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Developmental Psychology

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Developmental Psychology Author: Karen Knoth Deal Last modified by: Karen K Deal Created Date: 11/23/2012 1:19:40 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Psychology


1
Developmental Psychology
  • Study of how people are continually developing
    throughout their life span

2
Types of Development
  • Physical Bodies and brains
  • Cognitive Mental activities related to
    learning, memory, and communcation
  • Social Think about and relate with others

3
Different Approaches to Studying Development
  • Those who focus on the importance of
    experience/learning tend to see development as a
    slow, continuous process.
  • Those who focus on biology/genes tend to see
    development as a sequence of genetically
    predetermined stages that occur in the same
    sequence (although the timing may differ)

4
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
Life is sexually transmitted
5
Prenatal Development
  • Zygote
  • the fertilized egg
  • enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division
  • develops into an embryo
  • Embryo
  • the developing human organism from 2 weeks
    through 2nd month
  • Fetus
  • the developing human organism from 9 weeks after
    conception to birth

6
Which of the following babies is the oldest?
  1. Jordan, who is a blastocyst.
  2. Megan, who has reached the age of viability.
  3. Frank, who is more sensitive to teratogens at
    this stage than at any other stage.
  4. Pat, who is a zygote.

7
Prenatal Development and the Newborn
40 Days
45 Days
2 Months
4 Months
8
Prenatal Risks
  • Teratogens
  • agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can
    reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal
    development and cause harm

9
Common Teratogens
  • Alcohol
  • No amount of alcohol is safe. Can cause mental
    retardation, learning disorders and retarded
    growth and fetal alcohol syndrome.

10
Common Teratogens
  • Smoking
  • decreased birth weight
  • increased risk of miscarriage and still birth
  • interference with cognitive development in early
    childhood

11
Common Teratogens
  • Infectious agents Some viruses, such as
    rubella, herpes or HIV and some bacteria or
    parasites, such as toxoplasmosis
  • Cocaine Can cause premature birth, brain
    lesions, impaired sensory functioning, increased
    irritability, heart deformities

12
Effects of Cocaine Use in Pregnancy
13
Common Teratogens
  • Prescription and over-the counter drugs
  • Excessive use of aspirin
  • Use of ibuprofen later in pregnancy
  • Caffeine can slow growth, contribute to
    premature birth and increased irritability

14
What Can a Newborn Do?
  • Rooting Reflex
  • tendency to open mouth, and search for nipple
    when touched on the cheek
  • Habituation
  • decreasing responsiveness with repeated
    stimulation (getting used to a stimulus and
    showing less response to it)

15
Preference for Novel Stimuli
Habituation
16
Even Newborns Have Preferences
  • Preferences
  • human voices and faces
  • face-like images--gt
  • smell and sound of
  • mother
  • preferred

17
Physical Development in Infancy Childhood
  • Maturation of Neurons
  • biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior
  • relatively uninfluenced by experience

18
Physical Development in Infancy Childhood
  • Motor Development
  • Sequence of events is almost universal
  • Genes play a major role in motor development

19
Physical Development in Infancy Childhood
  • Infant Memory
  • Infantile Amnesia Generally no recall of events
    before the 3rd birthday
  • Infants and young children still make memories,
    however

20
Cognitive Development in Infancy Childhood
  • Cognition the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  • Jean Piaget (1896- 1980)
  • 4 Stages of Cognitive
  • Development

21
What Did Piaget Believe?
  • A childs mind develops in a series of stages
  • Primary force behind our cognitive development is
    the constant struggle to make sense of our
    experiences
  • Schemas mental molds into which we fit our
    experiences

22
What Did Piaget Believe?
  • Accommodation Adjusting our schemas to
    incorporate new experiences

23
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
24
1. Sensorimotor Stage
  • Birth to about age 2
  • Take in the world through their senses
  • Milestones
  • Object permanence
  • Stranger anxiety

25
Current thinking
  • Piaget may have underestimated the ability of
    infants and very young children

Child spent more time looking at impossible figure
26
2. Preoperational Stage
  • 2 years to 6-7 years old
  • Objects are associated with words or images
  • Uses intuitive (rather than logical) reasoning
  • Milestones
  • Pretend play
  • Egocentrism
  • Begin forming a theory of mind

27
Preoperational Stage
  • Lacks concept of conservation

28
3. Concrete Operational Stage
  • 6-7 to 12 years old
  • Thinks logically about concrete events
  • Milestones
  • Conservation
  • Mathematical skills
  • Grasping analogies

29
4. Formal Operational Stage
  • Age 12 through adulthood
  • Milestones
  • Abstract reasoning
  • Moral reasoning

30
Lev Vygotsky (1895-1934)
  • Russian psychologist
  • A childs mind grows through interaction with
    social environment
  • Zone of Proximal
  • Development

31
Social Development
  • Attachment The formation of an emotional tie
    with another person
  • Falsely thought that source of nourishment
    defined attachment
  • Harlow Experiment
  • Body contact
  • Familiarity

32
Attachment Can Be Rigid
  • But NOT in mammals
  • Konrad Lorenz
  • Studied rigid attachment process called
    imprinting

33
Social Development
  • Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were
    terror-stricken when placed in strange situations
    without their surrogate mothers.

34
Social Development
  • Groups of infants left by their mothers in a
    unfamiliar room

35
Social Development
  • Basic Trust (Erik Erikson)
  • a sense that the world is predictable and
    trustworthy
  • said to be formed during infancy by appropriate
    experiences with responsive caregivers
  • Self-Concept
  • a sense of ones identity and personal worth

36
Social Development Child-Rearing Practices
  • Authoritarian
  • parents impose rules and expect obedience
  • Dont interrupt. Why? Because I said so.
  • Permissive
  • submit to childrens desires, make few demands,
    use little punishment
  • Authoritative
  • both demanding and responsive
  • set rules, but explain reasons and encourage open
    discussion

37
Social Development Child-Rearing Practices
38
Adolescence
  • Adolescence
  • the transition period from childhood to adulthood
  • extending from puberty to independence
  • Puberty
  • the period of sexual maturation
  • when a person becomes capable of reproduction

39
Adolescence
  • Primary Sex Characteristics
  • body structures that make sexual reproduction
    possible
  • ovaries--female
  • testes--male
  • external genitalia
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics
  • nonreproductive sexual characteristics
  • female--breast and hips
  • male--voice quality and body hair
  • Menarche
  • first menstrual period

40
Adolescence
  • In the 1890s the average interval between a
    womans menarche and marriage was about 7 years
    now it is over 12 years

41
Adolescence
  • Throughout childhood, boys and girls are similar
    in height. At puberty, girls surge ahead
    briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age
    14.

42
Body Changes at Puberty
43
Kohlbergs Moral Ladder
  • As moral development progresses, the focus of
    concern moves from the self to the wider social
    world.

Morality of abstract principles to
affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical
principles
Postconventional level
Conventional level
Morality of law and social rules to
gain approval or avoid disapproval
Preconventional level
Morality of self-interest to avoid punishment or
gain concrete rewards
44
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
45
Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development
46
Adolescence Social Development
  • Identity
  • ones sense of self
  • the adolescents task is to solidify a sense of
    self by testing and integrating various roles
  • Intimacy
  • the ability to form close, loving relationships
  • a primary developmental task in late adolescence
    and early adulthood

47
Adolescence Social Development
  • The changing parent-child relationship

48
Adulthood Physical Development
  • Menopause
  • the time of natural cessation of menstruation
  • also refers to the biological changes a woman
    experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  • Alzheimers Disease
  • a progressive and irreversible brain disorder
  • characterized by a gradual deterioration of
    memory, reasoning, language, and finally,
    physical functioning

49
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
50
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

90
70
50
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
51
Adulthood Physical Development
  • The Aging Senses

90
70
50
10
30
50
70
90
Age in years
52
Adulthood Physical Development
Fatal accident rate
  • Slowing reactions contribute to increased
    accident risks among those 75 and older.

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
16
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75 and over
Age
53
Adulthood Physical Development
  • Incidence of Dementia by Age

54
Adulthood Cognitive Development
100
  • Recalling new names introduced once, twice, or
    three times is easier for younger adults than for
    older ones

Percent of names recalled
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
18
40
50
60
70
Age group
55
Adulthood Cognitive Development
Number Of words remembered
  • The ability to recall new information declined
    during early and middle adulthood, but the
    ability to recognize new information did not.

24
20
16
12
8
4
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
Age in years
56
Adulthood Cognitive Development
Reasoning ability score
  • Cross-Sectional Study
  • a study in which people of different ages are
    compared with one another
  • Longitudinal Study
  • a study in which the same people are restudied
    and retested over a long period

60
55
50
45
40
35
25
32
39
46
53
60
74
67
81
Age in years
Cross-sectional method
Longitudinal method
57
Adulthood- Cognitive Development
Intelligence (IQ) score
  • Verbal intelligence scores hold steady with age,
    while nonverbal intelligence scores decline.

105
100
95
90
85
80
75
20
35
55
70
25
45
65
Age group
58
Adulthood Cognitive Development
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
  • tends to increase with age
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
  • tends to decrease during late adulthood

59
Adulthood Social Development
  • Early-forties midlife crisis?

60
Adulthood Social Changes
  • Social Clock
  • the culturally preferred timing of social events
  • marriage
  • parenthood
  • retirement

61
Adulthood Social Changes
  • Multinational surveys show that age differences
    in life satisfaction are trivial (Inglehart,
    1990).

Percentage satisfied with life as a whole
80
60
40
20
0
15
25
35
45
55
65
Age group
62
Adulthood Social Changes
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