Production and Testing of Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite Brake Rotors for High Performance Applications - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Production and Testing of Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite Brake Rotors for High Performance Applications

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Fly ash is considerably cheaper than alternate ceramic materials used in Al-MMCs Fly ash significantly reduces the material cost of Al-MMCs Crucial for automotive ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Production and Testing of Aluminum Metal-Matrix Composite Brake Rotors for High Performance Applications


1
Production and Testing of Aluminum Metal-Matrix
Composite BrakeRotors for High Performance
Applications
  • Graham Withers Cyco Systems
  • Jue Sun Shanghai Sanji Die Casting Machinery
    Co.
  • Stephen Midson The Midson Group

2
Objective
  • Brake rotor for US sports car
  • 355 mm diameter by 32 mm thick
  • Produced from ULTALITE Al-MMC
  • For high performance applications

Patent pending
3
ULTALITE Al-MMC
  • ULTALITE is an Al-MMC produced by mixing
    classified fly ash particles into an aluminum
    casting alloy
  • Fly ash is generated during the combustion of
    pulverized coal at power stations
  • Fly ash is low cost with abundant supplies

Classified fly ash
4
Why Use Fly Ash?
  • Fly ash is considerably cheaper than alternate
    ceramic materials used in Al-MMCs
  • Fly ash significantly reduces the material cost
    of Al-MMCs
  • Crucial for automotive applications

5
Classification of Fly Ash
  • Raw fly ash contains a range of material (less
    than 0.1 µm to greater than 100 µm)
  • Solid spheres (SiO2/Al2O3)
  • Hollow spheres (SiO2/Al2O3)
  • Irregular shaped particles (amorphous SiO2)
  • Extraneous oxides (CaO, Fe2O3)
  • Un-burnt carbon
  • A commercial classification process is used to
    extract the solid spheres

6
Size Distribution of Raw and Classified Fly Ash
Raw
Classified
Differential Volume ()
Differential Volume ()
Cumulative Volume ()
  • Raw fly ash
  • Majority between 0.5 and 200 µm
  • Classified fly ash
  • Majority between 10 and 45 µm

Particle Diameter (µm)
Classified particles are called Ceramatec
7
Production of ULTALITE Al-MMC
  • ULTALITE is produced by stirring Ceramatec
    particles into molten aluminum alloys
  • A356 (Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg)
  • A380 (Al-8.5Si-3.5Cu)
  • Density of Ceramatec particles is 2.4 g/cm3
  • Similar to molten aluminum
  • Allows easy mixing of Ceramatec into molten
    aluminum

Microstructure A356-20 Ceramatec
  • Uniform particle distribution
  • No gas entrapment
  • No surface defects

8
Properties of ULTALITE Al-MMC
Mechanical Properties
Material Temper 0.2 YS (MPa) UTS (MPa) Elong. ()
A356-20 Ceramatec T6 318 327 0.4
A356 T6 207 278 6.0
Wear Properties
Material Test Conditions Vol. Loss (mm3) Mass Loss (gms) Wear Coefficient. ()
A356-20 Ceramatec 24 hrs _at_ 10,800 rpm 90.1 0.24 5.8 x 10-6
Steel 24 hrs _at_ 10,800 rpm 51.4 0.40 3.3 x 10-6
9
Brake Dynamometer Testing
  • Dynamometer testing has been performed on 200 mm
    diameter brake drums squeeze cast from ULTALITE
    Al-MMC

10
Testing Conditions
  • Brake dynamometer testing carried out at Brake
    Testing International (BTI), UK
  • AK Master Tests in accordance with SAE J2522
  • Standard NAO factory OEM linings were utilized
  • Drum/lining combinations used for the tests
  • Cast Iron/Nisshimbo lining
  • ULTALITE Al-MMC/Nisshimbo lining
  • ULTALITE Al-MMC/DON8259 lining

11
AK Master Test
  • AK Master Test is normally temperature based
  • Requires the brake drum to attain a specified
    initial brake drum temperature (IBT)
  • Substantially higher number of stops required for
    Al-MMC drums due to high heat dissipation, which
    leads to unrealistic high brake lining
    temperatures
  • AK Master Test Time based
  • Time durations used for stops associated with
    attaining the IBT for cast iron drums were
    utilized for Al-MMC drums
  • Provides conditions similar to tests conducted on
    cast iron drums in accordance with SAE J2522
    Standard

12
Fade Segment 6.9
Brake factor Pressure Temperature
Cast Iron/Nisshimbo
ULTALITE/Nisshimbo
Brake Appl. No.
  • Lower temperatures for Al-MMC drums
  • Higher brake factors for Al-MMC drums

Deceleration 0.4g, Velocity 100 ? 5 km/h
13
Recovery Segment 6.10
Cast Iron/Nisshimbo
ULTALITE/Nisshimbo
Brake Appl. No.
Brake Appl. No.
  • No evidence of brake fade in the Al-MMC drums
    during recovery
  • More consistent smoother brake performance in
    Al-MMC drums

Pressure 30 bar , Velocity 80 ? 30 km/h
14
Lining Wear Characteristics
  • As anticipated, higher wear is evident in the
    leading shoes
  • During high temperature test sections, lining
    wear in Al-MMC drums decreased substantially (-gt
    225ºC section)
  • Overall lining wear with Al-MMC drums was less
    than for cast iron drums

15
Corrosion Resistance ULTALITE vs. Cast Iron
Brake Drum
  • Both cast iron and Al-MMC brake drums were tested
    under identical salt spray testing conditions (in
    accordance with ASTM B117)
  • Approx. 55 of the surface on cast iron brake
    drum was covered in rust
  • Only minor corrosion on Al-MMC brake drum

16
Brake Rotors US Sports Car
Patent pending
  • Targets
  • Direct replacement of OEM cast iron rotor with
    aftermarket lightweight Al-MMC rotor
  • Produced from ULTALITE Al-MMC
  • Envelope of rotor remains same
  • Technology applicable to other OEM applications

17
Brake Rotors Innovative Design
  • Surface Venting
  • Vented to maximize heat loss
  • Surface venting allows production using
  • metal tooling
  • Multi-direction
  • Venting pattern allows rotors to be used on
  • either side of vehicle
  • Minimize warping
  • Surface area of friction blocks reduces towards
    circumference
  • Shallow vents
  • Vents lined up inside-to-outside
  • Vents curved
  • For progressive contact of brake pads

Patent pending
18
Brake Rotors Light Weight
  • ULTALITE A356-20 Ceramatec particles
  • ULTALITE A380-20 Ceramatec particles
  • Current cast iron rotor 12 kg
  • ULTALITE Al-MMC rotor 6.2 kg
  • Primary weight savings per rotor 5.8 kg
  • Primary weight savings for four rotors 23.2 kg
  • Total primary secondary weight savings 47.3
    kg
  • MIT analysis suggests that consumers will pay an
    additional 22.50 per rotor for the associated
    fuel savings

19
Brake Rotors
  • Rotors are produced by squeeze casting
  • 1000-ton vertical-injection squeeze casting
    machine
  • Squeeze casting
  • Uses high quality Al-MMC
  • Slow injection speed
  • High intensification pressure
  • Metallic dies
  • Extremely high quality castings, with excellent
    properties and no residual porosity

20
Simulation - Die Filling
  • Castings made with vertical orientation
  • Gated at lower edge
  • Upward flow minimizes turbulence during die
    filling
  • Minimize porosity and oxide entrapment

21
Summary Conclusions
  • A project is ongoing to produce high performance
    and OEM replacement brake rotors from ULTALITE
    Al-MMC
  • The low-cost Al-MMC is produced using Ceramatec
    particles classified from fly ash
  • The rotors will be produced by squeeze casting
  • Dynamometer testing has demonstrated that the
    ULTALITE Al-MMC has excellent braking
    performance, and can be used with standard
    factory brake pads and linings

22
Contact Information
  • Cyco Systems
  • Graham Withers
  • 888-540-4722
  • gwithers_at_ultalite.com
  • Shanghai Sanji Die Casting Machinery Co
  • Trevor Tan
  • 510-676-8655
  • szsanji_at_yahoo.com
  • The Midson Group
  • Steve Midson
  • 303-868-9766
  • steve_at_themidsongroup.com
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