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Marine Fisheries Management

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Title: Marine Fisheries Management


1
Marine Fisheries Management
  • Original Power Point Created by Linda Rist
  • Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education
    Curriculum Office
  • June 2002

2
Ocean
  • can be considered the last frontier on this
    planet
  • unique physical characteristics

3
Ocean
  • can support wide variety of plant and animal life

4
Physical Characteristics
  • four major areas
  • zonation
  • salinity
  • temperature density
  • water movements

5
Zonation
  • classify ocean zones
  • depth measurements
  • temperature changes
  • pressure variations
  • light penetration

6
Zonation
  • depth and light penetration are the two most
    common methods
  • five zones

7
Zonation
  • supratidal
  • intertidal
  • neritic
  • bathyal
  • abyssal

8
Zonation
  • supratidal and intertidal
  • above the water level
  • are omitted in some classifications

9
Intertidal
  • sometimes called the littoral zone
  • area between high and low tide

10
Neritic
  • begins at the water line
  • contains more biological substance than any other
    part of the ocean
  • 10-200 miles wide

11
Neritic
  • 200-600 feet deep
  • zone stops at the end of the continental shelf
  • site of huge dumping of industrial and city wastes

12
Bathyal
  • contains the continental slope and rise
  • is regarded as a geologically active area
  • underwater avalanches and slides common

13
Abyssal
  • ocean deep zone
  • reaching depths of 5,000 meters
  • trenches may extend to more than 6,000 meters

14
Abyssal
  • trenches are referred to as the hadal zone
  • scarcity of food
  • increased water pressure
  • lack of dissolved oxygen

15
Abyssal
  • animal life must be specialized to live
  • must be able to obtain nutrients from rich
    sediments on the ocean floor

16
light penetration
  • euphotic zone - twilight zone
  • part of the ocean where sunlight penetrates the
    water
  • supports plant and animal life that requires
    sunlight to live

17
Euphotic zone
  • from the surface to about 600 feet beyond the
    horizontal shelf
  • below the euphotic is the cold, dark Abyssal zone

18
Salinity
  • concentration of salts within ocean water
  • concentrations and types of salts vary throughout
    the ocean

19
Salinity
  • most commonly found salt compounds consist of
  • sodium - Na
  • chlorine - Cl
  • magnesium - Mg

20
Salinity
  • calcium - Ca
  • potassium - K

21
Salinity
  • defined as the number of grams of dissolved salt
    in 1,000 grams of sea water
  • symbol for expressing salinity is o

22
Salinity
  • ranges in the ocean from 33o to 38o
  • average is about 35o

23
Temperature Density
  • the ocean is a giant heat pump that moves and
    transports heat from the equator to the poles

24
Temperature Density
  • temp changes occur as you move both to a
    different latitude and different depths

25
Temp stratification
  • three layers
  • mixed surface layer
  • middle thermocline layer (10-1,000 meters)
  • deep water layer (1,000 - 6,000 meters)

26
Thermocline
  • below the light penetration depth
  • suggests that there is a transfer of heat
    vertically as well as horizontally

27
Density
  • mass per unit volume
  • dependent upon salinity
  • temperature
  • pressure

28
Density
  • changes result from evaporation and heating of
    the oceans surface
  • higher temps -lower density
  • density increases as the pressure and depth
    increase

29
Water Movements
  • waves
  • tides
  • currents

30
Water Movements
  • dictates temperature, salinity, nutrient levels
    as well as animal and plant life

31
Waves
  • classified as
  • wind generated
  • internal
  • catastrophic
  • stationary

32
Wind generated
  • most common
  • sea
  • swell
  • surf

33
Wind generated
  • sea wave is an irregular wave with no systematic
    pattern
  • sea wave travels at different heights and changes
    direction as it moves

34
Wind generated
  • swell waves are uniform with similar dimensions
  • travel together because of their similar speed

35
Wind generated-swell
  • remain at a constant speed as they travel but
    decrease in height
  • sometimes travel across an entire ocean

36
Wind generated
  • surf wave is on occurring close to shore
  • water particles move in an orbital motion
  • toward the beach

37
Wind generated - surf
  • less depth
  • energy is directed toward the shore

38
underwater internal
  • found with the temperature changes in the depths
    of the ocean
  • travels more slowly but has a greater height

39
Catastrophic waves
  • massive power behind them
  • caused by storms, hurricanes and landslides on
    shore
  • commonly known catastrophic wave is the tidal wave

40
Stationary wave
  • occur in bays and calmer waters
  • does not move horizontally
  • water surface moves up and down

41
Tides
  • specialized waves caused by the gravitational
    attraction of the sun and moon on the earth
  • tides occur at very exact times with one-half
    lunar day

42
Tides
  • 12 hours 25 minutes between high tides
  • lunar day is longer than the solar day
  • tides occur 50 minutes later each day

43
Tides
  • an area will have either one high tide and one
    low tide each day (diurnal)
  • or two high tides an two low tides each day
    (semidiurnal)

44
Tides
  • when the sun and the moon line up with the earth
    a strong tide is produced
  • this happens every 14 days at the time of the new
    and full moons

45
Tides
  • this exceptionally high tide is called the spring
    tide
  • when the sun and moon are at right angles with
    each other
  • occurs during the half moon

46
Tides
  • an exceptionally low tide is produced
  • called neap tide

47
Currents
  • most common are surface currents, turbidity
    currents and bottom currents
  • surface currents, which are caused by the
    prevailing winds

48
Currents - surface
  • reach velocities of about 3 knots
  • 1 knot 1.15 mph

49
Currents
  • when a hurricane reaches shore or an earthquake
    occurs, landslides can occur
  • landslides can produce a turbidity current
    underwater

50
Currents
  • in the deep water become the bottom currents
  • responsible for moving sediments on the ocean
    floor

51
Currents
  • transporting water from the Atlantic Basin to the
    southern Atlantic Ocean

52
Life
  • the ocean is a wonderland of plant and animal
    life
  • storehouse of food and nutrients is virtually
    untapped

53
Life
  • with proper management the ocean could provide
    wide relief to the world food problem

54
Animal life
  • divided into four major groups
  • microscopic
  • marine fish
  • marine shellfish
  • marine mammals

55
Microscopic
  • most common are the plankton
  • zooplankton
  • staple food for species ranging from tiny fish to
    whales

56
Microscopic
  • many zooplankton are related to marine crabs and
    shrimp
  • plankton concentration varies
  • average concentration is one tenth of a gram per
    cubic meter of water

57
Microscopic
  • some scientists suggest harvesting plankton
    because they contain the nutrients and amino
    acids found in human food

58
Microscopic
  • would require filtering over one million gallons
    of water with sophisticated nets to collect one
    pound of dry plankton material

59
Marine Fish
  • four most important marine fish species are
  • salmon
  • tuna
  • menhaden
  • flounder

60
Marine Fish
  • these species make up the world fishing markets
  • less economically important species include
  • haddock, herring, cod, and mackerel

61
Salmon
  • seven main species
  • Atlantic
  • Cherry
  • Chinook
  • Chum

62
Salmon
  • Coho
  • Pink
  • Sockeye

63
Salmon
  • range in size from 16 inches long and weighing 5
    pounds to 36 inches and 25 pounds
  • live in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

64
Salmon
  • begin life in fresh water
  • migrate to the ocean to live and grow
  • Atlantic Salmon make the trip repeatedly

65
Salmon
  • Pacific species
  • include all or the seven except the Atlantic
  • spawn only once and die soon afterward

66
Salmon
  • spawn in shallow streams during late summer or
    early fall
  • female finds a rocky stream bed where she digs a
    saucer shaped nest with her tail

67
Salmon
  • male salmon stays close by to guard the female
  • she deposits her eggs in the nest and the male
    fertilizes them

68
Salmon
  • procedure is repeated upstream
  • female will lay 2,000 - 10,000 eggs during this
    spawning time

69
Salmon
  • eggs hatch in 3-4 months
  • fry retreat to the gravel bottom to try to avoid
    predators - birds and other fish

70
Salmon
  • young salmon live off food in the yolk sack
    attached to their stomachs
  • some species move toward the ocean immediately

71
Salmon
  • some stay in fresh water for up to 3 years
  • adult salmon remain in the ocean from 6 months to
    5 years before returning to fresh water to spawn

72
Salmon
  • Once the salmon reaches fresh water it stops
    eating and depends on body fat for energy
  • male develops a hooked snout

73
Salmon
  • some species develop a hump on their backs
  • quality of the meat is decreased at this time as
    the salmon loses some of its flavor

74
Salmon
  • management practices to protect and preserve
  • fish ladders to help salmon over dams
  • artificial spawning channels

75
Salmon
  • temp and water flow are controlled in the
    channels
  • use of hatcheries
  • construction of escarpments which allow a certain
    number of fish to spawn

76
Salmon
  • have also been used to control other rapidly
    producing fish species
  • coho salmon was introduced into the great lakes
    to control alewives

77
Salmon
  • commercially are caught in nets and sold
  • fresh
  • frozen
  • smoked and canned

78
Salmon
  • main fishing countries are
  • US
  • Japan
  • Canada

79
Tuna
  • member of the mackerel family
  • leading game fish in the US

80
Tuna
  • three most commercially important types are
  • albacore
  • skipjack
  • yellowfin

81
Tuna
  • species range in size from the 10 foot long,
    2,000 pound northern bluefin to the 2 foot long
    10 pound frigate

82
Tuna
  • are fast swimmers
  • reach speeds of up to 45 mph
  • Does not have the ability to push water through
    its gills

83
Tuna
  • must swim continuously in order to live
  • caught by bait fishing, long lining and purse
    seining
  • bait fishing involves using live bait to attract
    tuna

84
Tuna
  • long-lining
  • reel out a line up to 75 miles long
  • may have as many as 2,000 hooks

85
Tuna
  • purse seining
  • using nets called purse seines to catch fish
  • tuna usually travel below schools of porpoises

86
Tuna
  • pilots locate the porpoises from the air and
    radio the location to the boats
  • major problem is that many porpoises are netted
    at the same time

87
Tuna
  • netting of porpoises is accidental and unlawful

88
Menhaden
  • also known as bony fish or fatbacks
  • live in the Atlantic Ocean and feed on plankton
  • swim in schools close to the oceans surface

89
Menhaden
  • easy to catch
  • 12-18 inches long
  • weigh about 1 pound at maturity

90
Menhaden
  • most are used in products such as livestock feed,
    soap, and fertilizer, rather than human food

91
Flounder
  • also called Plaice
  • lives on the sandy and muddy bottoms of bays
  • have a flat body with both eyes on the same side
    of the head

92
Flounder
  • feed on shrimp and small fish

93
Marine shellfish
  • shrimp
  • oysters
  • crab
  • lobster

94
Shrimp
  • most economically important of the marine
    shellfish
  • live in salt and fresh water
  • excellent swimmers

95
Shrimp
  • large shrimp - called prawns
  • feed from the ocean floor
  • can grow to 12 inches in length

96
Shrimp
  • most common used for food is the Peneid shrimp
  • hatched from eggs laid in the ocean
  • female may lay 500,000 to 1 million eggs

97
Shrimp
  • as the young shrimp move toward shore
  • 80 percent are lost to predators
  • shrimp settle in bays and river mouths until 5-7
    mos

98
Shrimp
  • then move back to deeper water for breeding
  • female dies soon after laying her eggs

99
Shrimp
  • nets called trawls are dragged on the ocean floor
  • once netted, shrimp are sold frozen or canned
  • leading countries are US, Japan, India

100
Oyster
  • type of mollusk
  • shellfish with a two-piece shell protecting a
    soft inner body
  • live in mild or warm climates

101
Oyster
  • Oysters of the Persian gulf and the Pacific Ocean
    are responsible for making pearls

102
Oyster
  • female oyster lays about 500 million eggs each
    year, spraying them into the water
  • young oysters, called spat, hatches 10 hours later

103
Oyster
  • about the size of the point of a needle
  • within 24 hours the shell starts to form
  • young oyster attaches to a rock

104
Oyster
  • where it spends the rest of its life
  • some live up to 20 years
  • greatest enemies include humans, fish, crabs,
    starfish and oyster drills

105
Crabs
  • third economically important marine shellfish
  • habitats range from shallow waters close to shore
    to deep waters of the ocean

106
Crabs
  • 4500 different kinds of crabs
  • most common - Atlantic - lives in burrows on
    saltwater streams

107
Crabs
  • largest is the Alaskan King Crab
  • can weigh up to 12 pounds!
  • Most sought after crab by American and Japanese
    fishermen

108
Lobster
  • American Lobster lives on ocean bottoms near the
    shore in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
  • averages 12-24 inches in length

109
Lobster
  • weigh from 1 - 20 pounds
  • feeds by burrowing into a hole with only its claw
    at the edge

110
Lobster
  • as prey comes close to the claw it quickly
    becomes the lobsters next meal
  • main food consists of crab, snails, small fish
    and other lobsters

111
Lobsters
  • female carries her eggs under her tail for 11-12
    months
  • every 2 years she lays 5,000 - 100,000 eggs by
    shaking the eggs from eggshells

112
Lobsters
  • eggs will quickly rise to the surface
  • young will drift on the surface for three to five
    weeks
  • easy prey for birds and fish

113
Lobsters
  • young then sink to the ocean floor where they
    spend the remainder of their life
  • life span up to 15 years

114
Lobsters
  • caught in traps called pots
  • allow the lobster to enter but vertical wooden
    bars confuse the lobsters and prevent them from
    finding their way out

115
Lobsters
  • traps are checked daily
  • two lobsters in confinement will fight till one
    dies
  • claws are immobilized with a rubber band to
    prevent injury to other lobsters

116
Lobsters
  • Lobsters are kept together for shipping so
    immobilizing the claw is important

117
Marine Mammals
  • differ from other marine life in two important
    ways
  • warm blooded rather than cold blooded

118
Marine Mammals
  • mammals have lungs as breathing devices rather
    than gills
  • necessary to come to the surface to breath

119
Marine Mammals
  • main marine mammals are
  • whales
  • porpoises
  • walruses
  • fur seals

120
Whales
  • include the largest mammals that have ever lived
    on the earth
  • the largest blue whale was 100 feet long and
    weight 136 metric tons

121
Whales
  • divided into baleen whales and toothed whales

122
Baleen Whales
  • obtain their food by straining plankton from the
    seawater
  • through plates called whalebone

123
Baleen Whales
  • ten different types
  • three major groups
  • right, gray, and rorqual

124
Baleen Whales
  • Right include the bowhead
  • black right - longest baleen, averages 60 feet
    long
  • pygmy baleen- smallest baleen

125
Baleen
  • gray are black to gray in color and dotted with
    white blotches
  • feed from the ocean floor

126
Rorqual baleen
  • fastest whale
  • able to flee the whalers harpoon until the
    introduction of the diesel engine

127
Rorquals
  • sometimes referred to as finback
  • fin protrudes from their back

128
Rorquals
  • most common include
  • blue
  • brydes
  • fin
  • humpback

129
Rorquals
  • minke
  • sei
  • common food is small shrimp like animal called
    krill

130
Toothed whales
  • have a lower set of peglike teeth
  • over 65 different kinds of toothed whales

131
Toothed whales
  • five major groups
  • sperm
  • beaked
  • belugas and narwhales

132
Toothed Whales
  • dolphins and porpoises
  • river dolphins

133
Sperm Whale
  • largest toothed whale
  • about 60 feet in length
  • blue gray to black in color
  • enormous square head

134
Sperm whales
  • live in the tropical waters
  • feed off of squid, barracuda and sharks

135
Whales
  • usually seasonal breeders
  • mating during the winter months
  • male - bull
  • female - cow

136
Whales
  • migrate to the equator for mating
  • most baleen whales migrate
  • most toothed whales do not migrate

137
Whales
  • pregnancy lasts 10-12 months
  • when the calf is born it weighs nearly 4000
    pounds
  • 23 feet long

138
Whales
  • cow nurses her offspring for about 7 months
  • because of the rich milk, some calves can gain as
    much as 200 pounds a day

139
Whales
  • travel in herds of 100 - 1,000
  • adult male will form a harem school consisting of
    himself, his females and their young

140
Whales
  • nursery groups of females and young and bachelor
    groups of males also travel along with the harem

141
Migrating
  • mothers and young lead the herd
  • followed by males and non pregnant females
  • pregnant females at the rear

142
Whales
  • average life span is 15 years for a porpoise and
    40 years for a baleen whale

143
Fur Seals
  • seals are divided into three groups
  • eared - includes fur seals and sea lions
  • earless
  • walruses

144
Fur Seals
  • most sought after seal because eof its soft coat
  • US annual catch of fur seals amounts to over 3.5
    million

145
Fur Seals
  • spend the winter off the coast of California and
    the summer in Alaska
  • male seal is called a bull and weighs between 500
    and 700 pounds

146
Fur Seals
  • female is called a cow
  • weighs 50-100 pounds
  • bears one offspring per year
  • offspring are called a pup, whelp, or calf

147
Fur Seals
  • bulls arrive at the breeding grounds called
    rookeries in May or June
  • stake out their territories
  • about 40 feet in diameter

148
Fur Seals
  • cows arrive in July
  • immediately join a harem and bear their young
  • cow mates again 1 - 2 weeks after the birth of
    the pup

149
Fur Seals
  • bull is always being challenged by other bulls
    for his territory
  • usually must be at least 10 years old before he
    develops enough strength to defend

150
Fur Seals
  • main predators include sharks
  • killer whales
  • and parasitic round worms
  • humans

151
Fur Seals
  • thousands killed annually at their breeding
    ground for fur
  • 1911 North Pacific Fur Convention
  • Japan, Russia, Canada, and the US

152
Fur Seals
  • set a limit to the number of seals that can be
    harvested each year
  • Only Russia and the US can harvest 30,000 a year

153
Fur Seals
  • each country gives 15 of harvest to Japan and
    15 to Canada
  • US sealing is conducted by the government

154
Fur Seals
  • money is deposited in the US Treasury
  • 70 of money is returned to Alaskan govt.
  • 30 goes to the National Marine Fisheries Service

155
Walrus
  • the only tusked seals
  • live in the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North
    Pacific Regions

156
Walrus
  • their bodies have developed flippers that make
    them excellent swimmers
  • during winter and spring months, walruses drift
    on floating ice pieces

157
Walrus
  • spend summers resting on shorelines
  • main food is clams
  • Eskimo is the most common user of Walruses

158
Walrus
  • meat is used for food
  • hides for shelter
  • oil for lamps

159
Estuarine Ecosystem
  • area where freshwater source opens into the ocean
  • called an estuary

160
Estuary
  • transition area supports a variety of life that
    is found nowhere else
  • life that can withstand rapid changes in
    salinity, temperature and density

161
Estuary
  • continuously receives fresh water from the rivers
    and streams and salt water from the tides and
    currents

162
Estuary
  • transitional zone
  • has characteristics common to neither rivers or
    the ocean

163
Estuary
  • usually shallow and turbulent
  • results in high amount of oxygen in the water

164
Estuary
  • tides cause the area to be nutrient rich
  • rivers bring nutrients to the estuary from above
    and the tides bring nutrients from the ocean

165
Estuary
  • acts as a nutrient trap
  • bacteria count is high because of the high oxygen
    content

166
Estuary
  • rapid decomposition of organic wastes
  • breakdown of organic matter to soluble nutrients
    causes plant life to prosper

167
Estuary
  • high plant life attracts large numbers of plant
    eating fish
  • life in the estuary is grouped into three groups
  • 1. Species that travel a short distance to the
    estuary

168
Estuary
  • 2. Species found in both the estuary and in
    other parts of the ocean
  • 3. Species whose entire life cycles are in the
    estuary

169
Estuary
  • economically important to marine fisheries
  • 90 of the marine fish harvested either comes
    from the estuarine ecosystem or passes through it

170
Estuary
  • best known life in the estuary include fish
    larvae
  • oysters
  • clams, crabs
  • lobsters, shrimp

171
Estuary
  • problems facing estuaries include conflict
    between land developers and fishermen

172
Estuary
  • shorelines are the most sought after types of
    real estate
  • some estuaries have been used as a dumping ground

173
Estuary
  • dumping destroys natural habitat

174
Artificial Ocean Cultivation
  • scientists have developed ways to artificially
    propagate marine animals
  • this form of agricultural production is called
    aquaculture

175
Artificial Ocean Cultivation
  • most commonly farmed marine resource crop is the
    oyster
  • research is also being conducted with shrimp,
    salmon and milkfish

176
Oysters
  • live in estuarine waters
  • close to shore
  • makes them one of the easiest marine animals to
    raise

177
Oysters
  • improving habitat is first step
  • providing a place for larvae to attach
  • control parasites and predators

178
Oysters
  • French Scientists have developed a special algae
    as an improved food for the oysters to grow more
    quickly.

179
Oysters
  • Japans most productive oyster farm
  • Inland Sea near Hiroshima
  • water flow and mineral content are correct

180
Oysters
  • very desirable oyster producing area
  • only management item needed is a stopping
    apparatus to which the larvae can attach

181
Oysters
  • Japanese oyster farms consist of bamboo poles
    tied together and floating on barrels
  • wires are hung from the poles to a depth of 20
    feet

182
Oysters
  • wires hold clam shells
  • act as the stopping place for oyster larvae
  • In July and August, billions of oyster larvae
    attach to the artificially hung shells

183
Oysters
  • larvae are thinned to the correct amount
  • midseason - October - wires are pulled and young
    oysters are cleaned and brushed which helps them
    grow

184
Oysters
  • harvested in January and February
  • standard oyster raft measures 35-40 feet square
  • may own as many as 100 rafts

185
Oysters
  • number of barrels needed to support the raft
    increases as the oysters grow and weigh it down

186
Oysters
  • feed on plankton
  • costs are low
  • average yield is about 13,000 pounds of oyster
    flesh per acre farmed

187
Oysters
  • shells are cleaned and sold for poultry grit and
    lime
  • Japan can attribute its successful oyster farming
    both to low labor costs and to preservation of
    habitat

188
Oysters
  • pollution of waters has almost stripped every
    other nation of an economically feasible oyster
    industry

189
Laws and Regulations
  • who owns the ocean
  • how many miles offshore can a country claim
  • who owns the mineral resources on the ocean floor

190
Laws and Regs
  • development of fishing policy
  • fish cannot be claimed as property like land
    wildlife can

191
Laws and Regs
  • recent legislation is aimed at conservation
  • variety of commissions and committees have been
    formed

192
Laws and Regs
  • most deal with regulation of one specific
    resource ie fur seals, whale, tuna
  • major examples include
  • Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC)

193
Laws and Regs
  • International Commission for Northwest Atlantic
    Fisheries (ICNAF)
  • International North Pacific Fisheries Commission
    (INPFC

194
Laws and Regs
  • International Whaling Commission (IWC)
  • most commissions are formed after a resource
    develops problems

195
Laws and Regs
  • commissions are only as strong as their member
    nations want them to be
  • most recent attempt to develop ocean regulations
    is the UNs Law of the Sea

196
Laws and Regs
  • a set of bargaining conferences
  • involve 150 nations
  • first conference initiated in 1958

197
Laws and Regs
  • other conferences held in 1960, 73, and 80
  • three major items discussed
  • 1. Territorial limits

198
Laws and Regs
  • 2. Jurisdiction over an exclusive economic zone
  • 3. Seabed mining

199
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