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RENAISSANCE

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Title: RENAISSANCE


1
RENAISSANCE
  • Made possible by recovery of trade and commerce
    after the chaos of Late Middle Ages
  • Began roughly around 1400 AD, first in northern
    Italy and then gradually throughout the rest of
    Western Europe
  • Means rebirth
  • Revival of wisdom and achievements of ancient
    Rome
  • Saw Middle Ages as a bleak period of ignorance
    and superstition, presided over by a Church which
    stifled creativity and freedom of expression
    Dark Ages
  • Looked to Ancient World for inspiration
  • Humanism emphasis in art and philosophy on man
    and his aspirations, thoughts, desires, and
    achievements

2
HUMANISM
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Fused knowledge of ancient Rome with his
    practical experience as diplomat from Florence
  • Wrote The Prince advice book for rulers
  • Moral and religious considerations of right and
    wrong had no place in politics
  • All that counted was whether an action benefited
    a ruler and his state
  • Ends justified the means
  • Brutally realistic but good example of humanistic
    emphasis on man

3
RENAISSANCE ART
  • Derivative in some ways (architects merely copied
    Roman styles)
  • Truly original in painting.
  • Why?
  • Desire to be realistic, to recreate on canvas
    what the eye actually saw
  • Developed new techniques to accomplish this
  • Preliminary sketches
  • Attention to shadow and light
  • Attention to pose, costume, and setting
  • Perspective
  • Anatomically accurate figure drawing

4
LEONARDO DA VINCITHE LAST SUPPER
5
LEONARDO DA VINCIMONA LISA
6
MICHELANGELOCEILING OF THE SISTINE CHAPEL
7
MICHELANGELODAVID and THE PIETA
8
OTHER RENAISSANCE PAINTERS
Raphael
Titian
Peter Paul Rubens
El Greco
9
RENAISSANCE WRITERS
  • Vernacular literature (writing in a spoken
    language instead of Latin)
  • New literary forms
  • New stylistic devices
  • Growth of national literatures
  • William Shakespeare
  • Greatest national writer
  • Author of sonnets
  • Author of numerous plays
  • Midsummers Night Dream
  • Hamlet
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • MacBeth

10
RENAISSANCE RULERS
  • Continued process of creating strong centralized
    states
  • Effective because of their ruthlessness
  • Provided Machiavelli with his model
  • FRANCE
  • Louis XI
  • Francis I

11
RENAISSANCE RULERSENGLAND
  • War of the Roses
  • Henry VII founds Tudor Dynasty
  • Henry VII destroys power of the Catholic Church
  • Elizabeth I destroys power of the nobility

12
RENAISSANCE RULERSSPAIN
  • Ferdinand of Aragon marries Isabella of Castille
  • Together they drive out the Moslems to create
    unified Christian kingdom of Spain
  • Grandson Charles V
  • Great grandson Philip II
  • Spain becomes greatest power in Europe (thanks
    mainly to treasure from New World)

13
REFORMATION
  • Upheaval in Christian Church
  • Produced powerful new religious ideas
  • Created a number of new Christian denominations
    (Protestants)
  • Sparked Catholic Counter-Reformation
  • Unleashed wave of terrible religious wars
  • Europes last great age of faith

14
PROBLEMS WITH THE CHURCH
  • Had become corrupt, distracted from original
    mission and influenced by humanistic ideas
  • Popes more concerned with art, literature,
    politics, and luxury than religion
  • Alexander VI Borgia pope with illegitimate
    children, mistresses. Engaged in military
    campaigns and murders.

15
ABUSES
  • Simony (selling church offices)
  • Pluralism (holding more than one church office at
    a time)
  • Clerical immorality
  • Clerical ignorance

16
RELIGIOUS DISSENT
  • Abuses strongly contrasted with traditional image
    of the Church
  • Jan Hus of Bohemia and John Wycliffe of England
    both protested abuses within the Church and paid
    for their dissent with their lives

17
MARTIN LUTHER I
  • 1483-1546 Born into middle-class family
  • Supposed to go to law school but defied father
    and went to seminary to become monk
  • Suffered from intense personal religious crisis
  • Personal salvation
  • Church taught that faith in Jesus plus good works
    earned salvation
  • Luther performed good works but did not feel he
    was saved

18
MARTIN LUTHER II
  • Became professor of theology at University of
    Wittenburg
  • Bothered by sale of indulgences
  • Permission not to do penance for forgiveness of
    sins
  • Pieces of paper sold by Church
  • People believed they could buy their way into
    Heaven
  • Hit on new doctrine of salvation while preparing
    a lecture on epistles of St. Paul
  • A person is saved by faith in Jesus alone

19
LUTHER GOES PUBLIC
  • Posted 95 Theses on door of local cathedral to
    start debate on issue of indulgences
  • Church wont debate and forces Luther to take
    increasingly extreme positions
  • Pope had no power over Christians
  • He was a fraud
  • Excommunicated in 1520
  • Condemned by Diet of Worms
  • Held by Charles V
  • Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise
  • Declared outlaw of the Empire

20
ATTRACTIONS OF LUTHERANISM
  • Ordinary people found comfort in his religious
    message
  • Rulers often had political and economic motives
  • Opportunity to seize wealth of Catholic Church
  • Way to oppose centralizing policies of Charles V
  • Spread throughout northern Germany and
    Scandinavia

21
HENRY VIII AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND
  • Motivated by personal and political reasons
  • Wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry
    Anne Boleyn
  • Pope refused
  • Pulled England out of Catholic Church in 1534 and
    created Church of England
  • Kept most traditional Catholic practices and
    doctrines
  • Only difference was that Church answered to king,
    not pope
  • Opened way for gradual Protestantization of
    England

22
JOHN CALVIN
  • French
  • Controlled Swiss city of Geneva
  • Doctrine
  • Stressed overwhelming power of God and
    insignificance of man
  • Predestination
  • God is all-knowing
  • He therefore knows everything we will do in our
    life before we do it
  • Knew from the beginning of time whether an
    individual would be saved or not
  • No human being deserves salvation
  • God, for unknown reasons, has decided ti save
    some. They will be notified.
  • People must behave in certain way to show
    gratitude for salvation

23
CALVINISTS
  • Followers
  • Puritans in England
  • Presbyterians in Scotland
  • Huguenots in France
  • Dutch Reformed Church

24
COUNTER-REFORMATION
  • Organized by Pope Paul III
  • Established new missionary and teaching orders
  • Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Ignatius Loyola
  • Improve educational and spiritual care of lay
    people

25
COUNCIL OF TRENT
  • 1545-1563
  • Ended simony and pluralism
  • Ended sale of indulgences
  • Established severe punishments for immorality and
    corruption
  • Established new seminaries
  • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic views on
    theological points challenged by Protestants
  • set stage for Age of Religious Wars

26
AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS
  • Revolt of the Netherlands
  • Wars of Religion in France
  • Anglo-Spanish Naval War
  • Thirty Years War
  • All characterized by individual and mob violence
  • Vandalizing, looting, and burning churches
  • Ambushing people as they left church
  • Street attacks
  • Attacks on homes and businesses
  • Mutilation of victims and corpses
  • All in the name of Christianity
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