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Emerging Trends in Urban and Rural Community Forms

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Title: Emerging Trends in Urban and Rural Community Forms


1
Emerging Trends in Urban and Rural Community Forms
  • New towns as Intentional Communities
  • The concept of building intentional communities
    is very old -- Utopian Plans
  • Platos Republic (375 B.C.)
  • Thomas Mores (Utopia 1516) represents the
    perfect social and economic society
  • Francis Bacons New Atlantis (1627)
  • B.F. Skinners Walden II (1948)

2
Two Early American Utopian Communities--Shakers
Oneida
  • Longest survived utopian community in the U.S. --
    First founded in 1787 and the final Shaker died
    in 1980s
  • Founded by Mother Ann Lee who was thought to be
    the second coming of Christ and women were in
    charge of the community and sex roles were
    unimportant
  • lived jointly but celibate

3
Two Early American Utopian Communities--Shakers
Oneida
  • The perfectionists founded a community in
    Oneida NY, led by John Noyes in 1848
  • They believed that the second coming of Christ
    had occurred and society was evolving to a
    perfect state -- to be accomplished in Oneida
  • They practiced complex marriage and all lived
    together

4
Two Early American Utopian Communities--Shakers
Oneida
  • They were prosperous economically--moving into
    small manufacturing--especially steel traps
  • Non-members in surrounding communities were
    outraged by free love practices
  • In 1879 Noyes escaped to Canada to avoid arrest
  • The community reformed in 1881 as a joint-stock
    corporation and is now the largest producer of
    stainless steel flatware in the U.S.

5
New Towns Garden Cities
  • Ebenezer Howard Garden Cities of Tomorrow (1898)
  • fully planned in all aspects--with a central
    garden-park
  • limited population (about 32,000)
  • The city is surrounded by an agricultural green
    belt
  • Garden cities could not expand at its edges,
    instead a new city would be built
  • Greenbelt, MD Radburn, NJ Letchworth,
    U.K.Wyomissing, PA

6
The Evolution of Garden Cities The New Town
Movement
  • New Town movement began after World War II to
    relieve overcrowding in English cities and house
    returning U.S. soldiers
  • The main points of the New Town movement are
    summarized as follows
  • Predetermined population size -- 32,000 of garden
    cities would be o the low end, most being around
    60,000

7
The Evolution of Garden Cities The New Town
Movement
  • The main points of the New Town movement are
    summarized as follows
  • Fully planned and under single ownership -- at
    least during development, the plan includes
    location of activities, parks, and open spaces.
  • Self-Contained and autonomous -- new towns
    contain a complete range of retail, professional,
    educational, cultural, and recreational services
  • Diverse and balanced population -- because of the
    self-contained economy residents with diverse
    occupations would be needed to be self-sufficient
    -- mix SES housing areas

8
The Evolution of Garden Cities The New Town
Movement
  • New Towns in America tend to follow all the
    guidelines except self-sufficiency and
    maintaining a diverse and balanced population
  • Burby and Weiss in 1976 conducted a study
    evaluating the success of new towns
  • people like living in new towns
  • the towns design does not have an impact on
    social interaction
  • None are self-contained and autonomous and most
    fall down on diversity issues

9
Examples of New Towns Columbia, MD Sun City, AZ
  • Columbia is located between D.C. and Baltimore,
    MD and was planned by Developer James Rouse
  • 21 square miles and currently has 120,000
    residents
  • well-planned open spaces, scenic views of woods,
    hills, and fields
  • Strict building codes and zoning for
    multiple-mixed land use
  • Rouse remains in control of all commercial space

10
Examples of New Towns Columbia, MD Sun City, AZ
  • Sun City, AZ is located southern Arizona
  • Developed by the late Del Webb in 1960 and is an
    exclusive and famous retirement community
  • Webb took the new town principle and applied
    exclusively to retirees -- which violates the
    principles of diverse population

11
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12
Examples of New Towns Columbia, MD Sun City, AZ
  • By catering to elders Webbs community as a
    profit making venture has many advantages
  • does not have to worry about job opportunities
  • transportation corridors to outside the community
    are not important
  • can locate in the middle of nowhere for cheap
    land
  • no need for educational and recreational
    facilities for young people

13
Examples of New Towns Columbia, MD Sun City, AZ
  • Has a stadium for Milwaukee Brewers spring
    training
  • Six shopping centers
  • 26 churches
  • two private country clubs
  • 260 bed hospital, 60,000 square feet medical arts
    center
  • Many motels and restaurants
  • Residents tend to go north for the summer

14
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Changes in manufacturing will continue
  • American Cities, especially in the South and West
    will continue to decentralize
  • I worry that my country is becoming a loose
    confederation of shopping centers. Pierre
    Trudeau
  • Of the fifty fastest growing counties in the
    U.S., twelve are in the state of Florida

15
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • The major trend of the previous century, rural to
    urban migration is slowing and may reverse in the
    near future (it had reversed for a few years)
  • Decentralization offers enormous opportunity for
    good, reshaping the way we live
  • but, we cannot forget the people that remain in
    the urban core and rural hinterland

16
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Most of us do not concern ourselves with the
    shape of cities but cities begin to shape us
  • our culture does not value cities -- we have an
    anti-city bias
  • people tend to want to live in the suburbs where
    there is space
  • when people disperse traffic and the impact on
    the environment become issues
  • We compete for space and time and with each other
    and with products of our culture

17
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • New cities are not attractive because of
    cosmopolitan lifestyle but their access to
    natural resources (Tampa, Miami, Knoxville,
    Denver, Tucson)
  • New cities tend to be poly-nucleated with giant
    regional malls often serving as the hub of the
    community

18
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Old cities tended to be organized for production,
    now there is an emphasis on consumption
  • Less corporate identity among workers and more
    emphasis on where you live and how you recreate
  • New towns have citizen-controlled private
    governance that are in some ways more powerful
    than local government

19
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Household size is getting smaller, from 4.6 in
    1970 to 2.3 in 1990
  • condominiums and smaller houses are now growing
    faster than traditional 3/2 houses
  • Euclidian zoning is being transformed into
    mixed-use zoning
  • new housing developments blur legal definitions
    of renting and owning

20
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Patron Saint of current New Towns is Walt Disney
  • Use of illusions and psychological packaging of
    main streets that might never actually existed
  • Packaging becomes really important, many places
    are organized around communal space but careful
    not to sell the point too much -- people when
    oversold generally say I just want to be left
    alone

21
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Developers try to create a theme that evokes
    nostalgia and nature from an actually or made up
    story line -- people tend to buy into the myth
  • Developers create themed villages within a larger
    development -- targeting different demographics
    and separating by SES

22
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • The single-interest developments is a growing
    phenomenon
  • golf
  • singles
  • country club
  • retirement
  • equestrian
  • nudist lifestyle

23
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Golden-Age Ghettos
  • age restrictions
  • children are not welcome
  • condos -- self contained -- do not have to leave
    compound
  • keep out others in community
  • often have progressive care/living arrangements

24
Current Trends That Impact Community Development
  • Bunker Sweet Bunker
  • gated communities sell security
  • especially marketed to elders
  • local volunteer crime watch
  • Quayside in Miami-Dade is on its own island
    across from Bal Harbour
  • laser beams circle the perimeter (even over
    water)
  • everyone enters a central checkpoint
  • constant video survelience
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