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BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CUCUMBER POWDERY MILDEW USING STREPTOMYCES STRAINS IN GREENHOUSE

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Title: BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CUCUMBER POWDERY MILDEW USING STREPTOMYCES STRAINS IN GREENHOUSE


1
  • BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CUCUMBER POWDERY MILDEW
    USING STREPTOMYCES STRAINS IN GREENHOUSE

2
outline for the paper
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • RESULTS
  • DISCUSSION
  • REFERENCES

3
INTRODUCTION
  • Powdery mildew
  • Biological control of various powdery mildew
    fungi has been studied quite extensively in the
    past and a few microorganisms have been shown to
    give moderate to good control under experimental
    conditions.
  • The objective of this work was to control
    cucumber powdery mildew by using Streptomyces
    strains.

4
INTRODUCTION
  • Powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca
    fuliginea Polacci, is the most important disease
    of greenhouse-grown cucumbers requiring high
    inputs of fungicides for control. The intensive
    use of fungicides is regarded undesirable both
    for environmental reasons and for the risk of the
    development of resistance by the pathogen.
    Therefore, alternative control measures for
    powdery mildew need to be developed in order to
    decrease the fungicide input and the dependence
    on these fungicides.

5
Examples for biological control
  • Ampelomyces quisqualis Ces. was shown to control
    S. fuliginea in cucumber by a number of
    researchers (1,2,3,4) . A strain of A. quisqualis
    isolated in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
    Israel has been formulated and commercialized by
    Ecogen Inc. under the trade name AQ10(4).
  • In China, Nongkang 120 has been used to control
    wheat powdery mildew.

6
MATERIALS AND METHODS
  • Seed soaking experiment
  • Inoculation of plants with powdery mildew
  • Treatment arrangements
  • Statistics

7
Seed soaking experiment
  • Cucumber seeds of Xintaimici, a susceptible
    cultivar to the pathogen used were soaked in
    spore suspensions of Streptomyces strains M63,
    S15 and S93 with 10 6-7cfu. for 12 hours,
    respectiveily. The germinated seeds were then
    planted in pots when the shoots grew for about
    0.5cm long. All the cucumber plants were grown in
    greenhouse at 255?.

8
Inoculation of plants with powdery mildew
  • Cucumber plants with four to six expanded leaves
    were inoculated with cucumber powdery mildew
    pathogen, Sphaerotheca faliginea Polacci by
    dusting with its conidia taken from infected
    cucumber leaves inoculated two weeks earlier.

9
Treatment arrangements
  • Both experiments of protection and therapeutic
    effect were carried out by using Streptomyces
    strains before or after inoculation of plants
    with the pathogen. M63, S15 and S93 were used by
    spraying respectively on cucumber leaves with
    different time intervals of 0.5h, 24h, 72h, and
    120h. Water and Triadimefon were used as CKs.

10
Statistics
  • Disease index and protective effect were used in
    the experiments to investigate control efficiency
    of Streptomyces strains agaist the disease. The
    analysis of variance and tests for least
    significant difference were employed for
    comparison of the data.

11
RESULTS
  • M63, S15 and S93 provided significantly better
    protection against cucumber powdery mildew in
    seed soaking experiment.
  • M63 had more durable effect on disease control
    than the other two strains.
  • Seed soaking combined with leaf spraying of the
    strains had similar tendency of disease control
    as leaf spraying alone.
  • Spraying along with the strains for therapeutic
    control did not show significantly better disease
    control.

12
Table 1.protection of streptomyces strains
against cucumber powdery mildew in seed soaking
experiment
13
Table 2.protection of streptomyces strains
against cucumber powdery mildew in leaf spraing
experiment
P protection SD means significance of
different.
14

15
DISCUSSION
  • Since M63 provided significantly better and
    steady protective effect on cucumber powdery
    mildew than the others including the chemical
    control of Triadimefon, it was suggested to be
    used for further biological control of cucumber
    powdery mildew.
  • the resistance to cucumber powdery mildew had
    been induced by using the biological control
    agents in soaking the cucumber seeds before
    planting.

16
REFERENCES
  • .Dik, A. J., Vorhaar, M. A., and Belanger,
    R.R.(1998), Comparison of three biological
    control agents against cucumber powdery mildew
    (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) in semi-commercial scale
    glass house trials. European Journal of Plant
    Pathology 104413-423.
  • .Eldd, Y., Malathrakis, N. E., and Dik A.
    J.(1996), Biological control of Botrytis-incited
    disease and powdery mildews in greenhouse. Crop,
    Prot. 15229-240.
  • .Sundheim, L.(1982), Control of cucumber powdery
    mildew by the hyperparasite Ampelomyces
    quisqualis and fungicides. Plant Pathol.
    31209-214.
  • .Sztejnberg, A., Galper, S., Mazar, S., and
    Lisker, N.(1989), Ampelomhces quisqualis for
    biological and integrated control of powdery
    mildews in Israel. J. Phytopathol. 124285295?

17
Thank you very much !
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