problem lies
  • Network Monitor is a limited protocol analyzer
    included with Windows Server 2003
  • Ethereal is an alternative packet analyzer that
    is very popular and free

28
Cable Testers
  • A cable tester checks the ability of a cable to
    carry the electrical signals properly that are
    sent by the computers
  • Each cable tester can verify the proper
    installation of only certain types of cabling

29
Task Manager
  • Task Manager is a simple tool that can be used
    to
  • Check memory
  • Processor
  • Network utilization

30
Performance Snap-in
  • The Performance snap-in located in Administrative
    Tools can be used to generate graphs and log many
    Windows Server 2003 performance indicators
  • The graphs generated by the Performance snap-in
    can capture short- and medium-term information

31
Activity 3-3 Monitoring Network Performance
  • The purpose of this activity is to view network
    utilization using Network Monitor, Task Manager,
    and the Performance snap-in

32
Optimizing Network Settings
  • Network performance gains can be made by
    modifying the network configuration of the servers

33
Utilizing the Binding Process
  • Binding is the process in which a network
    protocol is configured to use a network adapter
  • When a protocol is added to a network connection,
    it is bound to the network adapter and the
    services that are part of that connection
  • Windows Server 2003 allows you to optimize your
    network connectivity by
  • Adjusting the order in which protocols are used
  • Defining the priority of network services

34
Minimizing Network Protocols
  • If a protocol is required to support older
    clients, explore centralizing all services using
    that protocol on a single server
  • This reduces the service advertisements produced
    by other servers and reduces the processing
    required on other servers

35
Implementing the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
Setting
  • The Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) setting sets
    the maximum packet size that TCP/IP will try to
    negotiate when creating a TCP connection
  • The default MTU setting is 1,500 bytes on an
    Ethernet network

36
Troubleshooting Utilities
  • Windows Server 2003 has a wide variety of
    utilities that can be used to troubleshoot
    network problems
  • It is important to understand what each tool does
    and when it is appropriate to use

37
Ping
  • Ping confirms that a host is active at an IP
    address
  • Ping can be used to test for DNS resolution
    problems
  • When you ping a host, the Ping utility indicates
    how long it took for the remote host to respond

38
Tracert
  • The Tracert utility is used to view the routers
    that a packet passes through between the local
    host and a remote host
  • When using the Tracert utility to troubleshoot
    Internet connectivity, look for the router that
    stops responding this one is preventing users
    from accessing a particular server

39
Pathping
  • Pathping can be used to view the routers used to
    move a packet from the local host to a remote
    host
  • However, the Pathping utility sends 100 packets
    to each router in the path to provide a more
    accurate measure of response times

40
Activity 3-4 Testing for Network Congestion with
Pathping
  • The purpose of this activity is to test to see if
    the network is congested using the pathping
    command

41
Nbtstat
  • Nbtstat is used to view NetBIOS over TCP/IP
    statistics
  • It can view the list of NetBIOS services
    available on the local host or remote hosts, and
    it can view the local NetBIOS name cache

42
Netstat
  • Netstat displays TCP connection information and
    various IP statistics, such as the number of UDP
    and TCP packets and the IP routing table
  • Viewing TCP connections is useful for finding
    rogue services

43
Network Diagnostics
  • Network Diagnostics can be used to view a variety
    of settings on your server
  • It builds a list of information about your server
    and tests services such as DNS and WINS to ensure
    availability

44
Activity 3-5 Viewing TCP Connections with Netstat
  • The purpose of this activity is to view open
    connections and running services with the Netstat
    utility and view the current network
    configuration with Network Diagnostics

45
Ipconfig
  • The ipconfig command can be used to
  • View IP configuration information
  • Release and renew IP addresses that are obtained
    from a DHCP server
  • Flush the DNS cache because Windows Server 2003
    caches all DNS lookups

46
Netsh
  • Netsh is a command-line utility that can be used
    to modify and view IP configuration information
  • It is useful for remotely managing IP
    configuration when Terminal Services is
    unavailable and via scripts

47
Nslookup
  • Nslookup is used to query DNS servers
  • Can be configured to query any DNS server you
    want, making it easy to confirm the configuration
    of a particular DNS server that is having problems

48
Summary
  • Types of network traffic unicast, broadcast, and
    multicast
  • Ethernet is the most common network architecture
  • A collision domain is an area of a network where
    collisions occur
  • Transmission modes are half-duplex and
    full-duplex
  • Hubs operate at the Physical layer of the OSI
    model and send received data to all ports except
    the one from which it was received

49
Summary (continued)
  • Switches operate at the Data Link layer of the
    OSI model and control data flow based on MAC
    addresses
  • Routers operate at the Network layer of the OSI
    model and control data flow based on IP addresses
  • Tools used to identify bottlenecks include
    protocol analyzers, cable testers, Task Manager,
    and the Performance snap-in
  • Can optimize network settings by adjusting
    bindings, minimizing number of protocols, and
    adjusting MTU

50
Summary (continued)
  • IP troubleshooting utilities
  • Ping
  • Tracert
  • Pathping
  • Nbtstat
  • Netstat
  • Network Diagnostics
  • Ipconfig
  • Netsh,
  • Nslookup
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