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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs Lesson 2 Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sea Power and Maritime Affairs


1
Sea Power and Maritime Affairs
  • Lesson 2
  • Sea Power in the Ancient Mediterranean World,
    from the Phoenicians to the Battle of Lepanto
    (1571)

2
Learning Objectives
  • The student will comprehend the importance of sea
    power and navies to the peoples of the
    Mediterranean basin during antiquity. Special
    emphasis will be placed on Crete, the
    Phoenicians, Persia, Greece, Rome and the Italian
    city-states of the Middle Ages and early
    Renaissance
  • The student will understand the crucial role of
    the galley in naval warfare up to the Battle of
    Lepanto (October, 1571).

3
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4
EXHIBIT A AN ANCIENT GALLEY
5
Remember our Themes
  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy
  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy
  • Interservice Relations
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Strategy and Tactics
  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine

6
Remember our Themes
  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy
  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy
  • Interservice Relations
  • Technology
  • Leadership
  • Strategy and Tactics
  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine

7
Mediterranean Sea Power Milestones
  • Crete Develops 1st Navy (2500 1200 B.C.)
  • The Phoenicians (2000 300 B.C.) develop a
    seafaring empire
  • Early Greek Sea Power / The Greco-Persian Wars
    (492 B.C. 480 B.C.)
  • The Rise and Fall of Roman Sea Power (264 B.C.
    c 410 A.D.)
  • Sea Power during and after the Pax Romana (27
    B.C. 1500 A.D.)
  • The Battle of Lepanto (1571)

8
Early Mediterranean Navies
  • Water transportation was cheaper than overland
    routes, and especially in the Mediterranean
    basin.
  • The Mediterranean Sea was the natural locale for
    much of the war fighting that resulted the
    commercial/national/ethnic rivalry that
    characterized the ancient world.
  • From the outset, commercial or trading vessels
    were lumbering sailing ships naval vessels were
    galleys.

9
Age of Galleys
  • Circa 2,000 BC until the 16th Century

10
Galley Warfare
  • Need for defense of merchant shipping gives rise
    to a new type of ship, the galley.
  • Primary Secondary
  • Propulsion Oars Sails
  • Weapons Infantry Rams/Projectiles
  • Formation Line-Abreast N/A
  • There was no true naval doctrine. Battles were
    fought with a land-based mindsetprimarily
    infantry and ramming--and there was no
    destruction from afar.

11
A Typical Galley
12
A Greek Trireme
13
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14
Greek Trireme
- Galley with 3 banks of oars
15
Principal Functions of Navies
  • 1. Protect sea trade routes.
  • 2. Block or disrupt enemys sea trade routes.
  • Command Control of the Sea
  • 1. Defend against sea-borne attack
  • 2. Isolate the enemys land forces
  • 3. Carry the attack across the sea to the enemy

16
Line Abreast Formations - Battles at sea were
fought primarily as infantry battles
17
Line Abreast Formations
18
Line Abreast Formations
  • Naval infantry used to board and capture enemy
    galleys.

19
Use of the Ram
20
Use of the Ram
21
Use of the Ram
  • Rams used to sink or immobilize enemy galleys.

22
Early Naval Powers
  • The Greeks
  • The Persians
  • The Romans

23
Early Naval Powers
  • Crete
  • First maritime-oriented civilization - use of
    the sea
  • Worlds first Navy established (Circa 2,000 BC).
  • Mahanian geographical position
  • Natural resources- copper ore

24
Early Naval Powers
  • Phoenicians
  • Seafaring peoples in eastern Mediterranean
  • Colonies in southern and western Mediterranean

25
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26
The Greco-Persian War (c. 492-480 B.C.)
  • Status of Greece
  • By 5th century B.C., Greeks dominated Black and
    Aegean Seas and held trading monopoly on eastern
    Mediterranean.
  • The Greeks exported olives, wine, and products of
    their gifted artisans and craftsmen, establishing
    settlements and colonies as far away as the north
    shore of the Black Sea and Spain.
  • The Greeks were chronically weakened by divisions
    into warring city-states.

27
POP QUIZ
  • This modern country was once known as Persia?

28
HINT check out 2400 years of this countrys
progress
AND NOW.
THEN
29
WHAT IS IRAN? (Ill take pesky, fanatical
third-world countries for 200...)
30
The Greco-Persian War (c. 492-480 B.C.)
  • Background of Persia
  • - Persia, a unified kingdom and empire,
    overwhelmed Phoenicians, Egyptians and all others
    in its path
  • The Persians were attempting to expand their
    massive empire, and by 492 B.C. they faced
    determined resistance from the Greek city-states
    to further expansion into Europe.
  • The Persians easily conquered the Phoenicians,
    who were then conscripted to supply naval power
    for the advancing Persian armies. The
    Phoenicians supplied ships, men and shipbuilding
    facilities.
  • The Persian advance was effectively an attack on
    Europe by Asia the conquering of the Greeks
    would have effectively eliminated the basis for
    western civilization as we know it.

31
Map of Eastern Mediterranean
MAP OF EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEA SURROUNDING
AREAS
32
Three Major Campaigns
  • 492 BC
  • Storm destroys Persian fleet.
  • Persians unable to supply their vast army
    without shipping 2/3 of Persian Army returns to
    Persia for the winter
  • 50,000 troops left behind were slaughtered
    before reinforcements arrived
  • 490 BC
  • Defeated by Athenians at the Battle of Marathon
    (amphibious invasion)
  • 10,000 Greeks marched from Athensnot bothering
    to wait for their Spartan alliesand threw
    Persians back into the sea
  • POP QUIZ How far is it from Athens to Marathon?
  • 23 miles
  • 26 miles 285 yards
  • 42 miles

33
King Xerxes versus Thermistocles
  • After a 10 year hiatus, King Xerces musters an
    army of 150,000 men and renews attacks against
    the Greeks in 480 B.C.)
  • Thermistocles (Greek politician) rallied Greeks
    to build 200-ship Navy
  • Opening Action The Battle of Thermoplylae
    (150,000 Persians v. 300 Spartans)

34
RUMBLE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN
V.
  • Thermistocles knew why this ltexpletive deletedgt
    course is important!
  • He knew that the Persians could not fight without
    a seaborne supply system
  • Mahanian Principle Communications dominate war

35
Battle of Salamis 480 BC
36
The Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.)
  • 310 Greek triremes stood against 600 Persian
    galleys in the constricted bay of the Island of
    Salamis.
  • Thermistocles used a double agent to trick Xerxes
  • Technology bronze rams by Greeks to great
    advantage
  •  
  • Salamis was absolutely decisive and a classically
    Mahanian sea battle.
  •  
  • The battle for the West was won the Persians
    lost at least 200 Triremes no Persian invader
    ever again entered Greece
  •  
  • With insecure sea-borne lines of communication
    (SLOC), Xerxes retreated back to Asia Minor.
  •  
  • Greeks soon reopened all sea lanes of
    communication to Bosphorus and Black Sea.
  •  
  • Dominance in Greek alliance passed to Athens,
    which then established an empire or confederation
    based exclusively on sea power.

37
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38
The Persians were later conquered by the armies
of Alexander the Great
(But that is another story)
39
Roman Sea Power (c. 264-410 A.D.)
40
The Punic Wars Romans v. Carthaginians (264-201
B.C)
41
Roman Galley
  • Corvus Boarding device.
  • - Allowed Roman soldiers to board Carthaginian
    ships.

Corvus
42
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43
Punic Wars (264-201 B.C.)
  • Goal domination of Sicily
  • 1st Punic War Roman corvus tactics prevail, but
    Carthage is not destroyed
  • 2nd Punic War Hannibal marches through Spain to
    attack Italy, prompting Mahan to write his hoary
    volume of naval lore what if Hannibal had
    control of the seas and had attacked accordingly.
    Ultimately, Rome destroys Carthage and burns all
    of its ships.

44
Roman Navy
  • Remained second to Roman Army, but
  • Enabled Roman empire to expand east to the
    Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf.
  • Cleared the Mediterranean Sea of pirates.
  • Adapted Roman Armys missile tactics use of
    catapults to hurl stones, javelins, and
    combustible projectiles.

45
Roman Civil Wars
  • Fascinating events, including Cleopatra and Mark
    Antony sailing into battle together
  • (Please feel free to read about this if you are
    interested.)

46
Mediterranean Sea Power After Pax Romana
(p.s. The Pax Romana, or Roman Peace was from
27 B.B. to 410 A.D.)
47
The Players and the Action
  • Roman Empire divided between East and West
  • Germanic barbarian invasions of the West
  • Byzantine Empire continues in the East
  • Crusades (1095)
  • Last 2 centuries
  • Crusaders are transported by merchant ships from
    Italian city-states, few naval battles
  • Vikings - Invasions of Europe from Scandinavia in
    900s
  • Venice establishes itself as the premier sea
    power in the Mediterranean by 1381 and maintained
    that role for more than 200 years

48
The Ottoman Empire
  • Challenges Venetian control of the Mediterranean
    Sea.

49
The Final Muslim Invasion of Europe
  • The powerful Ottoman Turks make one final play to
    conquer the West, but the Venetian Navy stands
    in the way
  • The war is a classic stalemate between a land
    power (Turks) and a sea power (Venetians)
  • The culmination was the Battle of Lepanto (1571)

50
Battle of Lepanto (1571)
  • Last battle of the Age of Galleys
  • Combined Christian fleet defeats Ottoman Turks
  • Use of cannon mounted on front of galleys to
    supplement naval infantry
  • Sea battle of epic proportions, 80,000 men on
    each side, 25,000 Muslims and 8,000 Christians
    killed.
  • Ottoman Empires domination of Mediterranean
    ends.
  • Barbary system remains in North Africa.
    (European powers forced to pay tribute for safe
    passage)

51
Battle of Lepanto
52
Transitions
  • Battle of Lepanto last galley battle
  • Shift from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic
  • Spain and Portugal
  • New Naval Ships
  • Galleon
  • Age of Mediterranean preeminence in European sea
    power ends

53
Why was todays lesson important?
  • We discussed the nature and practice of sea power
    in a closed body of water as exemplified by the
    ancient kingdoms and empires in the Mediterranean
    Sea.
  • In studying this information, the student should
    consider and assess whether there are lessons to
    be learned from the experiences of antiquity that
    have some relevance to the current war on
    terrorism in the same region.
  • Always remember our themes!

54
QUESTIONS?
NEXT LESSON The Age of Sail, Oceanic Sea Power
and the Emergence of European Nation States
55
READING FOR NEXT CLASS
(The Spanish Galleon)
Potter chapter 1 (review) and chapter 2 (next
topic)
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