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Macromolecules: Building blocks of life

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Macromolecules: Building blocks of life November 12, 2009 Section 2 Check 6.3 Section Objectives page 157 Today s notes: We will be getting information from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Macromolecules: Building blocks of life


1
Macromolecules Building blocks of life
  • November 12, 2009

2
Section 2 Check
Journal 11/12/09
Explain why water is important to living
organisms.
Answer
Living organisms must have water for life
processes, because molecules and ions must be
free to move and interact, which only happens
when they are dissolved in water. Water also
transports materials in living organisms, such as
in blood or sap.
3
6.3 Section Objectives page 157
Objectives
  • Classify the variety of organic compounds.
  • Describe how polymers are formed and broken down
    in organisms.
  • Compare the structures and functions of
    carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic
    acids, and relate their importance to living
    things.
  • Identify the effects of enzymes.

4
Todays notes
  • We will be getting information from this power
    point and putting it into a foldable.
  • We will need four flaps one for each of the
    macromolecules we will be learning.
  • You will put the names of the 4 macromolecules on
    each of the flaps and put some important
    information about each macromolecule under the
    flap.
  • See Mrs. Dions model.

5
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
Molecular chains that create macromolecules
  • Small molecules bond together to form chains
    called polymers. A polymer is a large molecule
    formed when many smaller molecules bond together.

6
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of carbohydrates
  • The simplest type of carbohydrate is a simple
    sugar called a monosaccharide (mah noh SA kuh
    ride). (ie. glucose, fructose)
  • The largest carbohydrate molecules are
    polysaccharides, polymers composed of many
    monosaccharide subunits. (ie. potatoes, liver)

7
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of lipids
  • Lipids are large macromolecules that are made
    mostly of carbon and hydrogen with a small amount
    of oxygen. (ie. fats, oils, waxes)
  • They are insoluble in water because their
    molecules are nonpolar and are not attracted by
    water molecules.

8
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of proteins
  • A protein is a large, complex polymer composed of
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes
    sulfur.

9
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of proteins
  • The basic building blocks of proteins are called
    amino acids.
  • There are about 20 common amino acids that can
    make literally thousands of proteins.

10
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of proteins
  • Proteins are the building blocks of many
    structural components of organisms.

11
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of proteins
  • Enzymes are important proteins found in living
    things. An enzyme is a protein that changes the
    rate of a chemical reaction.
  • They speed the reactions in digestion of food.

Click image to view movie.
12
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of nucleic acids
  • A nucleic (noo KLAY ihk) acid is a complex
    macromolecule that stores cellular information in
    the form of a code.
  • Nucleic acids are polymers made of smaller
    subunits called nucleotides.

13
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of nucleic acids
  • Nucleotides are arranged in three groupsa
    nitrogenous base, a simple sugar, and a phosphate
    group.

Phosphate
Sugar
Nitrogenous base
14
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of nucleic acids
  • DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid is a
    nucleic acid.

Phosphate
Sugar
Nitrogenous base
15
6.3 Section Summary 6.3 pages 157-163
The structure of nucleic acids
  • The information coded in DNA contains the
    instructions used to form all of an organisms
    enzymes and structural proteins.
  • Another important nucleic acid is RNA, which
    stands for ribonucleic acid. RNA is a nucleic
    acid that forms a copy of DNA for use in making
    proteins.
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