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National Desalination Agenda

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Title: National Desalination Agenda


1
National Desalination Agenda
  • How desalination fits into the water management
    equation.bringing research to reality

Del Holz Manager, Resource Management and
Planning Group Bureau of Reclamation July 22, 2003
2
Primary Issues for Water Resources
  • Growth of population and water demand
  • Shifting and more complex demand
  • Water quality
  • Environmental impacts
  • Decadal climate patterns and drought

3
1990 Population 76 million 2000 Population 91
million
1902 Population 11 million
Source U.S. Census Bureau
4
The Approaching Water Supply Problem in the 17
Western States
Based on USGS Estimated Use of Water in the US
1995
5
Drought
6
National Research Council on Technology and
Water Supply
  • As scarcity continues to intensify, the search
    for new supplies can be enhanced by
  • 1) the development of new supply-enhancing
    technology and
  • 2) reducing the costs of some existing
    technologies.

NRC Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources
Research in the 21st Century. June 2001
7
Water Resources May be Augmented by New Technology
  • The single most frequent failure
  • in the history of forecasting has been
  • grossly underestimating
  • the impact of technologies
  • .Peter Schwartz from
  • The Art of the Long View

8
Desal as a Solution Potentially Usable Water
from US Saline Aquifers
9
Potential Uses for Desalination Technologies
  • Major Metropolitan Areas
  • Rural and Indian Drinking Water
  • Industries Requiring Pure Water
  • Treatment of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane
    Production
  • With significantly lower costs - Agriculture

10
Desal costs are still high, but trends show costs
are closing in on other water management tools
Sea Water Desal 650 - 1000/ac-ft Brackish
Desal 325 650/ac-ft
  • To compare (a southern California example)
  • MWD rate ca. 500/ac-ft
  • Conservation 350-500/ac-ft
  • Water Recycling 400-800/ac-ft

Very dependent on chemical make up of brackish
water
11
Decline in Seawater Desalination Costs Represents
Evolution in Technology and Facility Size
12
Opportunities to Further Reduce Costs
  • Low to No Further Cost Reduction Potential
  • Creative Financing
  • Co-location with existing power plants
  • Some opportunity from regionalization
  • Need to encourage utilities to join together
  • Highest Potential
  • Better technology through RD and Technology
    Transfer which can also help to enhance
    competition in industry

13
NRC on Membranes
  • the development of new, more effective reverse
    osmosis membranes and improved technologies for
    pretreating water have the potential to reduce
    the cost of desalting to affordable levels in
    regions where energy is relatively inexpensive,
    brine disposal can be managed, and demand is
    local.

14
Hierarchy of the Nations Water Solution Toolbox
Solutions to the Nation's Water Supply Issues
Solutions to the Nation's Water Supply Issues
Demand Mitigation
Supply Enhancement
Demand Mitigation
Supply Enhancement
Pricing
Conservation activities
Management approaches
Technology approaches
Pricing
Conservation activities
Management approaches
Technology approaches
Water transfers
Upgrade impaired waters
Water transfers
Upgrade impaired waters
Dam and diversion
Improve reuse rates
Dam and diversion
Improve reuse rates
15
Desalination Roadmap
  • Partnership between Reclamation and Sandia
    National Labs
  • www.usbr.gov/water/desal.html
  • To download a pdf of the roadmap
  • To provide comments on the roadmap

16
Architecture of the Roadmap Process
APPENDIX 1 Figure 1 Needs-based Water Roadmap
Process Outline  
Figure 1B Needs-based Water Roadmap
Process PROGRAM DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT    
DEFINING AND PRIORITIZING PROBLEMS TO BE
ADDRESSED        

II. NEEDS (with defined goals and metrics)  
III. CONTEXT EXTERNALITIES A. Current B. Future
state    
IV. CHARACTERIZE NEEDS DOMAIN

III. CONTEXT A. Current

IV. CHARACTERIZE NEEDS -Interplay of
Figure 1A Needs-based Water Roadmap Process
I. VISION 2020  
  • Trends, scenarios
  •  

VII. DEFINE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS/COMPETENCIES AND
GAPS A. CURRENT (KNOWN) 1. Technologies (current
and evolving) 2. Conservation 3. Distribution 4.
Institutional change 5. Etc. 6. Combinations of
technologies / approaches B. EVOLVING /
UNKNOWN
VIII. EVALUATE
  • Politics

II. NEEDS (with defined goals and metrics  
  I. VISION 2020  
Interplay of
Criteria  
  • Constituency

  • Policy

  • Quality health/environ. Issues Security (safe)

V. DEFINE PROBLEMS / VALUE PROPOSITIONS TO BE
ADDRESSED
Constraints Context Stakeholders Trade
offs/decisions  
  • Sustainability






VI. PRIORITIZE PROBLEMS / VALUE PROPOSITIONS  
  • Availability quantity, when and where needed
    (adequate)
  • Geographic/Demographic
  • Desalination (different types)
  • Program domain
  •  

IX. SELECT RESEARCH TARGETS   Applied/development
  Adapt/dissemination   Exploratory    
IX. SELECT RESEARCH TARGETS    
Applied/development   Adapt/dissemination  
Exploratory    
  • Affordability

VII. DEFINE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS / COMPETENCIES
AND GAPS A. CURRENT (KNOWN) B. EVOLVING / UNKNOWN
VIII. EVALUATE
  • Thermal

V. DEFINE PROBLEMS/VALUE PROPOSITIONS
  • Trade-offs cost-benefit in terms of impact on
    needs

  • Other
  • Portfolio mix

X. ROADMAPPING / PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ongoing,
includes scenario planning and responding to
experience and change)   Iterate back as roadmap
and as implement program
X. ROADMAPPING / PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (ongoing,
includes scenario planning and responding to
experience and change)   Iterate back as roadmap
and as implement program
VI. PRIORITIZE PROBLEMS         Consequences,
now and in the future         Cross-impact
(multiplier, cascading effects)  
XI. DESIGN , IMPLEMENT PROGRAM         
Costs          Timing         Regular, ongoing
review monitoring of operating environment    
  • Stage of development, life-cycle, experience
    curves, prospects at varying levels of
    investment, technical feasibility, weaknesses

XI. DESIGN, IMPLEMENT PROGRAM        
Costs         Timing         Regular, ongoing
review monitoring of operating environment    
  • Remaining gaps
  • Water type (source)
  • Stakeholders (how needed, interest)
  • other

VISION 2020
DEVELOP ALTERNATIVE FUTURE COST SCENARIOS
DEFINE HIGH LEVEL NEEDS -gt CASE STUDIES
DEFINE CRITICAL OBJECTIVES -gt Define High-Level
Objectives -gt Identify Specific Performance
Metrics Targets
IDENTIFY TECHNOLOGY AREAS AND SPECIFIC RESEARCH
NEEDS -gt Basic Science and Technology Areas -gt
Specific RD Needs
  • Capabilities / competencies
  • Other constraints
  • B. Future state


17
Roadmap Development - Vision
By 2020, desalination and water purification
technologies will contribute significantly to
ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and
adequate water supply for the Unites States.
  • Safe
  • Meet drinking water standards
  • Meet agriculture and industry standards
  • Enhance water security
  • Sustainable
  • Meet todays need without compromising our future
    supplies
  • Affordable
  • Provide future water at a cost comparable to
    todays
  • Adequate
  • Assure local and regional availability through
    periods of episodic shortages (droughts)

18
Case Studies - Basis for Needs Inland Urban Areas
  • Current Challenges
  • Sustainability is questionable
  • Provide affordable water and address the need for
    reclamation and reuse
  • Assure adequate supplies through increased
    recycling, upgrading impaired water, mitigating
    demand, and purchasing water rights
  • Desalination Needs
  • Reduce the cost and enable the disposal of
    concentrate
  • Reduce the cost for desalination processes
  • Develop beneficial uses for concentrate
  • Manage salt on a regional basis

Drought Map
19
Case Studies - Basis for Needs Coastal Urban
Communities
  • Current Challenges
  • 54 of the US population lives in coastal
    regions and this percentage is growing
    therefore, demand must be managed.
  • Tampa Bay manage aquifer replenishment and
    pressure on environment
  • Southern California reduce reliance on Colorado
    River Water
  • Coastal Texas manage subsidence and balance
    water demands
  • Desalination Needs
  • Reduce the cost of desalting seawater
  • Maintain biologic stability of reclaimed water
  • Reduce reliance on surface water to protect
    estuaries and coastal regions
  • Decrease reliance on remote sources of water

20
Case Studies - Basis for Needs Rural Inland
Communities
  • Current Challenges
  • Provide adequate, affordable supplies of water
    for agriculture and municipal consumers while
    ensuring that aquatic environments are protected.
  • Desalination Needs
  • Reduce capital and operating costs
  • Protect water quality
  • Characterize the saline aquifers

Saline Aquifers
21
Case Studies - Basis for Needs The Mid Atlantic
  • Current Challenges
  • Protect water supply for public health and
    sanitation from environmental hazards
  • Keep surface water flowing in streams, lakes,
    estuaries and bays
  • Prevent groundwater overdraft
  • Likely Derivative Benefits from Desalination
    Advances
  • Assure safety of water in heavily-urbanized areas
    through on-demand removal technologies for
    emerging contaminants
  • Develop true indicators of contaminants

22
Case Studies - Basis for Needs Oil, Gas and Coal
Basins
  • Current Challenges
  • Opportunity to convert produced water disposal
    cost to new water supply
  • Coal-bed methane production techniques are
    unsuited to produced water injection
  • Desalination Need
  • Develop cost effective pretreatment technologies
    for small hydrocarbon residuals
  • Facilitate cost effective disposal of concentrate
  • Assure water quality standards are met

23
Critical Objectives Driven by the Need to Provide
Safe Water
  • Near-term Critical Objectives
  • Develop on-demand removal technologies
  • Remove 60 of synthetics
  • 4-6 logs (microbial removal)
  • Remove endocrine disruptors, MTBE, nitrosamines,
    perchlorate
  • Develop true indicators (not just SDI /turbidity)
  • Surface water/land disposal Develop science
    related concentrate-specific regulations related
    to dispersion modeling of mixing zones/ ion
    imbalance.
  • Subsurface injection Large scale regional
    characterization of US subsurface injection
    capability
  • Long-term Critical Objectives
  • Add all other concentrate specific regulations,
    refined geographically and addressing cumulative
    issues
  • Demonstrate isolation with hydrologic model of
    receiving formation and formation scale model of
    subsurface injection capability of US

24
Critical Objectives Driven by the Need to Ensure
Adequate Supplies/Sustainability
  • Near-term Critical Objectives
  • Maintain stability of reclaimed waters over time
  • Decrease cost of reclaimed waters by 25
  • Beneficial use 5 of concentrate
  • Reduce average reject to 15 for non-surface
    water applications
  • Long-term Critical Objectives
  • Decrease cost of reclaimed waters by 80
  • Beneficial use 15 of concentrate
  • Reduce average reject to 5 for non-surface water
    applications

25
Critical Objectives Driven by the Need to Keep
Water Affordable
  • Near-term Critical Objectives
  • Reduce capital cost by 20
  • Increase energy efficiency by 20
  • Reduce operating costs by 20
  • Reduce cost of ZLD by 20
  • Long-term Critical Objectives
  • Reduce capital cost by 80
  • Increase energy efficiency by 80
  • Reduce operating costs by 80
  • Reduce cost of ZLD by 80

26
Five Technology Areas Provide Foundation for
Next-Generation Desalination
  • Membrane Technologies
  • Thermal Technologies
  • Recycling/Reuse Technologies
  • Concentrate Management Technologies
  • Alternative Technologies

27
National Need Keep Water Affordable
NEAR-TERM
  • Near-term Critical Objectives
  • Reduce capital cost by 20
  • Increase energy efficiency by 20
  • Reduce operating costs by 20
  • Reduce cost of ZLD by 20
  • Thermal Technologies
  • Forward osmosis
  • Clathrate sequestration
  • Hybrid membrane and thermal
  • Membrane Technologies
  • Basic research to improve permeability
  • Minimize resistance
  • Model/test non-spiral configurations
  • Develop new methods of reducing/recovering energy
  • Integrate membrane and membrane system designs
  • Reuse/Reclamation Technologies
  • Pretreatment
  • Filtration
  • Biological coating (disinfectant)
  • Research to enable prediction of migration and
    recovery through aquifers
  • Novel Technologies
  • Capacitive desal
  • Mid/long-term Critical Objectives
  • Reduce capital cost by 80
  • Increase energy efficiency by 80
  • Reduce operating costs by 80
  • Reduce cost of ZLD by 80

MID/LONG-TERM
  • Concentrate Management Technologies
  • Create a super concentrate technology
    complete solidification of residuals and 100
    recapture of water
  • Cross-cutting Develop methods of
    immobilizing/sequestering the concentrate stream
  • Cross-cutting Develop beneficial uses for the
    concentrate stream to improve the economics of
    disposal for ZLD processes.
  • Reuse/Reclamation Technologies
  • Enhanced membrane bioreactor technology
  • Document the lifecycle economics of water reuse
    for various applications
  • Novel Technologies
  • Magnetics
  • Nanotechnology (active/smart membranes)

Cost of Desalinated Water Decreases
28
Membrane Technologies RD Thrust Areas
  • Near Term Thrust Areas
  • Mechanistic/fundamental approach to membrane
    design
  • CFD of feed channel
  • Conduct research to gain understanding of
    molecular-level effects
  • Design-in permeability
  • Develop understanding of whole system (based on
    current knowledge)
  • Develop model of optimization
  • Research sensitivity of parameters for model
  • Develop fundamental understanding of fouling
    mechanisms to develop indicators
  • Understand how to mitigate fouling (Understand
    biofouling/Optimize operational controls)
  • Basic research to improve permeability
  • Minimize resistance
  • Model/test non-spiral configurations
  • Develop new methods of reducing/recovering energy
  • Integrate membrane and membrane system designs
  • Long Term Thrust Areas
  • Smart membranes
  • Sense contaminant differential across the
    membrane (in real time), automatically change
    performance and selectivity
  • Sensor development

29
NRC on Membranes
  • Research on pretreatment technologies for
    membrane desalting process and on the causes for
    membrane fouling in seawater could go a long way
    in stimulating further progress.

30
Where do we go from here?
  • Roadmapping activities
  • NRC Review, May 13, 2003, Golden, CO
  • Management Plan prioritized projects
  • 2004 Budget Western Water Initiative

31
DOI 2004 Budget the Western Water Initiative
  • Long-term goal Stretch existing water supplies
    to meet unmet demands in the most cost effective,
    least threatening manner possible
  • Address present and future challenges to meet
    increased demands
  • Result and prevent water conflicts across the
    West
  • Continue to serve traditional users and adhere to
    state water law

32
Western Water Initiative DOI Science
Technology Components
  • Fund pilot projects to prevent crisis-level water
    conflicts through use of new technology
    advanced water management systems
  • Reduce costs and improve desalination
  • Build collaborative partnerships to ensure best
    science is delivered to address project needs.
  • Fund peer reviewed science-based decision-making

33
Project at San Patricio Municipal Water District,
TX
34
Technology Transfer
Membrane Concentrate Disposal Manual WTCost
Water treatment cost estimation program sponsored
by AMTA DesalNet- 50 years of full text desal
literature database sold through
AWWA Desalination Planners Handbook Program
Homepage - www.usbr.gov/water/desal.html Newslett
er - www.usbr.gov/water/wfw.html Reports -
www.usbr.gov/water/reports.html
35
The End
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