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PEDU 6209 Policy Studies in Education

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Title: PEDU 6209 Policy Studies in Education


1
PEDU 6209Policy Studies in Education
  • Topic 8
  • The Normative Context of Policy Studies
  • Policy as Value Paradox

2
The Value Dimension of Policy Studies in Education
  1. Stephen Ball indicates that Policy is clearly a
    matter of the authoritative allocation of
    values policies are the operational statements
    of values, statements of prescriptive intent
    (Kogan 1975 p.55). But values do not float free
    of their social context. We need to ask whose
    values are validated in policy, and whose are
    not. Thus, The authoritative allocation of values
    draws our attention to the centrality of power
    and control in the concept of policy (Prunty
    1985 p.135). Policies project images of an ideal
    society (education policies project definitions
    of what counts as education).(Ball, 1990, p. 3
    my emphases)

3
The Value Dimension of Policy Studies in Education
  1. Emile Durkheim, one of the founding fathers of
    sociology, asserted in the first decade of the
    twentieth century, Each society sets up a
    certain idea of man, of what he should be, as
    much from the intellectual point of view as the
    physical and moral that this ideal is, to a
    degree, the same for all the citizens that
    beyond a certain point it becomes differentiated
    according to the particular milieux that every
    society contains in its structure.

4
The Value Dimension of Policy Studies in Education
  • Emile Durkheim
  • .. It is this ideal, at the same time one and
    various, that is the focus of education. Its
    function, then, is to arouse in the child (1) a
    certain number of physical and mental states that
    the society to which he belongs considers should
    not be lacking in any of its members (2) certain
    physical and mental states that the particular
    social group (caste, class, family, profession)
    considers, equally, ought to be found among all
    those who make it up. (Durkheim, 2006/1911, p.
    79-80 my emphasis)

5
The Value Dimension of Policy Studies in Education
  1. The purpose of education, according to
    Aristotle, is to reproduce in each generation the
    type of character that will sustain the
    constitution a particular character for a
    particular constitution. But there are
    difficulties here. The members of society are
    unlikely to agree about what the constitution ,
    in Aristotles broad sense, actually is, or what
    it is becoming, or what it should be. Nor are
    they likely to agree about what character type
    will best sustain it or how that type might best
    be produced. (Walzer, 1983, P. 197)

6
The Value Dimension of Policy Studies in Education
  1. What are the values and ideals that education
    policy strives to attained?

7
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • What is value? How to enquire it?
  • D.N. Aspins formal definition of value
    Conduct, performances, situations, occurrence,
    states of affairs, production, all these is
    associated with the ways in which we perceive
    them, appraise them, judge them, and the way we
    are inclined towards or away from, attract to or
    repelled by. We choose them. We prefer them over
    other things in the same class of comparison. We
    want to follow their model or to replicate them.
    We want to emulate them. (Aspin, 1999, p.125)
    Simply put, value is the attributes endowed in an
    object which we find attractive, appreciative,
    desirable, adorable, pleasurable, etc.

8
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • What is value? How to enquire it?
  • However, these desirable attributes may entail
    different understanding by different perspective
    in value inquiry.

9
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • What is value? How to enquire it?
  • Hedonistic emotivists understanding Value can
    be construed simply as physical and/or
    psychological pleasures and enjoyments which a
    person experiences from the encounter of a state
    of affair, an object, a situation, or other
    persons. (MacIntyre, 2007, 11-12)

10
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • What is value? How to enquire it?
  • Pragmatic and instrumental understanding From
    the perspective of pragmatism, any state of
    affairs or objects will be taken as valuable as
    long as they can bring about desirable outcomes.
    In short, they are any effective and efficient
    means, which fit with the practical calculation
    of instrumental rationality. (Taylor, 1985,
    Pp.21-23) This kind of value has been commonly
    called extrinsic value. An extrinsic value is
    valuable not for its own sake, but because it
    facilitates getting or accomplishing something
    that is valuable for its own sake. (Ellis, 1998,
    p.12)

11
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • What is value? How to enquire it?
  • Reflective and critical understanding It refers
    to the evaluation which goes beyond the criteria
    of quantitative calculations of outcome. Instead,
    the state of affair under evaluation is
    critically assessed to see whether they possess
    some qualitative distinctions of good or worth of
    its own. Furthermore, the criteria of evaluation
    in use may also reflectively relate to the
    well-beings, mode of life or kind of person that
    the persons concerned ought to lead. (Taylor,
    1985 Dworkin, 1995) This kind of value has
    commonly called intrinsic value

12
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  1. Constituents of critical and strong evaluation
    Charles Taylor has coined the term strong
    evaluation to kind of value inquiry which aims
    to substantiate an attribution of an intrinsic
    value to a state of affair, an object and even a
    person. He has outlined the numbers of
    constituents for such a strong-evaluation
    inquiry. (Taylor, 1985 see also Dworki, 1995)

13
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • Constituents of critical and strong evaluation
    .
  • Justificatory with articulacy and depth The
    first constituent of a strong evaluation is that
    the evaluation must be supported with explicitly
    articulated justifications. Furthermore, these
    justifications must be grounded on ethical, moral
    and/or political validities and depth.

14
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • Constituents of critical and strong evaluation
    .
  • Supported with sense of responsibility and
    agency A strong evaluative assertion must also
    be supported with human practices and actions,
    i.e. human agencies. Furthermore, those who are
    in support of the strong evaluative positions are
    not just paying lip services but are ready to
    bear the cost or even lost for its fulfillment

15
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • Constituents of critical and strong evaluation
    .
  • Embodied with notion of identity A person who
    are in support of a strong evaluative stance are
    most probably hold that value orientation
    continuously over time, consistently in various
    circumstances and coherently with the other
    aspects of his life. In other word, the value
    orientation becomes part of his own identity.

16
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • Constituents of critical and strong evaluation
    .
  • Embedded in community The last constituents of
    strong-evaluation inquiry is to look beyond human
    agency or identity but into human community,
    which may be defined as a group of human agents
    who share and identify with a particular value
    stance. In other words, the strong and intrinsic
    value in question has been embedded into the
    lifeworld of a community.

17
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  1. Levels of value inquiry Ronal Dworkin has made a
    distinction between three levels of value. He
    suggests that ethnics studies how people best
    manage their responsibility to live well, and
    personal morality what each as an individual owes
    other people. Political morality, in contrast,
    studies what we all together owe others as
    individuals when we act in and on behalf of that
    artificial collective person. (Dworkin, 2011,
    Pp. 327-8) Accordingly, value can be categorized
    into

18
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19
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  • Levels of value inquiry
  • Ethical value It refers to desirable traits and
    features we attributed to human behaviors,
    actions, and conducts.
  • Moral value It refers to desirable traits and
    features attributed to human interactions and
    relationships among fellows humans.
  • Political values It refers to the ethical and
    moral values taken by a given society as of
    prominent importance that they should be imposed
    onto all members of that society coercively.

20
Value Inquiry An Integral Part of Policy Studies
of Education
  1. Accordingly, value inquiry in public policy
    studies may be defined as part of the inquiry of
    political value which focuses on the legitimacy
    of a public authority (the modern state) in
    substantiating those prominent values, which are
    to be imposed coercively onto the civil society
    which falls under its sovereignty. This line of
    inquiry falls mainly within the purview of
    political philosophy and jurisprudence.

21
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
22
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Techno-efficient conception of quality education
  • Quality education outcome Acquisition of
  • Skills and competences, which can be
    standardized, quantified, calculable, predictable
    and controllable
  • Skills and competences, which are employable,
    marketable and convertible in money terms
  • Skills and competences, which are governable
  • Quality learning and teaching processes
  • Students are materials, which can be value-added
  • Teachers are workers, who can be benchmarked
  • Teaching and learning are processes, which can be
    audited in time-motion terms

23
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Techno-efficient conception of quality education
  • Quality school organizations
  • School organizations are structures, which can be
    standardized and benchmarked
  • School organizations are processes, which can be
    audited with standardized indicators
  • School organizations are cultures, which can be
    measures with school ethos checklists
  • Assumption of prefect causality in education
    enterprises in techno-scientific conception of
    quality in education

24
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Empathetic-practical conception of quality in
    education
  • Quality in education outcome Attainment of
  • Practical efficacy in interaction with fellow
    beings
  • Empathetic understanding in social interactions
  • Social identification and integration in
    particular human communities

25
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Empathetic-practical conception of quality in
    education
  • Quality in learning and teaching processes
  • Teachers as professionals working in communal
    bonds of intellectuality, practicality and trust
  • Teachers and students are in professional-client
    relationships, which are bonded by empathetic
    understanding and trust
  • Teaching and learning are practical interactions
    of uncertainty, which can not be lock-stepped
    into calculable and controllable processes

26
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Empathetic-practical conception of quality in
    education
  • Quality in school organizations
  • Schools as communities of empathetic
    understanding and caring between the elderly and
    offspring
  • Schools as professional communities of
    intellectuality, practicality and trust
  • Assumption of education as an uncertain practice
    of Reflective Practitioners (Schon, 1983)

27
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Emancipatory conception of quality in education
  • Quality in education outcome Capacities to
  • To excel beyond the current state of being
  • To speculate
  • To better the status quo
  • Quality in learning and teaching processes
  • Teachers are transformative intellectuals working
    for the betterment of the status quo and the
    coming generation
  • Students are potentials to be excel
  • Teaching and learning are experimental,
    surprising and risk-taking processes of
    liberating speculative spirits

28
Policy Discourse of Quality Education In
Search of the Intrinsic Value
  • Emancipatory conception of quality in education
  • Quality in school organizations
  • Schools as liberating communities of human
    potentials
  • Schools as communities of praxis
  • Assumption of education as risk-taking praxis of
    speculative or even revolutionary spirits

29
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Policy search for equality of education The US
    experiences
  • Horace Mann, one of the founders of US public
    school system, advocated three century ago,
    Surely nothing but universal education can
    counterwork this tendency to the domination of
    capital and servility of labour. If one class
    possesses all the wealth and the education, while
    the residue of society is ignorant and poor, it
    matters not by what name the relation between
    them may be called the latter, in fact and in
    truth, will be the servile dependents and
    subjects of the former. But, if education be
    equally diffused, it will draw property after it
    by the strongest of all attractions. ...
    Education, then, beyond all other devices of
    human origin, is the great equalizer of the
    conditions of men, the balance-wheel of the
    social machinery. (Horace Mann, 1848)

30
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  1. Policy search for equality of education The US
    experiences

James S. Coleman (1926-1995)
Horace Mann (1796-1859)
31
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Policy search for equality of education The US
    experiences
  • James Colemans conceptualization of equality of
    educational opportunity
  • Equality of access to education
  • Equality of educational process
  • Equality of educational result
  • Equality of educational outcome

32
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  1. Douglas Raes structural grammar of equality


33
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Douglas Raes structural grammar of equality
  • Formal Definition
  • Grammar of equality As formal definition of
    equality applies to concrete social situations,
    it has to adopted to at least five structural
    problems and these problems must be anticipated
    wherever equality is a goal or principle of
    social policy. They are (1) complex social
    classification, (2) plural allocation, (3)
    indivisibilities, (4) human differences, and (5)
    relativity. (Rae, 1981, p. 14)

34
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Douglas Raes structural grammar of equality
  • Subject of equality Equality for whom
  • Individual-regarding equality
  • Simple subject
  • Segmental subject ( ? )
  • Bloc-regarding equality Bloc-equal subject (?
    ?)
  • Domain of equality - Equal what? Do X's domain
    of allocation (supply) cover Y's domain of
    account (demand)
  • Straightforward equality
  • Marginal equality
  • Global equality

35
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Objective of equality
  • Direct equality (of result)
  • Equality of opportunity
  • Means-regarding equal opportunity
  • Prospect-regarding equal opportunity
  • Value of equality
  • Lot-regarding equality
  • Person-regarding equality
  • Utility-based equality
  • End based equality
  • Need-based equality
  • Relativity of equality
  • Absolute equality
  • Relative equality

36
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Application of Raes structural grammar equality
    on education
  • Classification of students
  • Simple individual equality Universal, free and
    compulsory education
  • Segment-subject equality Special education
  • Block-regarding equality Positive-discrimination
    education for racial minorities, the
    socioeconomic disadvantaged and female
  • Distribution of educational resources
  • Marginal equality 9-year compulsory education
  • Global equality Positive discrimination education

37
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Application of Raes structural grammar equality
    on education
  • Equality of educational opportunity rather result
  • Means-regarding equality of educational
    opportunity
  • Equality of educational access
  • Equality of education process
  • Prospect-regarding equality of educational
    opportunity
  • Equality of education output
  • Equality of education outcome

38
Equality as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Equality of educational value
  • Lot-regarding equality of education Principle of
    respect, compulsory education common-school and
    common-curriculum policies
  • Personal-regarding equality of education
  • Utility-based personal-regarding equality of
    education
  • End-based personal-regarding equality of
    education
  • Need-based personal-regarding equality of
    education
  • Principle of praise and fair educational sifting
    and selection
  • Relativity of equality
  • Absolute educational equality
  • Relative educational equality

39
Subject of Equality
Domain of Equality
Objective of Equality
Value of Equality
Relativity of Equality
Lot- Regarding equality
Simple subject equality
Straight- forward equality
Direct equality (for result)
Utility- based equality
Absolute equality
Mean-regarding equal opportunity

Segment subject equality
Marginal equality
End- based equality
Prospect-regarding equal opportunity
Bloc- regarding equality
Global equality
Need- based equality
Relative equality
  • X 3 x 3 x 4 x
    2
  • 216

40
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Aristotle's formal definition of justice
    (Aristotle, 1996, Book III, P. 61-91)
  • Treating equal equally or treating unequal
    unequally is just.
  • Treating equal unequally or treating unequal
    equally is unjust.

41
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  1. John Rawls A Theory of Justice

(1921-2002)
42
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • John Rawls A Theory of Justice
  • Justice as fairness The meaning of fairness that
    Rawls reckons is as follows
  • Fundamental to justice is the concept of
    fairness which relates to right dealing between
    persons who are cooperating with or competing
    against one another, as when one speak of fair
    games, fair competition, and fair bargains. The
    question of fairness arises when free persons,
    who have no authority over one another, are
    engaging in a joint activity and among themselves
    settling or acknowledging the rules which define
    it and which determine the respective shares in
    its benefits and burdens. ..

43
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • John Rawls A Theory of Justice
  • The meaning of fairness
  • A practice will strike the parties as fair if
    none feels that, by participating in it, they or
    any of the others are taken advantage of, or
    forced to give in to claims which they do not
    regard as legitimate. This implies that each has
    a conception of legitimate claims which he thinks
    it reasonable for others as well as himself to
    acknowledge. A practice is just or fair, then,
    when it satisfies the principles which those who
    participate in it could propose to one another
    for mutual acceptance under aforementioned
    circumstances. (Rawls, 19991958, p. 59)

44
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • John Rawls A Theory of Justice
  • Two principles of justice Rawls stipulates that
    justice is the first virtue of social
    institution (P.3) and the primacy of justice
    over other social values. Hence, the basic
    structure of a just society is to be constituted
    in accordance with the two principles of
    justice.
  • First Principle Each person is to have an equal
    right to the most extensive total system of equal
    basic liberties compatible with similar system of
    liberty for all.
  • Second Principle Social and economic
    inequalities are to be arranged so that they are
    both
  • to the greatest benefits of the least advantaged,
    and
  • attached to offices and positions open to all
    under conditions of fair equality of
    opportunities. (Rawls, 1971, p. 302)

45
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  1. Applications of the principles These principles
    primarily apply to the basic structure of
    society. They are to govern the assignment of
    rights and duties and to regulate the
    distribution of social and economic
    advantages.These principles presuppose that the
    social structure can be divided into two more or
    less distinct parts. (Rawls, 1871, p. 61)

46
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Applications of the principles
  • The First Principle applies to those distinct
    aspects of the social system that define and
    secure the equal liberties of citizenship. The
    basic liberties of citizens are, roughly
    speaking, political liberty (right to vote and to
    be eligible for public office) together with
    freedom of speech and assembly liberty of
    conscience and freedom of thought freedom of
    person along with right to hold (personal)
    property freedom from arbitrary arrest and
    seizure as defined by the concept of the rule of
    law. These liberties are all required to be
    equal, since citizens of just society are to
    have the same basic rights. (p.61)

47
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Applications of the principles
  • The Second Principle applies to those aspects of
    social system that specify and establish social
    and economic inequalities. More specifically, it
    appliesto the distribution of income and wealth
    and to the design of organizations that make use
    of differences in authority and responsibility,
    or chains of command. (p. 61)

48
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Interpretation of the second principle
  • Rawls qualifies that the two constituent phrases
    in the Second Principle, namely to everyones
    advantage and equally open to all need further
    interpretation.
  • Rawls interprets the two phrases as follows
    (Rawls, 1971, p. 65)

49
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
50
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Priority and lexical orders between principles of
    justice
  • The priority of liberty The First Principle,
    namely the principle of liberty) has lexical
    priority over the Second Principle This ordering
    means that a departure from the institutions of
    equal liberty required by the first principle
    cannot be justified by, or compensated for, by
    greater social and economic advantages. (p. 61)
  • The priority of democratic equality over the
    other three systems, in other words, the priority
    of difference principle and equality as equality
    of fair opportunity over principle of efficiency
    and equality as careers open to talent.

51
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  1. Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
    Dworkin, a prominent figure in the field of
    jurisprudence and political philosophy, has
    criticizes that Rawls has based his theory of
    justice solely on the distributive result of
    primary goods (i.e. the welfare) among people.
    This is especially true in the Second Principle
    of Justice, which stipulates that inequality of
    primary goods should only be distributed
    unequally to the benefits of the least
    advantaged. Dworkin points out that Rawls has
    failed to address the causes contributing to the
    state of least advantaged and least well-off in
    which people found themselves.

52
1931-2013
53
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
  • Types of the least well-off Dworkin has made
    three distinctive causes of the least well-off.
  • People are least well-off because of unequal
    share of natural endowments, such as talent,
    heath, physical ability, etc. Dworkin
    characterizes them as personal resources.

54
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
  • Types of the least well-off
  • People are least well-off because of unequal
    share of socioeconomic endowments, such as
    socioeconomic backgrounds, cultural-linguistic
    background, or even racial and/or ethnical
    backgrounds, which are disadvantageous in a given
    society. Dworkin called them impersonal
    resources.
  • Given equal shares in resources, people may end
    up being least well-off because of costly or even
    unwise choice, such as gambling or wasteful
    life-styles or voluntary choice, such as
    religious belief.

55
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
  • Injustice in the Second Principle Accordingly,
    Dworkin underlines that Rawls Second Principle
    may have unfairly provided compensation to people
    even though they appear to belong to the least
    well-off.
  • For Type (i) least disadvantaged, a blanket and
    non-discriminating compensations with the other
    types of least well-off is itself unjust. Given
    their disadvantages in natural endowments, they
    may need more compensation in order to be able to
    develop and research to the similar level of
    well-being as those having average level of
    natural endowments

56
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
  • Injustice in the Second Principle .
  • Apart from the amount of compensation, to Type
    (i) least disadvantaged, the content of the
    compensation is also essential. In Rawls Second
    Principle compensation only comes as welfare
    (i.e. end result in the form of primary goods)
    but numbers of political philosophers have argued
    that they should also come at the commencing
    stage of their developments, as resources
    (Dworkin, 1995), as capacity (Sen, 1995) and as
    Access (Cohen, 2011).

57
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58
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Ronald Dworkins theory of equality of resource
  • Injustice in the Second Principle .
  • For Type (ii) least advantaged, they should of
    course be compensated in the form of both as
    resource and as welfare.
  • As for Type (iii) least advantaged, especially
    those of costly and/or unwise choosers, Dworkin
    argues that it is unjust to compensate them.
  • Hence, as Will Kymlicka aptly put it Rawls
    himself leaves too much room for the influence of
    natural inequality, and at the same time leaves
    too little room for the influence of our choice.
    (2002, P. 70)

59
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Dworkins theory of justice of liberal equality
    To address the internal problems of Rawls Second
    Principle, Dworkin construct his theory of
    justice in a series of articles. (1995, see also
    1981a b, 1987a b, 1989)They theory can
    presented diagrammatically as follow.
  • And Dworkin claims that his model of liberal
    equality represents equality, liberty and
    community as fused together in an overall
    political ideal. (Dworkin, 1995, P. 226)

60
ORIGIN
DESTINATION
PROCESS In pursuit of ones own critical
well-being
Liberty
Equality
Insurance mechanism in form of taxation
transfer payment to compensate inequality of
personal resources
Auction mechanism as devices to determine the
amount of equal share in impersonal resources
amount of compensations if need be
It refers to the idea of equality of endowment s
resources at the commencing stage of the
pursuit. These resources are of two distinctive
types
It refers to the idea that people are endowed
with the liberty and autonomy to choose their own
versions of critical well-being. As a result they
bear full responsibility of their choice
decisions.
Personal resources/ natural endowments
Impersonal resources/ socioeconomic endowments
No compensation for costly /or unwise choice
Just Distribution 3
Just Distribution 2
Just Distribution 1
Various forms of just distributions have to be
worked out and sediment overtime within a given
community of reasonable citizens, i.e.
institutionalization
Community
61
ORIGIN
DESTINATION
PROCESS In pursuit of ones own critical
well-being
Liberty
Equality
Insurance mechanism in form of taxation
transfer payment to compensate inequality of
personal resources
Auction mechanism as devices to determine the
amount of equal share in impersonal resources
amount of compensations if need be
It refers to the idea of equality of endowment s
resources at the commencing stage of the
pursuit. These resources are of two distinctive
types
It refers to the idea that people are endowed
with the liberty and autonomy to choose their own
versions of critical well-being. As a result they
bear full responsibility of their choice
decisions.
Liberal equality represents equality, liberty
and community as fused together in an overall
political ideal. (Rowkin, 1995, P. 226)
Personal resources/ natural endowments
Impersonal resources/ socioeconomic endowments
No compensation for costly /or unwise choice
Just Distribution 3
Just Distribution 2
Just Distribution 1
Various forms of just distributions have to be
worked out and sediment overtime within a given
community of reasonable citizens, i.e.
institutionalization
Community
62
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Michael Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Walzer, a prominent political philosopher in the
    US, published a book entitle Spheres of Justice
    in 1983, to criticize Rawls ambition to
    construct a, if not the, theory of justice and at
    the same time outline his theory of complex
    equality and spheres of justice.

63
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64
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Pluralistic conception of distributive justice
  • Walzer begins with the argument that to search
    for unity is to misunderstand the subject matter
    of distributive justice. (Walzer 1983, P. 4)

65
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Pluralistic conception of distributive justice
  • Instead he underlines, Different political
    arrangements enforce, and different ideologies
    justifiy, different distributions of membership,
    power, honor, ritual eminence, divine grace,
    kinship and love, knowledge, wealth, physical
    security, work and leisure, rewards and
    punishments, and a host of goods more narrowly
    and materially conceived?food, shelter, clothing,
    transportation, medical care, commodities of
    every sort, and the odd things (printings, rare
    books, postage stamps) that human beings collect.
    And this multiplicity of goods is matched by a
    multiplicity of distributive procedures, agents,
    and criteria. (Walzer, 1983, P. 3)

66
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Membership of distributive community According
    to Walzers formulation distribution could only
    take place within definitive community and
    distribution could also be undertaken among
    eligible and entitled members.
  • In his own words, human society is a
    distributive community. It is important that we
    come together to share, divide, and exchange. We
    also come together to make the things that are
    shared, divided, and exchanged but that very
    making?work itself?is distributed among us in a
    division of labor. (Walzer, 1983, P. 3)

67
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Membership of distributive community
  • Accordingly, the first and most important
    question in distributive justice is How is the
    distributive community is constituted? Who are
    members who are entitled to share, divide, and
    exchange? Who are the non-members who are
    excluded from the distributive game? In short,
    how membership is defined?

68
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Membership of distributive community
  • Walzer has listed a matrix of membership commonly
    found in human society for our reference.
  • enemy,
  • stranger,
  • refugee,
  • guest worker,
  • resident in a territory,
  • citizen of a sovereign state,
  • national of a nation,
  • member of ethnic group,
  • neighbor,
  • clansman,
  • family member, etc.

69
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers concept of complex equality
  • Membership of distributive community
  • Walzer underlines that the distribution of
    membership is not pervasively subject to the
    constraints of justice. (Walzer, 1983, P. 61) In
    fact, throughout human history, we have witnessed
    numerous arbitrary and accidental assignments of
    membership among socioeconomic, political and
    cultural communities.

70
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education and its principles
    of distributive justice
  • Education as a special and enclosed sphere
    Education is what John Dewey called a special
    environment. The students are granted a partial
    moratorium from the demand of society and
    economy. The teachers, too, are protected from
    the immediate forms of external pressure. They
    teacher the truths they understand, and the same
    truths, to all the students in front of them, and
    respond to questions as best they can, without
    regard to the students social origins. (Walzer,
    1983, P. 199)

71
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education and its principles
    of distributive justice
  • According, the most interesting and hardest
    distributive questions arising from the sphere
    of education are Which children is it who are
    admitted into the enclosed communities? Who goes
    to school? And to what sort of school? (What is
    the strength of the enclosure?) To study What?
    For how long? With what other students? (Walzer,
    1983, P. 199)

72
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education
  • As a results, there have been various kinds of
    schooling developed according to diverse
    principles of distributive justice
  • Common schools for all As Aristotle advocated
    centuries ago the system of education in a state
    must be one and the same for all, and the
    provision of this system must be a matter of
    public action. (Aristotle, Politics quoted in
    Walzer, 1983, P. 202 my emphasis) And again as
    R.H. Tawney, a prominent historian and socialist
    in the twentieth-century England, underlined, To
    serve educational needs, without regard to the
    vulgar irrelevance of class and income is part of
    the teachers honor (Tawney, 1964, quoted in
    Walzer, 1983, P. 202)

73
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education
  • . various kinds of schooling .
  • Compulsory schools for future citizens of the
    state If common school for all is based on the
    distributive justice by need of individuals,
    then compulsory schooling can be conceived as
    distribution for the need of the society or more
    specifically the sovereign state. The principle
    of simple equality could then be construed as in
    conflict with individual liberty.

74
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education
  • been various kinds of schooling
  • Schools for the minorities Minorities by
    ethnicity, language, religion, etc. may dispute
    compulsory schooling from the value stance of
    liberty to preserve its cultural integrity and
    heritage. And ask for separate school.
  • Private schools for the wealthy Separate school
    argument can also be waged by other social
    groups, such as the wealthy, who can based their
    argument on the distributive justice by free
    exchange.

75
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education
  • various kinds of schooling
  • Talent track Separate school policy can also be
    proposed not from the principle of free
    exchange but be based on the principle of
    justice by desert. For example children who are
    exceptionally talent may desert to be educated
    separately. By the same token, children who are
    handicapped (especially intelligently) should
    also be rendered separate education.

76
Justice as Prima Facie Value in Education Policy
Argumentation
  • Walzers sphere of education
  • various kinds of schooling
  • Neighborhood schools Given the fact that
    education or more specifically schooling must be
    delivered in group in a definite locality, with
    whom and where are children educated have been
    one of the central contention in distributive
    justice of education. Since most students
    residences are socioeconomically and ethnically
    located, social and ethnical segregations in
    education have been one of the major
    controversies in education policy. This is most
    evidenced in the controversies swirled form the
    first two Coleman Reports explicated in Topic 2.

77


SSPS

78
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  1. In 1990, Iris Young published her work entitled
    Justice and the Politics of Difference, in which
    she criticizes that the theoretical discourse
    about justice has been dominated by the
    distributive paradigm. Instead she put forth her
    theory of relational justice.

79
(1949-2006)
80
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  1. Contemporary theories of justice are dominated
    by a distributive paradigm, which tends to focus
    on the possession of material goods and social
    positions. This distributive focus, however,
    obscures other issues of institutional
    organization at the same time that it often
    particular institutional and practices as given.
    (Young, 1990, P. 8)

81
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  1. Justice should refer not only to distribution,
    but also to the institutional conditions
    necessary for the development and exercise of
    individual capacities and collective
    communication and cooperation. Under the
    conception of justice, injustice refers primarily
    to two forms of disabling constraints, oppression
    and domination. While these constraints include
    distributive patterns, they also involve matters
    which cannot easily be assimilated to the logic
    of distribution decision-making procedures,
    division of labor, and culture. (Young 1990, P.
    39)..

82
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • .. Hence, the concept of justice should also
    apply to the social relational domain, which
    strives for social relations guaranteeing
  • Self-development, i.e. free from oppression
  • Self determination, i.e. free from domination

83
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Oppression consists in systematic institutional
    processes which prevent some people from learning
    and using satisfying and expansive skills in
    socially recognized settings, or
    institutionalized social processes which inhibit
    peoples ability to play and communicate with
    others or to express their feelings and
    perspectives on social life in contexts where
    others can listen. (Young, 1990, P. 38)
    Accordingly, young has specified five faces of
    oppression (Pp. 39-65)

84
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Accordingly, Young has specified five faces of
    oppression (Pp. 39-65)
  • Exploitation The injustice of exploitation
    consists in social processes that bring about a
    transfer of energies from one group to another to
    produce unequal distributions, and in the way in
    which social institutions enable a few to
    accumulate while they constraint many more.
    (Young, 1990, p.53) These exploitation social
    institution may appears in class, gender and/or
    racial relation.

85
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Marginalization Marginalization is perhaps the
    most dangerous form of oppression. A whole
    category of people is expelled from useful
    participation in social life and thus potentially
    subjected to severe material deprivation and even
    extermination. (p. 53)
  • Even if marginals were provided a
    comfortable material life within institutions
    that respected their freedom and dignity,
    injustices of marginality would remain in the
    form of uselessness, boredom, and lack of
    self-respect. (p.55)

86
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Powerless It is a status in which the powerless
    lack the authority, status, and sense of self.
    (p.57) As a result, they will experience
    inhibition in the development of ones
    capacities, lack of decisionmaking power in ones
    working life, and exposure to disrespectful
    treatment because of the status one occupies.
    (p.58)

87
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Cultural imperialism Cultural imperialism
    involves the universalization of a groups
    experience and culture, and its establishment as
    the norm. Some groups have exclusive or primary
    access to the means of interpretation and
    communication in a society. This, then, is the
    injustice of cultural imperialism that the
    oppressed groups own experience and
    interpretation of social life finds little
    expression that touches the domanint culture,
    while that same culture imposes on the oppressed
    group its experience and interpretation of social
    life. (p.59-60)

88
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Oppression as injustice
  • Violence Members of some groups live with the
    knowledge that they must fear random, unprovoked
    attacks on their persons or property, which have
    no motive but to damage, humiliate, or destroy
    the person. (p.61)

89
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice (Self-determination)
  • Domination consists in institutional condition
    which inhibit or prevent people from
    participating in determining their actions or the
    conditions of their actions. Persons live within
    structures of domination if other persons or
    groups can determine without reciprocation the
    conditions of their action, either directly or by
    virtue of the structural consequences of their
    action. Thorough social and political democracy
    is the opposite of domination. (Young, 1990, P.
    38)

90
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice
  • Justicerequiresparticipation in public
    discussion and process of democratic
    decisionamking. All persons should have the right
    and opportunity to participate in the
    deliberation and decisionmaking of the
    institutions to which their actions contribute or
    which directly affect their actions. Democracy
    is both an element and a condition of social
    justice. Democracy is also a condition for a
    publics arriving at decisions whose substance
    and implications best promote substantively just
    outcomes. The argument for this claim relies on
    Habermass conception of communicative ethnics.
    (Pp. 91-92)

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91
(1929- )
92
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice
  • Habermas communicative rationality and ethics
  • Communicative rationality
  • An assertion can be called rational if the
    speakers satisfies the conditions necessary to
    achieve the illocutionary goal of reaching an
    understanding about something in the world with
    at least one other participant in
    communication.(Habermas, 1984, P.11)
  • Definition of communicative rationality Concept
    of communicative rationality carries with it
    connotation based ultimately on the central
    experience of the unconstrained, unifying,
    consensus-bringing force of argumentative speech,
    in which different participants overcome their
    merely subjective view and, owing to the
    mutuality of rationally motivated conviction,
    assure themselves of both the unity of the
    objective world and the intersubjectivity of
    their lifeworld.(Habermas, 1984, P.10)

92
93
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice
  • Habermas communicative rationality and ethics
  • Communicative ethics (also termed argumentative
    ethics or discourse ethics) It refers to the
    principles that communicatively rational
    participants in an argument are willing to
    observe in conducting their argumentative claims
    with the aim of arriving at a mutually acceptable
    consensus on the subject matter under discussion
    or even dispute. Habermas suggests that these
    communicative ethics are the normative bases for
    the constitution of the ideal communicative
    situation in which unrestrained communications
    can be conducted and mutually acceptable
    consensuses are to be researched.

93
94
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice
  • Habermas communicative rationality and ethics
  • These principles include (Habermas, 1979,
    P.68 Habermas, 1988, P.23 Forester, 1989)
  • Truth and efficacy This set of principles
    applies primarily to statements or argumentative
    claims relate to the validity of cognitive
    propositions or instrumental plans of actions. It
    requires speakers engaging in a discourse to put
    forth cognitive propositions concerning the
    natural world that are true and the instrumental
    (mean-end) plans of actions that are practical
    efficacious
  • Rightness This principle applies mainly to
    argumentative claims relate to the validity of
    moral and practical prescriptions. It requires
    speakers in discourse to yield statements that
    are in compliance with the general norms of the
    community in which the discourse takes place or
    refers to.

94
95
From Distributive Justice to Relational Justice
Reframing Education Policy of Justice
  • Domination as injustice
  • Habermas communicative rationality and ethics
  • These principles include (Habermas, 1979,
    P.68 Habermas, 1988, P.23 Forester, 1989)
  • Relevancy and/or legitimacy This set of
    principles applies specifically to argumentative
    claims made in evaluative and more specifically
    public evaluative context, such as evaluation on
    public policy discourse. It requires its
    respective speakers to make evaluative statements
    based on standards of value, which are relevant
    and/or legitimate to the issues under evaluation.
  • Truthfulness and sincerity This set of
    principles applies to the internal and expressive
    positions of the speakers themselves. It
    restricts the speakers from put forth deceptive
    and illusive utterances and to only utter
    statements that are truthful and sincere.
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