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Chapter 10 Global Effects

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Why computerize manual methods? Synthesis of sources Analytical power Measure ... mapping, positioning, navigation, cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 Global Effects


1
Chapter 10 Global Effects
Lecture 24 HNRS 228 Energy and the
Environment Adapted from Fiorentino / Rutgers U.
2
Chapter 10 Overview
  • Earth as a planet
  • The polar regions and sea ice effects
  • The stratospheric ozone situation
  • Another look at greenhouse gasses
  • Climate change
  • Global warming
  • Remote Sensing
  • Geographic Information Systems
  • Geomatics

3
iClicker Question
  • Which of the following layers of the atmosphere
    is highest above the surface of the Earth?
  • A Troposphere
  • B Stratosphere
  • C Thermosphere
  • D Mesosphere
  • E Ozone Layer

4
iClicker Question
  • What is the primary ingredient of the Earth's
    atmosphere?
  • A Nitrogen
  • B Oxygen
  • C Nitrogen and oxygen in equal parts
  • D Hydrogen
  • E Carbon dioxide

5
iClicker Question
  • In what part of the atmosphere does weather
    occur?
  • A Hydrosphere
  • B Stratosphere
  • C Ionosphere
  • D Troposphere
  • E All of the above

6
iClicker Question
  • How rapidly a planet loses its atmosphere depends
    on the planet's
  • I. mass
  • II. atmospheric composition
  • III. temperature
  • IV. rotation period
  • A I II
  • B III IV
  • C I, II, III
  • D II, III, IV
  • E I, II, III, IV

7
iClicker Question
  • The presence of Earths magnetic field is a good
    indication that
  • A there is a large amount of magnetic material
    buried near the North Pole.
  • B there is a quantity of liquid metal swirling
    around in the Earth's core.
  • C the Earth is composed largely of iron.
  • D the Earth is completely solid.
  • E there are condensed gasses in the core of the
    Earth.

8
iClicker Question
The dinosaurs were most likely wiped out by A
disease B hunting to extinction by cavemen C a
giant meteor impact D the close passage of
another star
9
iClicker Question
A leading cause of Global Warming is A
Increased soot (smog) in the atmosphere. B
Increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. C
The Earth is getting closer to the sun. D The
luminosity of the sun is steadily increasing.
10
iClicker Question
The Greenhouse effect would not occur if A The
Earth had no atmosphere. B The amount of carbon
dioxide doubled. C We got rid of all the
forests. D The Earth didnt have an ocean.
11
iClicker Question
Sunlight absorbed by the Earths surface is
reemitted in the form of? A radio waves B
infrared radiation C visible radiation D
ultraviolet radiation E X-ray radiation
12
Geomatics refers to earth (geo) measuring
(matics) technologies the discipline of
gathering, storing, processing, and delivering of
geographic information. This broad term applies
both to science and technology, and integrates
the following more specific disciplines and
technologies geodesy, surveying, mapping,
positioning, navigation, cartography, remote
sensing, photogrammetry, geographic information
systems, global positioning systems source
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomatics
Organize and solve problems involving spatial
analysis
13
Data and Information
  • To some Information is not Data
  • Data needs to be transformed into information
    (and vice versa)
  • Information can be defined as an answer to a
    question using data or
  • Information is what we know that must be
    organized into data for use in analysis
  • With GIS we transform information into data

14
Geomatics Remote Sensing
Image Process Air Photo Satellite Images
Photogrammetry
Raster GIS Vector GIS 3D
Modeling GPS
GIS
Visualization Networking Databases
Internet
15
Geomatics has application in
  • Regional and Urban Planning
  • Defense and Intelligence
  • Forestry
  • Archaeology
  • Natural resource management
  • Water/soils/agriculture
  • Telecommunications
  • Emergency Response
  • ANY problem that has a spatial aspect
  • ANY scale from the local to the global
  • Policy
  • Transportation
  • Demography
  • Global environment
  • Wildlife management
  • Business

Applied Geography, in the form of maps spatial
information has served discovery, planning,
cooperation conflict for at least the past 3000
years Bolstad
16
FIVE major functions Inherent to Geomatics
17
Primary Disciplines of Geomatics
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
  • Remote Sensing
  • Air photo
  • Satellite imagery
  • Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

18
Geographic Information System
a computer based system to aid in the
collection, maintenance, storage, analysis,
output, and distribution of spatial data and
information
19
Why GIS?
  • Expanded capabilities - do the heretofore
    impossible
  • Improved efficiency - reduce duration of analysis
    10-fold or more

20
What is GIS?
  • Paper, pencil, and person can be a GIS

21
Why computerize manual methods?
Synthesis of sources Analytical power Measure
distance, density, area Overlay and
buffer Adjacency and proximity Vicinity
(neighborhood) Networks Inter-visibility Interoper
ability Flexibility Repeatability Output Quality
22
Tools of GIS
23
Geographic
  • Data describing objects from the real world in
    terms of
  • Position (x,y in some coordinate system)
  • Spatial relationships
  • Streets may be connected
  • There is a distance between two points
  • Areas overlap, be adjacent or not touch

24
Information
  • Organized knowledge about locations facilitates
    analysis and new knowledge
  • Predictable data schema
  • compared to paper maps stored in different
    rooms in different drawers, at different scales
    and projections
  • (time consuming and sometimes impossible to
    analyze)

25
Systems
  • Consistent storage in a database
  • Retrieve and manipulate information in a
    consistent manner
  • Flow of data can be documented
  • Spatial data from a variety of sources, scales
    and projections can be converted into one logical
    structure allowing access and analysis using a
    set of rules

26
Abstracting the Real World
Abstraction of relevant phenomena and properties
Phenomena that Exist
Computer Representation
27
GIS exists in an institutional context
Effective GIS use depends on a set of protocols
and an integration into the data collection,
analysis, decision, and action loop of an
organization
28
GIS Data Examples
  • If it can be mapped it can be entered into a GIS
  • Points archeological sites, trees, fire hydrants,
    crime locations, cellular towers, etc.
  • Lines roads, streams, political boundary lines
  • Polygons archeological sites, soils, geology,
    vegetation cover, watersheds, political
    subdivisions

29
"GIS is simultaneously the telescope, the
microscope, the computer, and the Xerox machine
of regional analysis and synthesis of spatial
data." (Abler, 1988)
30
GIS Data
TABULAR ATTRIBUTE DATA
SPATIAL REFERENCE
31
GIS Data
  • Hydrology
  • Soils
  • Roads
  • Elevation
  • Land use / land cover
  • (from satellite imagery or air photos)
  • The landscape (in all its complexity)

Each type of data forms a data layer that is
geo-referenced to a common map projection and
datum
32
REPRESENTATION AND DATA STRUCTURES
Most common data models define thematic
layers Typically there is one layer for each
distinct theme
33
GIS - The Concept of Layers
Assessment of Soil Erosion Hazard
DERIVED DATA
ANALYSIS
LAND DATA
Ownership Class
Slope
Hydrology
Erodability
Potential Soil Erosion
Runoff
Topography
Soils
Land Cover
Base Map
34
A Forest Area.
Delineated to make patches
Create Ranked Critical Areas
Overlaid with Species Data to
35
TABULAR RELATIONSHIPS
36
GIS operates On All Scales
37
A GIS Schematic
Manipulate Analyze
Collect
Manage
Display
Spatial Processing System
MAP OUTPUTS
Composite Maps Perspective Maps Interpret
Maps Scaled Maps
Spatial Data Base
Non Spatial Resource Data Base
  • Area
  • Lengths
  • Data Base
  • Summaries

Data Base Management System
TABULAR AND STATISTICAL INFO
38
GIS is Generic
  • Regional and Urban Planning
  • Defense and Intelligence
  • Forestry
  • Archaeology
  • Natural resource management
  • Water/soils/agriculture
  • Telecommunications
  • Emergency Response
  • ANY problem that has a spatial aspect
  • ANY scale from the local to the global
  • Policy
  • Transportation
  • Demography
  • Global environment
  • Wildlife management
  • Business

Applied Geography, in the form of maps spatial
information has served discovery, planning,
cooperation conflict for at least the past 3000
years Bolstad
39
Some GIS Applications Areas
  • Policy
  • Education
  • Cartography
  • Hazards EMS, first responders
  • Hydrology
  • Land Resources
  • Zoning
  • Use value Taxation
  • Transportation
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Parks and forest management
  • Planning
  • Agriculture
  • Soils management
  • Marketing
  • Global environmental issues
  • Demographics
  • Wildlife management
  • Route selection
  • Civil engineering
  • Network analysis e.g. telecom
  • Public health
  • Toxic waste management
  • Archaeology and history
  • Police, fire, 911, emergency
  • Oil and other toxic spills
  • Landscape architecture
  • Many, many others, and more to come

40
Remote Sensing
  • Remote sensing is the science and art of
    obtaining information about an object, area, or
    phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired
    by a device that is not in contact with the
    object, area, or phenomenon under
    investigation. Lillesand Kiefer (1987)

41
Remote Sensing Platforms
  • Geostationary
  • Polar orbit
  • Manned space
  • High altitude aircraft
  • Jets
  • low alt. aircraft
  • Platforms
  • In-situ/ground

30000 km
1000 km
300 km
90,000 ft
10-30,000 ft
500-10,000 ft
10-100 ft
0-5 ft
42
  • Air photos have been the major source of
    information for making maps

43
Air Photos
  • High resolution
  • Since 1930s (for change detection)
  • Provide most cadastral, utility and
    infrastructure data for GIS

44
Precision Agriculture and Disease Detection
45
Managing Nutrient Input/Run-off into Watersheds
46
Satellite Imagery (temporal analysis)
Banda Aceh, Indonesia (source DigitalGlobe)
47
The Nature of an Image
  • A remotely sensed image is not considered a
    photograph
  • An image is a rendition (or model) of target
    features described through the use of spectral
    reflectance
  • These reflectance values are stored in a
    quantitative, numerical fashion in a manner
    suitable for input to a computer

48
the electromagnetic spectrum
  • Note The EM spectrum is arbitrarily segmented
    into major divisions
  • There are no natural breaks in the EM spectrum
  • Humans created the separations for our own
    convenience

49
Electromagnetic Radiation
  • Electromagnetic radiation (EM) is the signal
    collected by most remote sensing instruments
  • The source of the energy varies depending on the
    sensor characteristics
  • Most systems rely on the sun to generate all the
    EM energy needed to image terrestrial surfaces
    (passive sensors)
  • Other systems (active sensors), transmit energy
    in a certain direction and record the portion
    reflected back by features within the signal path

50
Remote Sensing Topics
  • Radiation Laws
  • Light Interactions with Atmosphere
  • Scatter, Absorption, Windows
  • Interaction of Light with Surface
  • Spectral signatures, reflection, transmission,
    illumination
  • Land Observation Satellite Systems
  • AVHRR, Landsat, MSS, TM, SPOT
  • Digital Image Analysis vs. Photo Interpretation

51
A Remote Sensing Schematic
Manipulate Analyze
Collect
Manage
Display
Spatial Processing System
MAP OUTPUTS
Composite Maps Perspective Maps Interpret
Maps Scaled Maps
Spatial Data Base
Non Spatial Resource Data Base
Data Base Summaries
Data Base Management System
52
Change Detection
  • 1982-1992 land use change 29,860 acres/year
  • 1992-1995 land use change 56,640 acres/year
  • total non-federal land developed
  • 1982 27.7
  • 1985 32.7
  • 1992 34.4
  • 1997 40.8

53
Change Detection Mapping (time series)
54
Where in the World am I?
  • Unless clouds are in the way
  • Stars have provided us with the ability to find
    our location (method-dependant accuracy from 1 to
    10 miles) and determine (night) time
  • Satellites provide superb location and time to a
    very high degree of accuracy

55
NAVSTAR GPS
  • NAVigation Satellite Time And Ranging Global
    Positioning System
  • Developed by US Dept of Defense
  • Satellite-based radio-navigation system using
    timing and ranging measurements to accurately
    determine locations on the earths surface
  • Provides worldwide, 24 hour, 3D coverage
  • Freely available for civilian use

56
How does GPS work?
  • Control Segment
  • Space Segment
  • User Segment

57
Three Segments make up the GPS system
Space Segment
User Segment
Control Segment
Colorado Springs
58
GPS Applications
59
.and Integration with Mobile-Collection Devices
Mobile device syncs with office-based
servers For data maintenance, data update, field
scouting
60
Now GPS can be connected to most anything!
Pathfinder Watch
Sprayers, seeders, harvesters
Data loggers
Form factors Kenwood GPS (top Right) Automotive
GPS Garmin - Magellan TomTom
Transportation Boats Trucking Cabbies!?!?!
Pocket PCs
GPS Ready digital cameras/video
Mobile Phones
61
Tablet pen based PC with Digital Ink
New GPS Technologies Concentrate on Portability,
Data Handling and GIS Workflow model.
62
A GPS Schematic
Manipulate Analyze
Collect
Manage
Display
Spatial Processing System
Digitize Maps
MAP OUTPUTS
Digitize Classify Imagery
Composite Maps Perspective Maps Interpret
Maps Scaled Maps
Spatial Data Base
Non Spatial Resource Data Base
  • Area
  • Lengths
  • Data Base
  • Summaries

Input Existing Spatial Files
Data Base Management System
TABULAR AND STATISTICAL INFO
Input Tabular Data
63
effective use of GIS depends on a set of
protocols and an integration into the data
collection, analysis, and action loop of an
organization, Bolstad
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