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The Impact of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs on Student Performance

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The Impact of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs on Student Performance Greg Brigman, Ph.D. Linda Webb, Ph.D. Elizabeth Villares, Ph.D. Florida Atlantic University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Impact of Comprehensive School Counseling Programs on Student Performance


1
The Impact of Comprehensive School Counseling
Programs on Student Performance
  • Greg Brigman, Ph.D.
  • Linda Webb, Ph.D.
  • Elizabeth Villares, Ph.D.
  • Florida Atlantic University

2
Whiston, et al meta-analysis (2010)
  • 116 pre-post comparison group studies were
    included in Whistons meta-analysis.
  • This is the latest of a series of research
    reviews that have found school counseling to be
    very beneficial to students (Lapan, Gysbers
    Sun, 1997 Sink, et al. 2008 Sink Stroh, 2003)

3
Three types of measures used in the 116 studies
reviewed by Whiston
  • Cognitive
  • Behavior
  • Affective

4
Cognitive Measures
  • GPA
  • Achievement tests

5
Behavior Measures
  • Attendance
  • Physical altercations
  • Disciplinary referrals
  • Peer counseling skills
  • Problem solving
  • Behavior rating scales
  • Assess of social skills

6
Affective Measures
  • Self-esteem
  • Personal or social development
  • Anxiety
  • Depression

7
Results
  • Average study 139 participants
  • 59 (50) Elementary
  • 21 (18) Middle School
  • 29 (25) High School
  • 7 (6) combined ages

8
Average Effect Sizes Found
  • Meta-analysis results from116 studies-
  • Average Effect Size .45

9
Type of Measures and Effect Sizes
  • Cognitive Measures
  • GPA .15
  • Achievement .16
  • Behavioral Measures
  • Discipline referrals .83
  • Student problem solving .96
  • Peer Counseling Skills 1.14

10
Affective Measures Effect Sizes
  • Self-Esteem .19
  • Anxiety .40
  • Depression .37

11
Delivery of interventions
  • Classroom Curriculum (51 studies) and Small Group
    Counseling ( 47 studies) had similar ES .36
  • Individual Counseling (6 studies)
  • ES .07
  • Parent Workshops (5 studies)
  • ES .94

12
School Counselor interventions with largest
Effect Sizes
  • Decreasing discipline problems (.83)
  • Increasing student problem solving (.96)
  • Peer helping skills (1.14)

13
Other Effect Sizes for school counselor
interventions
  • Social skills (.33)
  • Attendance (.30)

14
School counselor interventions are effective
across all three levels
  • Elementary Average Effect Size
  • Guidance Curriculum .31
  • Responsive services .40
  • Middle Average Effect Size
  • Guidance Curriculum .46
  • Responsive services .22
  • High Average Effect Size
  • Guidance Curriculum .39
  • Responsive services .35

15
Whistons findings support a balanced school
counseling program approach
  • The effectiveness of guidance curriculum and
    responsive services were consistent with both
    components having and average ES of .35

16
Center for School Counseling Outcome Research
(CSORE) University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  • Statewide Evaluations in Utah and Nebraska
    (Carey Harrington, 2010)
  • CSORE partnered with State Departments of
    Education
  • After controlling for differences in school-level
    demographics, clear and consistent evidence of
    four important sets of results were found

17
Four important sets of results were found
  • School counseling contributes to important
    student outcomes
  • Student to counselor ratios matter
  • How the school counseling program is organized
    matters
  • What counselors do matters

18
School counseling contributes to important
student outcomes
  • Increase math and reading proficiency
  • Lower suspension rates
  • Lower discipline rates
  • Increase attendance
  • Higher graduation rates

19
Student to counselor ratios matter
  • In both states, the ratio of students to
    counselors was strongly related to its student
    outcomes.
  • More favorable ratios were associated with
    improved attendance, completion rates, and
    decreased discipline rates.

20
How the school counseling program is organized
matters
  • The longer a school has been implementing a
    comprehensive developmental model (ASCA) the
    better the educational outcomes.
  • The more strongly organized programs are better
    able to produce positive outcomes for students.

21
What counselors do matters
  • Both Nebraska and Utah results indicate that
    career development-focused interventions seem to
    be particularly important in producing positive
    academic outcomes.
  • CSORE has reviewed other evidenced-based school
    counseling programs shown to have strong positive
    impact on student performance, i.e. Student
    Success Skills

22
Student Success Skills A Foundational Learning
Skills Approach
  • SSS helps students in grades 4-10
  • improve math and reading through
  • Cognitive Skills
  • Social Skills
  • Self-Management Skills

23
Student Success Skills Key Skill
Areas
  • Goal setting and progress
  • monitoring
  • Creating a caring, supportive
  • and encouraging classrooms
  • Cognitive/Memory skills
  • Performing under pressure
  • Managing test anxiety
  • Building Healthy Optimism

24
Student Success Skills Meta-Analysis
  • Five studies
  • Brigman and Campbell (2003)
  • Brigman, Webb, and Campbell (2007)
  • Campbell and Brigman (2005)
  • Webb, Brigman and Campbell (2005 )
  • León, Villares, Brigman, Webb, and Peluso (2010)

25
Effect Size of SSS on Math Scores
Study Study n ES
A Brigman and Campbell, 2003 222 .36
B Campbell and Brigman, 2005 302 .51
C Webb, Brigman, and Campbell, 2005 418 .37
D Brigman, Webb, and Campbell, 2007 220 .45
E León, Villares, Brigman, Webb, and Peluso. 2010 156 .37
Effect Size for Math Effect Size for Math Effect Size for Math .41
26
ES of SSS on Reading Scores
Study Study n ES
A Brigman and Campbell, 2003 222 .26
B Campbell and Brigman, 2005 302 .23
C Webb, Brigman, and Campbell, 2005 418 .11
D Brigman, Webb, and Campbell, 2007 220 -.03
E León, Villares, Brigman, Webb, and Peluso. 2010 156 .37
ES for Reading ES for Reading ES for Reading .17
27
What kind of gains can we expect in math and
reading?
  • Hill, Bloom, Black, and Lipsey (2008) reviewed
    192 meta-analyses of educational interventions to
    evaluate there impact on reading and math
    standardized test scores.

28
What kind of gains can we expect in math and
reading?
  • Hill, et al (2007) found that for students in
    grades K-12, the overall average effect sizes of
  • 0.23 Elementary
  • 0.27 Middle
  • 0.24 High

29
Annual achievement test score gains in reading
and math
  • Grades 4-5 Read .40 Math .56
  • Grades 6-7 Read .32 Math .41
  • Grades 9-10 Read .19 Math.25
  • Hill, C., Bloom, H., Black, A. Lipsey, M.
    (2007)

30
Practical Impact of Interventions
  • If a study of an intervention, say a new math
    curriculum or method of teaching math, found an
    effect size of .10
  • Then using Hills benchmark of Average Yearly
    Gains, the impact of this intervention
  • In reading would be comparable to one-quarter of
    an additional year of learning for 4th graders.
  • For math the .10 effect size would be comparable
    to one-fifth of an additional year for 4th graders

31
Practical significance of a Student Success
Skills .41 ES in math
  • Grades 4-5 An additional 4/5 of a years growth
  • Grades 6-7 An additional 1 years growth
  • Grades 9-10 An additional 1 2/3 years growth
  • Hill, C., Bloom, H., Black, A. Lipsey, M. (2007)

32
Practical significance of Student Success
Skills .17 ES in Reading
  • Grades 4-5 An additional 1/3 of a years growth
  • Grades 6-7 An additional 1/2 years growth
  • Grades 9-10 An additional 1 years growth
  • Hill, C., Bloom, H., Black, A. Lipsey, M.
    (2007)

33
So What?
  • So if the best interventions known average an
    effect size of .25
  • And school counselors can delivery interventions
    that focus on foundational learning skills which
    have as large or larger impact as these best
    known interventions,
  • Then school counselors have an important seat at
    the school improvement table.
  • We cannot afford to throw away such an important
    resource to improving math and reading
    proficiency as well as discipline, attendance and
    graduation rates.

34
Data Driven Decision Making
  • If one looks at recent reviews of rigorous
    educational research
  • Then it is clear that comprehensive school
    counseling programs
  • And specific school counselor led classroom
    interventions such as SSS
  • Can have a large positive effect on student
    learning.

35
Contact information
  • Greg Brigman, Ph.D.
  • gbrigman_at_fau.edu
  • Linda Webb, Ph.D.
  • lwebb_at_fau.edu
  • Elizabeth Villares, Ph.D.
  • evillare_at_fau.edu

36
References
  • Brigman, G. Campbell, C. (2003). Helping
    student improve academic achievement and school
    success behavior. Professional School
    Counseling, 7.
  • Brigman, G., Webb, L. Campbell, C. (2007).
    Building skills for school success
  • Improving the academic and social competence of
    students. Professional School Counseling, 10,
    279-288.
  • Campbell, C., Brigman, G. (2005). Closing the
    achievement gap A structured approach to group
    counseling. Journal for Specialists in Group
    Work, 30, 67-82

37
References
  • Carey, J. Harrington, K. (2010). Nebraska
    school counseling evaluation report. Amherst,
    MA Center for School Counseling Outcome Research
    and Evaluation.
  • Carey, J. Harrington, K. (2010). Utah school
    counseling evaluation report. Amherst, MA
    Center for School Counseling Outcome Research and
    Evaluation.

38
References
  • Hill, C., Bloom, H., Black, A. Lipsey, M.
    (2007). Empirical benchmarks for interpreting
    effect sizes in research, MDRC Working Papers
    Research Methodology, New York, NYMDRC.
    Available at www.mdrc.org/publications/459/full.p
    df
  • Leon, A., Villares, E., Brigman, G., Webb, L.,
    Peluso, P.(accepted). Closing the Achievement
    Gap of Hispanic Students A School Counseling
    Response. Counseling Outcome Research and
    Evaluation.

39
References
  • Webb. L., Brigman, G. Campbell, C. (2005).
    Linking school counselors and student success A
    replication of the Student Success Skills
    approach targeting the academic social
    competence of students. Professional School
    Counseling, 8, 407-411.
  • Whiston, S., Tai, W. ,Rahardja, D. Eder, K.
    (2011). School counseling outcome A
    Meta-analytic examination of interventions.
    Journal of Counseling and Development, 89, 37-55.
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