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INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

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INTERNATIONAL MARKETING Hamed jamshidi 2007503074 1 Companies like Gillette, Coca-Cola, BIC, and Cadbury Schweppes have brands that are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTERNATIONAL MARKETING


1
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING
Hamed jamshidi
  • 2007503074
    1

2

international marketing is the multinational
process of planning and executing the conception,
pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas,
goods, and services to create exchanges that
satisfy individual and organizational objectives.
International marketing involves recognising
that people all over the world have different
needs.
  • Companies like Gillette, Coca-Cola, BIC, and
    Cadbury Schweppes have brands that are recognised
    across the globe.

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  • THE WORLDS FIVE EXPORTING COUNTRIES
  • 1-THE UNITED STATES (700 BILLION)
  • 2-GERMANY (560 BILLION)
  • 3-JAPAN (390 BILLION)
  • 4-FRANCE (320 BILLION)
  • 5-BRITAIN (260 BILLION)
  • Collectively accounting for 42 percent of global
    trade.

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many u.s. companies have made the world their
market
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The Complete Process
Market Segmentation
Market Targeting
Market Positioning
Design a product or service to meet a segments
needs and develop a marketing mix that will
create a competitive advantage in the minds of
the selected target market
Identify and describe market segments
Evaluate segments and decide which to go after
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Market Segmentation
  • Identifying distinct groups of consumers whose
    purchasing behavior differs from other in
    important ways.
  • Marketing mix adjusted to reflect differing
    purchasing patterns in segments.
  • Geography
  • Demographics
  • Socio-cultural factors
  • Psychological factors

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Market Segmentation
  • Two main issues in the differences between
    countries
  • The structure of market segments
  • The existence of segments that transcend national
    borders

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Marketing
Mix (4 Ps)
  • Product
  • Promotion
  • Pricing
  • Place (Distribution) the most important for
    international business entry

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Marketing Mix Product
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Product Attributes
  • A product is a bundle of attributes. If consumer
    needs were the same all over, a firm could simply
    sell the same product worldwide. Unfortunately,
    differences in the three following areas often
    necessitate adaptations
  • Cultural differences
  • Economic differences
  • Product and technical standards

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Cultural Differences
  • Range of dimensions
  • Social structure
  • Language
  • Religion
  • Education
  • Most important - the impact of tradition
  • Some tastes and preferences becoming cosmopolitan

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Economic Differences
  • Consumer behavior is influenced by economic
    development
  • Consumers in highly developed countries tend to
    have extra performance attributes in their
    products
  • Consumers in less developed countries tend not to
    demand these extra performance attributes

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Product and Technical Standards
Government standards can prevent the introduction
of global products Different technical standards
impede global markets, as well Come from
idiosyncratic decisions
made long ago
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In India, McDonalds serves chicken, fish, and
vegetable burgers, and the Maharaja Mactwo
all-mutton patties, special sauce, lettuce,
cheese, pickles, onions, on a sesame-seed bun.
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Marketing Mix
Place
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Distribution Strategy
  • Three different distribution systems
  • Retail concentration number of retailers
  • Cost/benefit of each alternative vary from
    country to country
  • Channel length levels of channel members
  • Longer the channel in a country, the higher the
    price
  • Shorter channel in a country, lower price
  • Channel exclusivity access
  • Match to positioning of product in country

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A Typical Distribution System
Manufacturer Inside the Country
Manufacturer Outside the Country
Import Agent
Wholesale Distributor
Retail Distributor
Final Customer
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Marketing Mix Price
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International Pricing
Twelve European Union countries have adopted the
euro as a common currency, creating pricing
transparency and forcing companies to harmonize
their prices throughout Europe
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Pricing Strategy
  • Price discrimination
  • Strategic pricing
  • Regulatory factors

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Pricing Strategy
  • Price discrimination Different prices, different
    countries, same product
  • Charging what the market will bear
  • Two factors
  • Must keep national markets separate
  • Different price elasticities
  • ArbitrageCharging different prices in different
    countries for same product
  • Doesnt always work
  • Sometimes it does
  • Income level and competitive conditions
    determine elasticity
  • Elasticity (price) tends to be greater in
    countries with low income levels
  • Elasticity (demand) tends to be greater in
    countries where there are many competitors

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Strategic Pricing
  • Predatory pricing
  • Using price as a competitive weapon
  • Multipoint pricing strategy
  • When two or more international firms compete
    against each other in two or more national
    markets
  • A firms pricing strategy in one market may
    impact a rival in another market
  • Experience curve pricing
  • Firms price low worldwide to build market share.
    Incurred losses are made up as company moves down
    experience curve

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Marketing Mix Promotion
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Communications Strategy
  • Effectiveness of international communications can
    be impacted by
  • Cultural barriers.
  • Need to develop cross-cultural literacy
  • Source and country of origin effects
  • Receiver of the message evaluates it based upon
    the status of the sender
  • Country of origin effects
  • Emphasize/de-emphasize foreign origin
  • Noise levels
  • Tends to reduce the effectiveness of a message
  • Developed countries - high
  • Less developed countries - low
  • Push versus Pull
  • Push emphasizes personal selling
  • Pull depends on mass media advertising

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Deciding on the Global Marketing Organization
  • Organize an export department
  • Create international divisions
  • Geographical organizations
  • World product groups
  • International subsidiaries
  • Become a global organization

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Thank you for your listening
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