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God and Worldview Thinking:

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~ Paul Enns, Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago: Moody Press, 1997), 310. SYNOPTIC CHART ON HARMARTIOLOGY: ... Classic freedom is liberating, indeed, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: God and Worldview Thinking:


1
WHAT IS TO BE HUMAN?
Welcome Again!
2
Overview of Lecture for Humanity Sin
  • What is humanity?
  • Made in the image of God?
  • Humanity Sin.
  • Summary of Mind-Body Views.
  • History of Humanity in 6 summarizing words
  • 6. Humanity Culture.
  • 7. Concluding Thought.

3
1. What is humanity?
  • What a freak, what a monster, what a chaos,
    what a subject of contradiction, what a marvel!
    Judge of all things and imbecile earthworm
    possessor of the truth, and sink of uncertainty
    and error glory and rubbish of the universe.
  • Blaise Pascal, Selections from the Thoughts,
    tran Arthur H. Beatte (New York
    Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965), 68.

4
1. What is Humanity?
  • Man is but a reed, the weakest in nature, but
    he is a thinking reed. The whole universe need
    not arm itself to crush him a vapor, a drop of
    water is enough to kill him. But even though the
    universe should crush him, man would still be
    nobler than what kills him since he knows that he
    dies, and the advantage that the universe has
    over him, the universe knows nothing of it.
  • Blaise Pascal, Selections from the Thoughts,
    tran Arthur H. Beatte (New York
    Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1965), 30.

5
What is Humanity?
  • The essential paradox here-the greatness and
    the misery of humankind-flows out of two
    important truths. God created humans as the apex
    of his creation our chief end, in the words of
    the Westminster Catechism, is to glorify God and
    enjoy him forever. But each human being is
    fallen, is in rebellion against the God who
    created him and loves him.
  • Ronald Nash, Worldviews in Conflict, 48.

6
2. What does it mean to be made in the image of
God?
  • 1. Image content
  • 2. Image dominion
  • 3. Image community
  • 4. Image representation
  • 5. Image holism.

Personality
Responsibilities
Relationships
7
Image includes Dignity to the Human Body
  • Matter is good and reflects Gods glory (Gen.
    131 Psalm 191 1 Tim. 44)
  • Both male and female (which entails bodies) are
    in Gods image (Gen. 127)
  • Killing a body is wrong because it is included in
    Gods image (Gen. 96)
  • Resurrection of the body reveals that it is part
    of the whole person made in Gods image (1 Thess.
    4).
  • Geisler, Systematic Theology God Creation,
    2452.

8
3. Humanity and Sin
  • Christianity simply will not make sense to
    people who fail to understand and appreciate the
    Christian doctrine of sin. Every human being
    lives in a condition of sin and alien from his or
    her Creator. Each has sinned and fallen short of
    Gods standard (Rom. 323). As John Stott
    counsels, sin is not a convenient invention of
    parsons cleric to keep them in their job it is
    a fact of human experience.

9
Consider the following
  • The sin which separates us from God and
    enslaves us
  • is more than an unfortunate outward act of
    habit is a deep-seated inward corruption. In
    fact, the sins we commit are merely outward and
    visible manifestations of this inward and
    invisible malady, the symptoms of a moral disease
    . Because sin is an inward corruption of human e
    we are in bondage. It is not so much certain
    acts or habits which enslave us, but rather the
    evil infection from which these spring.
  • John Stott, Basic Christianity, 75-6 cf. Nash,
    Worldviews in Conflict, 48

10
Original State
X
MAN IS CRUEL
ALWAYS CRUEL
BECAME CRUEL
X
CHANGED BY SOMEONE ELSE
CHANGED HIMSELF
CREATED CRUEL
GOD IS EVIL
GOD
SATAN
FREE WILL
GOD IS EVIL
MAN IS NOT RESPONSIBLE
11
A 5-fold definition of Sin
  • Sin is a transgression of the law of God
  • The Greek word parabasis means overstepping,
    transgression.? God gave the Mosaic law to
    heighten mans understanding of His standard and
    the seriousness of transgressing that standard
    (Rom. 415). Thereafter, when God said, You
    shall not bear false witness, a lie was seen to
    be what it is an overstepping or transgression
    of the law of God (Rom. 223 514 Gal. 319).

12
5-Fold Definition of Sin
  • Sin is a failure to conform to the standard of
    God.
  • The Greek word hamartia means miss the mark,
    every departure from the way of righteousness.?
    Thus, it means that all people have missed the
    mark of Gods standard and continue to fall short
    of that standard (Rom. 323). This involves both
    sins of commission as well as omission. Failure
    to do what is right is also sin (Rom. 1423).

13
5-Fold Definition of Sin
  • Sin is a principle within man.
  • Sin is not only an act but also a principle that
    dwells in man.? Paul refers to the struggle with
    the sin principle within (Rom. 714, 1725) all
    people have this sin nature (Gal. 322). Hebrews
    313 refers to it as the power that deceives men
    and leads them to destruction.? Jesus also
    refers to sin as a condition or characteristic
    quality? (John 941 1524 1911).

14
5-Fold Definition of Sin
  • Sin is rebellion against God.
  • Another Greek word for sin is anomia, which
    means lawlessness (1 John 34) and can be
    described as a frame of mind.? It denotes
    lawless deeds (Titus 214) and is a sign of the
    last days, meaning without law or restraint
    (Matt. 2412).

15
5-Fold Definition of Sin
  • Sin is wrongful acts toward God and man.
  • Romans 118 refers to ungodliness and
    unrighteousness of men. Ungodliness refers to
    mans failure to obey God and keep the
    commandments related to Him (Exod. 20111)
    unrighteousness is seen in mans failure to live
    righteously toward his fellow man (Exod.
    201217).
  • Paul Enns, Moody Handbook of Theology (Chicago
    Moody Press, 1997), 310.

16
SYNOPTIC CHART ON HARMARTIOLOGY
TERMS TO CONSIDER State at Birth Ability Guilt
In Adam Rom. 512
PELAGIANISM Innocent Can
obey God None Not At All (We sin
like Adam)
WESLEYAN/ ARMINIANISM Depraved Can
Cooperate With God Potential Propensity (Or
Seminally)
MODERATE/ PRINCETONIAN CALVINISM Totally
Depraved (Extensively) Can Cooperate with
God Legally and/or Naturally Legally and/or
Seminally
DUTCH CALVINISM Totally Depraved (Intensively) C
ant Cooperate with God Naturally and/or
Legally Seminally and/or Legally
Adapted from Norman Geislers Systematic
Theology Sin/Salvation (Minneapolis Bethany,
2004), 3145.
17
Synoptic Chart on Hamartiology
TERMS TO CONSIDER What is inherited from
Adam Deaths Occurred What is Imputed Image of
God Effect of Grace
PELAGIANISM Bad Example
Spiritual Eternal (meant to physically die)
Ones own sin Retained None.
WESLEYAN/ ARMINIANISM Propensity to sin
physical death. Physical Eternal
Spiritual Ones own Sin Adams
Sin Effaced Two-Fold Prevenient Grace
Sufficient for All
MODERATE PRINCETONIANCALVINISM Propensity to
Sin Physical death Physical Eternal Spiritual
Ones Own Sin Adams Sin Image of God is
totally effaced Irresistible (some, but not
all M.C. say only on willing)
DUTCH CALVINISM Necessity to Sin Physical
Death. Physical Eternal Spiritual Ones Own
Sin Adams Sin Image of God in man is
Erased Irresistible on the unwilling.
Adapted from Norman Geislers
Systematic Theology Sin/Salvation (Minneapolis
Bethany, 2004), 3145.
18
  • 4. Mind-Body
  • Problem
  • I only want a brain!

19
View Primary Proponent Soul/Body Illustration (Soul/body as. .) Explanation
Materialism Thomas Hobbes Body only As dream to brain Only body exists mind is nothing but a manifestation of matter.
Epiphenomenalism Pierre-Jean Georges Cabanis Soul is a by- product of body. As shadow to a tree Body causes mind mind is only a sign (not a cause) of matter.
Idealism George Berkeley Soul only As mind to mirage Only mind (soul) exists body is merely illusion.
Monism Double Aspect Benedict Spinoza Two aspects of the same thing As inner to outer Mind (soul) and body are two sides of the same substance.
20
Dualism (Dichotomy) Plato Two different but parallel realities As railroad to tracks Soul and body never interact they only exist simultaneously.
Interactionism Rene Descartes Two substances mutually interacting As two boxers Mind and body interact with each other
Occasionalism/ Recollectionism Augustine Two substances coordinated by God As memory to reminder God causes ideas in the mind on the occasion of sensory perception
Pre-Established Harmony Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Two different, synchronized substances As two clocks Mind and body are synchronized by God.
Hylomorphism Thomas Aquinas Soul animates body As ideas to words Mind and body are a holistic unity.
21
5. History of Humanity Summarized
  • Creation
  • Fall
  • Redeemed
  • Glorified
  • Rejection
  • Damnation

22
6. 5 Shifts Humanity Contemporary Western
Culture
  • Shift 1 From Knowledge to Faith.
  • For example, after 9/11 Oprah urged people to
    seek God, whatever he, she, it, or they mean to
    you. What is important is that we all seek our
    own truth with renewed vigor.

23
What does the following statement communicate?
  • We ought to be believers who integrate faith and
    learning.
  • Insights gained from physics to literary
    theory is related to learning while biblical
    assertions deal with faith.

24
5 Shifts Humanity Contemporary Western Culture
  • While biblical evangelicals reject pluralism,
    there is a tendency to view biblical Christianity
    as a matter of faith and not knowledge.
  • Once again how do we define faith? If we
    denote faith as merely as a decision of the will
    to believe, not factual in nature nor subject to
    rational evaluation, then we may be suggesting
    that the content of salvation (and our worldview)
    is devoid of fact and knowledge. See, we are
    fostering a culture in which Christian ideas are
    not viewed even among us as factual items of
    knowledge.

25
Consider the following quote
  • Faith is the reliance upon that which you have
    reason to believe is true and trustworthy.
  • J. P. Moreland

26
2nd Shift From Human Flourishing to
Satisfaction of Desire
  • How do you define happiness?
  • One dictionary definition is that happiness is
    a sense of pleasurable satisfaction.

27
2nd Shift From Human Flourishing to
Satisfaction of Desire
  • Consider this statement by Moreland
  • If happiness is having an internal feeling of
    fun or pleasurable satisfaction and if it is our
    main goal, where will people place their focus
    each day? It will be on them, and the result
    will be a culture of self-absorbed narcissists
    who cannot live for something bigger than they
    are. J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 95.

28
2nd Shift From Human Flourishing to
Satisfaction of Desire
  • Here is Morelands definition
  • The good life is the life of ideal human
    functioning according to the nature that God
    himself gave us.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 94.

29
3rd Shift From Duty and Virtue to Minimalist
Ethics
  • What do we mean by minimalist ethics?
  • One may morally act in any way one chooses so
    long as one does not do harm to others.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 96.

30
3rd Shift From Duty and Virtue to Minimalist
Ethics
  • Minimalist ethics is evident by upholding the
    following four values
  • The transcendence of the individual over the
    community
  • The importance of tolerating all moral
    viewpoints
  • The independence, self-sufficiency of the
    individual as the highest human good
  • 4. The voluntary, informed consent contract as
    the model of human relationships.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 96.

31
Consider the following quote
  • If duty and virtue of are of central concern to
    the moral life, then there must be moral
    knowledge available to know what duties and
    virtues are correct and how one can become a
    righteous, virtuous person.
  • Knowledge of duty and virtue is no longer seen
    as a possibility, and the impact of the shift to
    minimalist ethics is disastrous.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 96.

32
4th Shift From Classic Freedom to Contemporary
Freedom
  • Classically, freedom meant the power to do what
    one ought to do. Thus, one is free to play the
    piano if one has the skills, training, and
    knowledge necessary to play it. Similarly, one
    is free in life if one has the power to live the
    way one ought to live. Sexual freedom in this
    context means the power to live a chaste, holy
    life and to engage skillfully in sexual activity
    in the way in which we were designed by God-in
    heterosexual marital union.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 99.

33
4th Shift From Classic Freedom to Contemporary
Freedom
  • Classic freedom is liberating, indeed, but a
    necessary condition of such freedom is the
    availability of the relevant sort of knowledge.
    Absent such knowledge, freedom has come to be
    understood as the right to do what one wants to
    do. Sexual freedom in this context means the
    right to satisfy ones desire in any way one
    wishes, with the possible exception of not
    harming others.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 99.

34
5th Shift From Classic Tolerance to
Contemporary Tolerance
  • Classical sense of tolerance While moral views
    are either true or false, right or wrong, one may
    still respect ones opponent as a person, give
    one the freedom to make a case for that view, and
    personally believe that view. In other words, we
    tolerate persons, not ideas.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 103.

35
5th Shift From Classic Tolerance to
Contemporary Tolerance
  • Contemporary Tolerance One should not even
    judge ones views.
  • Moral Relativism holds that everyone ought to
    act in accordance with the agents own societys
    code(or, perhaps, with the agents own personal
    code). What is right for one society is
    necessarily right for another society.
  • J.P. Moreland, Kingdom Triangle, 100.

36
Whats wrong with Relativism?
  • 1. It is irrational and false.
  • 2. Suffers from the Reformers Dilemma (e.g.,
    Gandhi Martin Luther King Jesus Christ).
  • 3. Some acts are wrong regardless of social
    conventions( e.g., torturing babies).
  • 4. There is no way to morally blame one society
    in certain cases (e.g., Jewish Holocaust by Nazi
    Germany).
  • It is unlivable.

37
7. Concluding Thought
  • Can an individual or a society live with a
    complete disregard for a moral and spiritual
    center not suffer from the wounds of
    wickedness?
  • Ravi Zacharias, Deliver us from Evil.
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