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Founding the Colonies

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Plymouth, Massachusetts 1620 NEW ENGLAND Founded by William Bradford for religious reasons. Bradford was a ... Plymouth Colony in 1620 by the Pilgrims, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Founding the Colonies


1
Founding the Colonies
2
Objective To examine the importance of the
Protestant Reformation and the causes and effects
of Spains conflict with England. Describe how
each of the 13 Colonies were founded.

Martin Luther
Henry VIII
3
  • Luthers followers became known as Protestants.

Luther posting his 95 Theses on a church door.
(Germany)
4
Protestant Reformation
  • In 1517, Martin Luther protested against the
    Catholic Church in the following ways.

- He felt that the Catholic Church had become too
greedy.
- He was against the Catholic belief that people
need to perform good works in order to gain
eternal life.
- Instead, Luther believed that people could only
be saved by their faith in God.
5
  • England was Protestant, while Spain was Catholic.

Eastern Orthodox
Roman Catholic
Protestant
Muslim
Jewish
6
Marriage to Catherine of Aragon
  • In 1509, Henry VIII had married Catherine of
    Aragon, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella of
    Spain, and the aunt of Emperor Charles V. By
    1527, the union had produced no male heir to the
    throne and only one surviving child, a daughter,
    Mary. Henry was justifiably concerned about the
    political consequences of leaving only a female
    heir. In this period, people believed it
    unnatural for women to rule over men. At best a
    woman ruler meant a contested reign, at worst
    turmoil and revolution.

7
The Kings Affair
  • By 1527, Henry was thoroughly enamored of Anne
    Bolyn, one of Catherines ladies in waiting. He
    determined to put Catherine aside and take Anne
    as his wife. This he could not do in Catholic
    England, however, without papal annulment of the
    marriage to Catherine. The year 1527 was also the
    year when soldiers of the Holy Roman Empire
    mutinied and sacked Rome. The reigning Pope
    Clement VII was at the time a prisoner of Charles
    V, who happened also to be Catherines nephew.

8
Marriage to Anne Boleyn
  • In January 1533, Henry wed the pregnant Anne
    Boleyn, with Thomas Cranmer officiating.

9
Invalidation of First Marriage
  • In March 1533. Cranmer became archbishop of
    Canterbury and led the Convocation in
    invalidating the Kings marriage to Catherine.

10
Dissolution of the Monasteries
  • In 1538. Parliament dissolved Englands
    monasteries and convents.

11
The Six Wives of Henry VIII
  • To satisfy his desires and to secure a male heir,
    Henry married six times
  • His marriage to CATHERINE OF ARAGON was annulled
    1533.
  • In 1536, ANNE BOLEYN was executed for alleged
    treason and adultery and her daughter Elizabeth
    was declared illegitimate.
  • JANE SEYMOUR died in 1537 shortly after giving
    birth to the future Edward VI.
  • Henry wed ANNE OF CLEVES sight unseen on the
    advice of Cromwell, the purpose being to create
    by the marriage an alliance with the Protestant
    princes. The marriage was annulled by Parliament
    and Cromwell was dismissed and eventually
    executed.
  • CATHERINE HOWARD was beheaded for adultery in
    1542.
  • Henrys last wife, CATHERINE PARR, a patron of
    humanists and reformers, survived him.

12
Eventually, Henrys daughter Elizabeth would
become the Queen of England. She was queen for
44 years and never married because she was
devoted to her country.
13
Roanoke Island (Lost Colony)
  • Sir Walter Raleigh asked Queen Elizabeth of
    England if he could lead a group of people to
    begin a colony in North America.
  • Queen Elizabeth gave Raleigh a charter (a
    document that allowed colonists to live on land
    owned by their country.)

14
Roanoke Island (1st Time)
  • In 1585, the first English people tried to begin
    a colony.
  • This became the 1st English colony in North
    America.
  • It failed due to hunger and bad relations with
    the Native Americans.
  • All but 15 men went back to England on a ship.

15
Roanoke Island (2nd Time)
  • In 1587, Raleigh sent colonists a second time.
  • The 15 men that had stayed behind the 1st time
    had been killed by then.
  • John White was the colonys governor.
  • This time, the colonist brought their wives and
    children.
  • John Whites granddaughter, Virginia Dare was
    born 1 month after they arrived in North America
    on August 18 the first English baby born in the
    USA.

16
Spanish Armada
  • In 1588, King Philip II decided to attack
    England.
  • The English defeated the all powerful Spanish
    Armada because they had quicker ships and a
    violent storm helped destroy the Spanish ships.

Picture Credit http//www.nmm.ac.uk/adventure/gam
es/armada/page2.htm
17
Spanish Armada
In 1588, England defeated the Spanish Armada,
ending Spains reign as the worlds most powerful
nation.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 8 August 1588 by
Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796
depicts the Battle of Gravelines
18
The Lost Colony
  • John White returned in August 1590 to find no
    colonists on Roanoke Island.
  • On one of the trees was written CROATOAN.
  • Croatoan was the name of an island nearby as well
    as the name of the Native Americans living in the
    area.

Picture Credit http//www.outer-banks.com/lost.cf
m
19
Ending the Good Relations with the Native
Americans
  • Because the 15 men had been killed by Native
    Americans, John White decided that they should
    pay the Native Americans back.
  • He ordered his men to attack the the Powhatans
    since supposedly, they were the ones who had
    killed the 15 men.
  • However, they instead attacked the Croatoan
    Native Americans who had been their friends and
    helped them. After the battle, the Croatoans
    were enemies.
  • This forced John White to have to go back to
    England for more food and supplies.

20
Virginia 1607southern
  • Founded in 1607 by the London Company.
  • Founded for profit and trade.
  • Located in Southern Region

21
Virginia
  • John Smith became the leader (martial law).
  • Great place to grow tobacco and corn.
  • Named for Englands Queen Elizabeth I. (Virgin
    Queen)
  • Officially became a state on June 25, 1788.

22
Plymouth, Massachusetts 1620
NEW ENGLAND
  • Founded by William Bradford for religious
    reasons.
  • Bradford was a Separatist, also know as a
    Pilgrim
  • Separatists were persecuted in England because
    of their religious practices.
  • Located in New England Region.

The Mayflower
NOT Plymouth rock!
Pilgrims praying before setting sail
23
New York 1626MIDDLE COLONIES
  • Originally called New Netherlands
  • Taken over by England and renamed New York
  • Founded for trade and profit.
  • Located in the Middle Region




24
New York
  • Founded by the Dutch West India Company and was
    known as New Netherland. It was renamed in
    1664 when the English took control. (Peter
    Minuit)
  • Area was great for shipbuilding and iron works.
  • Also, a good place to grow grain such as wheat
    and to raise cattle.
  • Named for the Duke of York.
  • Officially became a state on July 26, 1788.

25
Massachusetts Bay 1630NEW ENGLAND
  • Founded by John Winthrop for religious reasons.
  • Winthrop was a Puritan
  • Puritans wanted to purify the Church of
    England.
  • Puritans were persecuted in England for their
    beliefs.
  • Founded for religious freedom for Puritans
  • Located in New England Region

26
Massachusetts
  • Founded originally as two different colonies
    Plymouth Colony in 1620 by the Pilgrims, and
    Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630 by the Puritans.
    The two colonies were united in 1691. (John
    Winthrop)
  • Great for fishing, growing corn, and raising
    livestock.
  • Also, great place for lumbering and shipbuilding.
  • Name came from a tribal word meaning large hill
    place.
  • Officially became a state on February 6, 1788.

27
New Hampshire 1630NEW ENGLAND
  • Founded by John Mason.
  • Founded as an escape for those constricted by
    religious and economic rules.
  • Located in the New England Region



28
New Hampshire
  • Originally part of Maine, but became its own
    colony in 1629. Then from 1641-1643, it became
    part of Massachusetts. Finally, in 1679 it
    became its own colony again. (John Wheelwright)
  • Great place to manufacture textiles and for
    shipbuilding.
  • It also, had good land for growing potatoes and
    the water surrounding it was great for fishing.
  • Named for the county of Hampshire in England.
  • Officially became a state on June 21, 1788.

29
Maryland1634SOUTHERN
  • Founded by John Calvert as a place for Catholics
    to worship freely.
  • Located in the Southern Region


30
Maryland
  • Land was granted to Lord Baltimore a.k.a. John
    Calvert.
  • Great land to grow corn, wheat, rice, and indigo.
  • Also a good place for shipbuilding and iron
    works.
  • Named for Queen Henrietta Maria of England.
  • Officially became a state on April 28, 1788.

31
Connecticut 1636NEW ENGLAND
  • Founded by Thomas Hooker (Puritan minister)
  • Founded for religious, economic and political
    freedom.
  • Located in the New England Region

32
Connecticut
  • Founded by settlers originally from Massachusetts
    and other colonies. Was named New Haven Colony
    in 1638 and soon renamed Connecticut. (Thomas
    Hooker)
  • Great land for growing wheat and corn and for
    catching fish.
  • Its name came from an Algonquin word, meaning
    beside the long tidal river.
  • Officially became a state on February 6, 1788.

33
Delaware 1638MIDDLE
  • Founded for profit.
  • Founded by Peter Minuit .
  • Located in the Middle Region.

34
Delaware
  • Originally settled by the Swedes, but taken over
    by the Dutch in 1655. Then England took control
    in 1664. Finally, in 1682, the land was granted
    to William Penn. (Peter Minuit)
  • Great area for fishing and lumbering.
  • Named for the Delaware tribe and an early
    governor of Virginia, Lord de la Warr.
  • Officially became a state on December 7, 1787.

35
Rhode Island 1644NEW ENGLAND
  • Settled by two different Massachusetts groups and
    was united in 1644. (Roger Williams)
  • Rhode Island was a great place for raising
    livestock, dairy, and fishing.
  • It was also a good area for lumbering.
  • The name came from the Dutch, meaning red
    island.
  • Officially became a state on May 29, 1790

36
North Carolina 1653SOUTHERN
  • Founded by a group of proprietors.
  • Proprietors are owners of businesses.
  • Founded for trade and profit and large amounts of
    land.
  • Located in the Southern Region

37
North Carolina
  • Settled by members of the other colonies.
    Granted a private company in 1663 and divided
    into two colonies in 1711.
  • Great place to grow indigo, rice, and tobacco.
  • Name came from the Latin word carolus, meaning
    Charles.
  • Officially became a state on November 21, 1789.

38
New Jersey 1660MIDDLE
  • Founded by Lord Berkeley.
  • Founded for profit.
  • Located in the Middle Region

39
New Jersey
  • Originally settled by the Dutch, but in 1644 it
    was taken over by England.
  • Great place for ironworking and lumbering.
  • Named for the Isle of Jersey in England.
  • Officially became a state on December 18, 1787.

40
South Carolina 1670SOUTHERN
  • Founded by a group of proprietors.
  • Founded for trade and profit and vast amounts of
    land.
  • Located in the Southern Region

41
South Carolina
  • Originally part of the Carolina Colony.
    Separated in 1711, and became a Royal Providence
    in 1729.
  • Like North Carolina it had great land for growing
    indigo, rice, tobacco, and cotton.
  • South Carolinas land could also support the
    raising of cattle.
  • Like North Carolina, the name came from the Latin
    word carolus, meaning Charles.
  • Officially became a state on May 23, 1788.

42
Pennsylvania 1682MIDDLE
  • Founded by William Penn.
  • Penn belonged to a religious group known as the
    Quakers.
  • Established the colony as a place for them to
    worship freely and for profit.
  • Located in the Middle Region

43
Pennsylvania
  • Settled by the Dutch and Swedes, but England took
    control in 1664. Then it was granted to William
    Penn by Charles II in 1681.
  • Great place to grow and raise wheat, corn,
    cattle, and dairy.
  • Also known as a place for papermaking,
    shipbuilding, and textiles.
  • Named for William Penn and for the Latin word
    sylvania, meaning forest.
  • Officially became a state on December 12, 1787.

44
Georgia 1773SOUTHERN
  • Founded by James Oglethorpe.
  • Established as a debtors colony, for social
    mobility, political freedom, and as a buffer
    against the Spanish in Florida
  • Located in the Southern Region

45
Georgia
  • Granted a private company by George II in 1732
    and was settled a year later in Savannah. (James
    Oglethorpe)
  • Great land for growing indigo, rice, and sugar.
  • Named for Englands King George II.
  • Officially became a state on January 2, 1788.
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