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RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN FISH VACCINE

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Current status development of vaccination strategies Vibriosis within the genus Vibrio, ... This vaccine is constituted by live cells of Arthobacter davidanieli, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN FISH VACCINE


1
  • RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN FISH VACCINE

2
Introduction
  • The first vaccines against Fish infectious
    bacterial diseases were developed in 1970.
  • It is commercial in 1980.
  • This has contributed significantly to the growth
    of the industry to consumer acceptance of farm
    raised.
  • Research over many year very few Anti-viral
    vaccines are available.
  • There are no commercial vaccines against parasite.

3
Cont
  • Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important
    part of aquaculture ,since it is considered a
    cost effective method of controlling different
    threatening disease.
  • Before attempting any vaccination strategy, it is
    important to determine when the system is both
    morphologically and functiontionally mature.
  • Immunization of pre-spawing females may have
    potential as a means of protecting fish againist
    pathogens which affect the early life stages ,
    such as Flavabacterium psychrophilum,
    Edwardisiella ictaluri.

4
Primary Factors Affecting the Efficacy Of
Vaccination
  • Types of vaccine formulation
  • A) Bacterins-
  • Most bacterial vaccines used in aquaculture to
    date have been inactivated vaccines obtained from
    broth culture of a specific strain(s) subjected
    to subsequent formalin inactivation.

5
Cont
  • The best results are obtained with those
    bacterins that include both bacterins cells and
    extracellular products.
  • Whereas with some vaccines accepatable levels of
    protection are achieved with aqueous formulation
    administered by injection or immersion.
  • Bacterins such as those devised for Salmonids
    against Aeromonas salmonicidia an accepatable
    level of protection can only be achieved by
    immuunization with oil adjuvanted bacterins
    delivered by injection.

6
(B)Live attenuated vaccines
  • These should have many advantages in Aquaculture.
  • Live vaccines also have the advantage that
    stimulate the cellular branch of the immune
    system.
  • Some live vaccines have been tested
    experimentally are Aermonas salmonicida,
    Edwardiella tarda E.ictaluri.

7
Cont
  • At present ,only on E.ictaluri attenuated live
    vaccine has licensed in then USA to be used by
    both in 9-days old fish to prevent ESC of cat
    fish.
  • (C)DNA vaccines
  • DNA vaccines have theoretical advantage over
    conventional vaccines in mammals the specific
    immune response after DNA vaccination encompasses
    antibodies ,T-helper cells and cytotoxic cells.

8
Cont
  • As the DNA sequence encodes only a single
    microbial gene , there should be no possibility
    of reversion to virulence.
  • It is a critical factor to factor in enviromental
    saftey in Aquaculture.

9
Current status development of vaccination
strategies
  • Vibriosis
  • within the genus Vibrio, the species causing the
    most economically serious diseases in marine
    culture are Vibrio anguillarum,
    V.ordalii,V.salmonicida and V.vulnificus.
  • Vibrio anguillarum it affect the salmonids and
    non salmonids with a world wide distribution.
  • Although there a great number of commercial
    Vibrio anguillarum vaccines have been developed
    for use mainly by injection or both.

10
  • Winter ulcer-
  • Winter Ulcer is a disease affecting sea-farmed
    atlantic salmon.
  • It occurs in Norway, Iceland and Scotland mainly
    during the winter season.
  • An inactivated Oil- aduvanted vaccine against
    M.viscosa has been shown to give protection in
    atlantic salmon.
  • Today M.viscosa has been incorporated in the
    Oil-based mutivalent vaccines employed routienly
    in the salmon industry of the affected countries.

11
  • Pasteurellosis
  • Pasteurellosis currently described also as
    photobacteriods, is caused by the halophilic
    bacterium Photobacterium demselae
  • Which causes ecnomic losses in the marine culture
    of yellotail(Seriola quinquerdiata) in Japan.
  • Sea bream(sparus aureta) sea bass and sole in the
    Mediterranean countries of Europe and hybrid
    striped bass in the USA

12
  • This mortalities occur usually when water
    temperature are above 18-20oc.
  • In recent year, several commercial vaccines
    against P.damselae have been made available on
    the market but their efficacy is dependent on
    fish species,fish size,vaccine formulation.

13
Cont
  • Recently different stable attenuated siderophore
    deficient and aro-A mutant strains have been
    constructed using an allelic replacement
    technique which in experiment trails proved to be
    useful candidates as live vaccines for striped
    bass hybrids

14
  • Furunculosis-
  • Aeromonas salmlonicide is the causative agent so
    called typical furunculosis which causes
    economically devastating losses in cultivated
    salmonids in fresh water and marine waters.
  • Although many furunculosis bacterians have been
    developed and commercialized since 1980 to be
    used in salmonids by injection, immersion or the
    oral route.

15
  • Different approaches have been used to develop
    live attenuated vaccine against furunculosis.
  • In recent recombinant DNA technology allowed the
    construction of highly attenuated and stable
    aro-A auxotrophic mutant strains using an allelic
    replacement technique which were employed
    experimentally as safe live vaccines with a high
    level of success but their approval for use in
    the field has not yet been forthcoming.

16
  • Yersiniosis-
  • Yersinia ruckeri is the causal agent of
    yersiniosis or enteric redmouth (ERM) disease.
  • Although commercial ERM vaccines have been
    extensively used for decades with generally high
    efficacy they do not eliminate the carrier state,
    since the apparently healthy vaccinated fish act
    as a vehicle by which ERM could be spread into
    non-endemic areas of the disease.
  • Therefore, the inclusion of atleast the
    predominated serovaes in the commercial vaccines
    is encouraged.

17
  • Enteric septicaemia of cat fish, ESC
    (Edwardsiella citaluri)
  • Edwardsiella citaluri is the enterobacterium
    responsible for enteric septicemia of catfish,
    with channel cat fish being the most susceptible
    fish species among the
  • E. citaluri .
  • E.ictaluri is an intracellular pathogen for
    channel catfish it is not unusual that killed
    vaccines have not been very successful.

18
  • Recently an attenuated O-antigen deficient
    E.ictaluri strain has been developed which was
    safe and provided high long lasting acquired
    immunity following a single both immersion in
    9-14 day old channel catfish without booster
    vaccination.
  • This modified live E.citaluri vaccine has been
    produced since 2000 by invest inc.

19
  • Cold water disease or rainbow trout fry
    syndrome-
  • Flavobacterium psychrophilum has been known as
    the causative agent of bacterial cold water
    disease (BCWD).
  • The few vaccination attempts for preventing the
    disease caused by F. psychrophilum have been
    published.
  • Recent vaccination experiment performed with
    young rainbow trout demonstrated that only
    significant protection was achieved using
    oil-adjuvanted ip(Intraperitoneal) vaccines.

20
  • There is no commercial vaccine against this
    disease are available, some countries using
    autogenous bacterins made from single form
    isolates.

21
  • Pseudomonadiasis-
  • The Pseudonas species recovered from disease
    fish. Pseudomonas anguillisetica is considered
    the significant pathogens for cultured fish.
  • This fish cause red spot disease.
  • In recent research efforts production of aqueous
    and non-mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterians with
    proved to be effective in experiment trials in
    gilthead sea bream and turbot.

22
  • Bacterial kidney disease-
  • BKD caused by the gram-positive diplobacillus.
  • Renibacterium salmoinarum is a chronic systemic
    disease of salmonids which causes mortality in
    cultured fish in fresh and marine environment.
  • Recently a commercial aqueous live vaccine
    developed by Novartis S.A has been licensed under
    the name of Renogen for BKD prevention.

23
  • This vaccine is constituted by live cells of
    Arthobacter davidanieli, a non-pathogenic
    environmental bacterium which express an
    extracellular polysaccharide with antigenic
    homology to that of R. Salmoninalum.

24
  • Future prospectus-
  • To achieve progress in fish vaccinology, an
    increase in the co-operation between basic and
    applied science is needed.
  • Improvement in oral immunity with biodegradable
    microparticle based vaccines to be used for
    booster vaccination.

25
  • Development of new non-mineral oil adjuvants
    lacking side effects.
  • Development of poly valent vaccines and
    stabilization of a vaccine calendar appropriate
    each economically important fish species.
  • Investigation of the mechanisms of immunoglobulin
    transfer from pre spanning females to offsprings
    as a useful way of protecting fish against
    pathogens which affects early life stages.
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