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Models of Work Motivation Part 2


Can graphology predict occupational success? Two empirical studies and some methodological ruminations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (4), 645-653. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Models of Work Motivation Part 2

Models of Work Motivation Part 2
  • Thomas Li-Ping Tang, Ph.D.
  • Middle Tennessee State University

Hackman Oldham
  • Core Job Dimensions
  • Critical Psychological States
  • Personal and Work Outcomes
  • Employee Growth Need Strength
  • Individual Difference Variable, Moderator

Core Job Dimensions
  • Skill Variety
  • Task Identity
  • Task Significance
  • Autonomy
  • Feedback

Psychological States
  • Meaningfulness of work
  • Responsibility for outcomes
  • Knowledge of results

Personal and Work Outcomes
  • High Internal Work Motivation
  • High Quality Work Performance
  • High Satisfaction with the Work
  • Low Absenteeism and Turnover

Growth Need Strength
  • Individual Difference
  • Growth Needs
  • Higher Order Needs
  • Self-Esteem
  • Self-Actualization

Motivating Potential Score
  • (Skill Variety Task Identity Task
    Significance)/3 Autonomy Feedback

David McClellands Learned Needs Theory
  • Need for Achievement, n Ach
  • Need for Power, n Pow
  • Need for Affiliation, n Aff

  • McClelland, D. C. Steele, R. S. (1972).
    Motivation Workshops A student workbook for
    experiential learning in human motivation. New
    York General Learning Press.
  • Harvard University

Taking TAT
  • Please look at the picture for about 20 seconds.
  • Make up imaginative stories about this picture.
  • Work Rapidly. Dont spend over 5 minutes on this
  • When you finish writing your story to one
    picture, then, go on to the next picture and
    write a story about it.

Taking TAT
  • Please use a blank sheet of paper.
  • Please write your story on one side of the paper.
  • Do not put your paper on your notebook or
  • Do not use the lines on your notebook as a guide
    for writing your story.

4 Questions
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done? Please
    integrate your answers to these 4 questions into
    your story. Do not answer
    each question separately A1, A2, A3, A4.

Picture 1
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done?

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Picture 2
  1. What is happening? Who are the people?
  2. What has led up to this situation? That is, what
    has happened in the past?
  3. What is being thought? What is wanted? By whom?
  4. What will happen? What will be done?

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Sentence Completion
  • Speed of Expression
  • On a blank sheet of paper, please complete the
    following sentences, as quickly as possible.

Sentence Completion
  1. In the evening, I
  2. The best teacher is
  3. I prefer the company

Speed of Expression
  • Name
  • Company
  • Job
  • Instructions
  • The last sentence Please use a pencil.
  • How do you handle your assignment?

US Marines
  • 1 out of 50 Completed the Test Successfully
  • Instructions, Long Tests
  • If you have completed the test up to this point,
    you have failed the test.
  • Please sign your name on the next page
  • Read Instructions Carefully
  • Read the small print. Sign your name on the last
    page of this test.

  • On a blank sheet of paper, please print your name
    once and sign your name 3 times.
  • Please use the signature that you usually use for
    formal documents, e.g., checks.

  • On a blank sheet of paper, please write as
    quickly as possible the following items in one
    paragraph with 1 margin on each side.
  • Please start this project, after you finish
    reading all the instructions.

  • Please write continuously in one short paragraph.
  • My name is xxx. I am a student at MTSU and am
    currently in Dr. Tangs MGMT 3610, or 6600 class
  • Activities that you have done this month, this
    week, or today.

  • Please tell me all the true facts and events.
  • Insert one lie in the story that only you know
    this is a lie. No one else can detect it. Write
    as quickly as you can.
  • Now you may start.

Thematic Apperception Test TAT
  • Each person should read at least one of his/her
    stories to the group.
  • Does the story reflect some aspect of a current
    life situation?
  • What is (are) the common theme or themes in
    these stories?
  • Can you identify the similarities and differences
    between TAT stories and dreams?

TAT-n Ach
  • Want to perform or do something better
  • Outperform someone else
  • Surpass some self-imposed standard of excellence
  • Do something unique, inventing something
  • Over a long term in doing something well, being a
    success in life, spent 8 years practicing ballet

TAT-n Aff
  • Want to establish, restore, or maintain a close,
    warn, friendly relationship with others
  • Being emotionally concerned over separation from
    another person
  • Desire to participate in friendly activities,
    e.g., club reunion.

TAT-n Power
  • Strong, forceful actions that affect others
  • Give help, assistance, advice or support
  • Try to control another person
  • Try to influence, persuade, make a point, or
    argue with another person
  • Try to impress other person or the world at large

  • McNichol, A. (1991). Handwriting analysis
    Putting it to work for you. Chicago
    Contemporary Books.
  • Teltscher, H. O. (1971). HandwritingRevelation
    of self. New York Hawthorn Books, Inc.

Handwriting Research
  • Ben-Shakhar, G., Bar-Hillel, M., Bilu, Y.,
    Ben-Abba, E., Flug, A. (1986). Can graphology
    predict occupational success? Two empirical
    studies and some methodological ruminations.
    Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (4), 645-653.
  • Klimoski, R., Rafaeli, A. (1983). Inferring
    personal qualities through handwriting analysis.
    Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56, 191-202.

Handwriting Research
  • Rafaeli, A., Klimoski, R. J. (1983).
    Predicting sales success through handwriting
    analysis An evaluatin of the effects of
    training and handwriting sample content. Journal
    of Applied Psychology, 68 (2), 212-217.
  • Rafaeli, A., Klimoski, R. J. (1988).
    Graphological assessments for personnel
    selection Concerns and suggestions for
    research. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66,
  • Taylor, M. S., Sackheim, K. K. (1988, May).
    Graphology. Personnel Administrator, 71-76.

Handwriting Research
  • Nevo, B. (1988). Yes, graphology can predict
    occupational success Rejoinder to Ben-Shakhar,
    et al. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66, 92-94.
  • Gottlieb, A. (1987, November). What you write
    is what you are. McCalls, CXV (2), 175-180.
  • Tuller, D. (1987, Fall). The write stuff.
    Marriotts Portfolio, 56-59.
  • Patterson, J. (1976). Interpreting handwriting.
    New York McKay.

Patterson 12 Factors
  • Size, Slant, Width, Zones,
  • Regularity, Margin, Pressure, Stroke,
  • Lines, Connection, Forms of Connection, and Word
    and Line Spacing

  • Its use in applied settings is premature.
  • Although the literature on this topic suffers
    from significant methodological negligence, the
    gneral trend of findings is to suggest that
    graphology is not a viable assessment method.
    (Klimoski Rafaeli, 1983).

Principles of Interpretation
  • To grasp its totality or gestalt or style
  • Not to focus on single strokes or letters
  • To attempt a description of the individual
  • Not to make iron-clad diagnoses

Principles of Interpretation
  • Hartford, H. (1973). You are what you write.
    New York Macmillan.
  • You are what you write.
  • You write what you are.
  • Handwriting is brain writing.
  • Graphologist emphasizes the role of personality
    in the development of a handwriting.

Principles of Interpretation
  • When hypnotized, one writes according to the
    character suggested by the hypnotist.
  • The pen is an extension of the body and functions
    with it.
  • Alfred Binet called graphology the science of the

Principles of Interpretation
  • If the claims of graphology could be
    scientifically validated, says Zubin, a professor
    of psychology at Columbia University, handwriting
    would offer the most accessible means of
    evaluating the personality of both patients and
    normal people.

Principles of Interpretation
  • Gordon W. Allport and Philip E. Vernon (1933)
    stated that Handwriting provides material that
    is less artificial than tests. And more
    convenient for analysis.
  • Dr. Hector Riety, Diplomat in Psychiatry of the
    American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, wrote
    that handwriting analysis has a definite
    advantage over very other projective technique,
    inasmuch as patient is completely unaware of the
    fact that he is undergoing a test while writing.

Principles of Interpretation
  • In the whole living human race, there are not two
    individuals who have the same handwriting.
  • Writing changes gradually along with the
    character over a period of years and
    superficially with moods.

Principles of Interpretation
  • Upper Zone, Superego
  • Middle, Ego
  • Lower, Id
  • Slant
  • Express your real emotional feelings (Right)
  • Suppress (Vertical)
  • Repress (Left)

To Tell A Lie
  • Margins
  • Slant
  • Spacing
  • Baselines
  • Mistakes
  • Pressure
  • Size
  • Speed

The most difficult signatures to Forge
  • Written as legibly as possible
  • Written as continuously as possible
  • Written as quickly as possible

Content Theories
  • Maslow
  • Alderfer
  • Herzberg
  • McClelland

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Process Theories of Motivation
  • Vrooms (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • Porter-Lawlers (1968) Expectancy Theory
  • Adams (1963) Equity Theory

VIE Theory
  • Vrooms (1964) Expectancy Theory
  • Expectancy Probability 0 - 1
  • Instrumentality Probability -1 0 1
  • Valence of Reward ----

Porter-Lawler (1968)
  • Value of Reward, Perceived Effort? Reward
    Probability, Effort, Abilities and Traits, Role
    Perceptions, Performance
  • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards, Perceived
    Equitable Rewards, Satisfaction.
  • Feedback Loops Satisfaction ? Value of Reward,
    Performance ? Perceived Effort ? Reward

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Adams (1963) Equity Theory
  • Output/Input Ratio
  • Output Salary, benefits, status, vacation,
    perks, etc.
  • Input Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities,
    Education, degrees, experience, effort, time,
    tenure, etc.

Adams (1963) Equity Theory
  • Self
  • Output/Input Ratio Output/Input Ratio
  • gt
  • lt

  • Colleague in the Department
  • Colleague in the Organization
  • Colleague in a comparable Organization
  • Colleague in the Market

  • Reduce I
  • Increase O
  • Increase Referents I
  • Reduce Referents O
  • Change to a different Referent
  • Quite your job
  • Dont Compare

Thank You
  • Danke
  • Dankeshaen
  • Grazie
  • Merci
  • Muchas Gracias