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Fundamentals of Vehicle Design

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Title: Fundamentals of Vehicle Design


1
Fundamentals of Vehicle Design
  • Dr. Shirish P Patil
  • Dr. Kamarul Tawi

2
Course Objectives
  • Understand vehicle manufacturing organization
  • Understand vehicle development process
  • Understand vehicle systems and attributes
    (properties)
  • Learn to set performance specifications for a new
    vehicle
  • Understand system/component contribution towards
    vehicle performance
  • Learn to set specifications for system/component
    design
  • Learn to design components to meet specifications

3
Course Outline
  1. Overview of vehicle design process
  2. Vehicle performance specifications
  3. Vehicle acceleration powertrain design
    specification
  4. Vehicle deceleration brake design specification
  5. Vehicle ride chassis design specification
  6. Vehicle roll-over chassis design specification
  7. Vehicle handling chassis design specification
  8. Vehicle durability chassis design specification
  9. Vehicle crash safety body design specification
  10. Design of the suspension system
  11. Design of the steering system
  12. Design of the body/door system

4
Course Schedule
  • Every Tuesday classroom instruction (2 hours)
  • Every Thursday group project discussion (3
    hours)
  • Study time approximately 4 hours/week

5
Evaluation Criteria
  • Final written project report including weekly log
    of activities (40)
  • Final project presentation (15)
  • Mid-term project presentation (5)
  • Team participation contribution (40)

6
Team Participation Contribution Evaluation
   
No. Performance Criteria Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5
1. Contributions Does not provide ideas when participating in the group discussion. Rarely provides ideas when participating in the group discussion. Sometimes provides ideas when participating in the group discussion. A satisfactory group member who does what is required. Usually provides useful ideas when participating in the group discussion. A strong group member who tries hard. Routinely provides useful ideas when participating in the group discussion. A leader who contributes a lot of effort.
2. Effort in Problem-solving Does not try to solve problems or help others solve problems. Lets others do the work. Rarely tries to solve problems or help others solve problems. Does not suggest or refine solutions, but is wiling to try out solutions suggested by others. Refines solutions suggested by others Actively looks for and suggests solutions to problems.  
3. Attitude Always publicly critical of the project or the work of other members of the group. Has negative attitude about the task(s). Is often publicly critical of the project or the work of other members of the group. Is often negative about the task(s). Is occasionally publicly critical of the project or the work of other members of the group. Usually has a positive attitude about the task(s). Is rarely publicly critical of the project or the work of others. Often has a positive attitude about the task(s). Is never publicly critical of the project or the work of others. Always has a positive attitude about the task(s)
4. Participation and Working with Others Does not participate, listen to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others. Is not a good team player. Rarely participate, listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others. Often is not a good team player. Often participate, listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others, but sometimes is not a good team member. Usually participate, listens to, shares, with, and supports the efforts of others. Does not cause ripples in the group. Almost always participate, listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others. Tries to keep people working well together.
7
Project Description
  • Each team (5 students) will choose a passenger
    vehicle to be engineered
  • Team will decide the performance specifications
    for the vehicle
  • Team will design the specifications for the
    powertrain/brake/suspension/body system so that
    vehicle specifications are satisfied

8
Requirements for the Report
  • List of specifications for cost, weight,
    acceleration, braking, ride, handling, roll-over,
    crash safety and durability. Method of setting
    each specification
  • Design of powertrain system properties to meet
    acceleration specification
  • Design of brake system properties to meet braking
    specification
  • Design of suspension steering system properties
    to meet ride, handling, roll-over and durability
    specification
  • Design of body system properties to meet
    crash-safety specification
  • Design of door system properties to meet door
    closing effort specification

9
Vehicle Classification
Vehicle Type Body Style Power Train Suspension
Passenger Car 2D/3D/4D/5D UniBody Engine 1.0-3.0L Trans 5spd/Auto Driveline FWD Front McPherson Rear Multi-link
MPV 4D/5D UniBody Engine gt 2.0L Trans Auto Driveline FWD Front McPherson Rear Multi-link
SUV 5D Unibody or Body on Frame Engine 1.8-5.0 L Trans Auto Driveline FWD/RWD/AWD Front McPherson/SLA Rear Multi-link/Solid Axle
Luxury Car 4D Unibody or Body on Frame Engine gt2.5 L Trans Auto Driveline FWD/RWD Front SLA Rear Multi-link
Sports Car 2D/3D Unibody Engine gt3.5 L Trans 5Spd Driveline RWD Front McPherson Rear Multi-link
Pickup Truck 2D/4D Body on Frame Engine gt2.5 L Trans Auto Driveline RWD/AWD Front SLA Rear Solid Axle
Commercial Truck 2D Body on Frame Engine gt5 L Trans Auto Driveline RWD Front SLA Rear Solid Axle
10
How to prepare vehicle specifications?
  • Understand what your customer desires
  • Understand what your competition offers
  • Understand government regulation

11
Team Exercise
  • Pick a vehicle you plan to design
  • Write vehicle specifications by studying 2 or
    more competition vehicles (study dealer specs.,
    do internet search, etc.)

12
Cost Specification
  • What is the intended selling price of the car?
  • How many units do you plan to sell?
  • Will you make any profit?

13
Weight Specification
  • What is intended gross vehicle weight (GVW)?
  • How many passengers?
  • What is the luggage capacity?
  • Weight distribution?

14
Geometry Specification
  • Wheelbase?
  • Tread?
  • Ground clearance?
  • Tire size?

15
Acceleration Specification
  • 0 to 100 km/h in how many seconds?
  • Engine torque/power?
  • Transmission speed? Auto or Manual?

16
Braking Specification
  • Deceleration level required?
  • Stopping distance from 100 km/h?
  • Dry surface/Wet surface?

17
Ride Specification
  • Desired ride frequency?
  • Desired passenger acceleration on an average road
    surface?

18
Roll-over Safety Specification
  • What is the max lateral acceleration the vehicle
    will sustain?

19
Handling Specification
  • Minimum turning radius?
  • Understeer or oversteer?
  • Steer gradient?

20
Durability Specification
  • What is the desired life of a suspension
    component?

21
Crash Safety Specification
  • What is the average deceleration experienced
    during frontal crash?

22
Organization of an Automaker
Suppliers
Manufacturing Assembly
Leadership
Vehicle Engineering
Sales Marketing
Finance
After Sales Service
Dealer Network
23
Concept to Customer Process
Customer Requirements
Vehicle Program
Regulations
Vehicle Engineering
Manufacturing Assembly
Sales
Service
24
Organizational Responsibility
Organization Responsibility Examples
Central Leadership Run the company profitably Provide leadership for the future Provide initiatives to build Eco-friendly cars
Finance Raise provide funds to run operations Provide loans to customers for purchasing vehicles
Vehicle Engineering Engineer the vehicle to meet customer specifications and regulatory requirements Design test parts and vehicles to meet specs.
Manufacturing Assembly Manufacture parts assemble vehicles Manufacture stamped body panels engine castings
Sales Marketing Gather customer specifications Set customer wants
After Sales Service Provide after sales customer service Ensure availability of replacement parts
Dealer Network Sell service cars
Suppliers Manufacture parts assemble systems Design/test/manufacture parts
25
Vehicle Development Organization
26
Product Engineering
Organization Responsibility
Body Engineering Develop exterior sheet metal and interior trim to meet engineering and cost specifications
Chassis Engineering Develop suspension/steering/brake/frame system components to meet engineering and cost specifications
Powertrain Engineering Develop engine/transmission/driveline/fuel/exhaust system components to meet engineering and cost specifications
Climate Control Engineering Develop HVAC system components to meet engineering and cost specifications
Electrical Electronic Engineering Develop electrical/electronics/entertainment system components to meet engineering and cost specifications
27
Vehicle Engineering
Organization Responsibility
Package Engineering Ensure all systems and components fit in the vehicle
Weight Engineering Ensure all systems and components meet weight spec.
Safety Engineering Ensure that the vehicle meet the regulatory safety spec.
Vehicle Dynamics Ensure that the vehicle meet the regulatory/customer ride handling spec.
Durability Engineering Ensure that the vehicle meet the customer durability spec
Vehicle NVH Ensure that the vehicle meet the customer Noise, Vibration Harshness spec.
Prototype Planning/Test Plan manage prototype builds and testing
28
Styling
Organization Responsibility
Exterior Styling Develop exterior sheet metal Class I (Styled) clay surface
Interior Styling Develop interior trim Class I (Styled) clay surface
29
Vehicle Development Process
30
Vehicle Development Process
Process Outcome Activities Examples
Prepare Spec. Final vehicle, system component spec. Hold customer clinics Benchmark vehicles Study regulations 0 to 100 kmph in 9 sec Investment cost lt 500M no structural failure lt 150,000 km
Concept Evaluation Data required to make decisions Design feasibility studies Cost feasibility studies Is acceleration spec. possible? Is investment target possible?
Program Approval GO or NO GO decision Program meeting
Prototype Design Testing Data required for 80 confidence in the design Part design Manufacturing Assembly Testing CAD surface or solid with drawings soft tooled part pilot plant assembly CAE/Lab/Proving Ground testing
Production Design Testing Data required for 99 confidence in the design Part design Manufacturing Assembly Testing CAD surface or solid with drawings hard tooled part plant assembly CAE/Lab/Proving Ground testing
Fix Problems before Launch 100 confidence Final fixes by launch team
31
Vehicle Systems Attributes
32
Function of Vehicle Systems
Vehicle System Function
Body Provide durable attachment for other major systems Provide safe and pleasant seating environment for all passengers Protect passengers from crashes
Chassis Provide capability to steer the vehicle Provide capability to brake the vehicle safely Provide isolation between road and passengers
Powertrain Provide capability to accelerate the vehicle by transferring torque to wheels Provide capability to control vehicle speed Meet regulatory exhaust requirement
Climate Control Maintain comfortable temperature distribution for passengers Provide windshield defrost capability
Electrical Electronics Provide power supply where needed Provide desirable entertainment system Provide functional censors and controls
33
Vehicle Attributes
Vehicle Attributes Description
Cost Lowest production, assembly and distribution cost compared to competitive vehicles
Weight Lowest curb weight compared to competitive vehicles in its weight class
Package Best use of the space to provide comfort and amenities to passengers
Safety 5 crash rating from the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)
Dynamics Best ride handling performance compared to competitive vehicles
Durability Highest reliability and high mileage durability compared to competitive vehicles
NVH Lowest noise, vibration and harshness compared to competitive vehicles
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