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School Emergency Management: An Overview

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School Emergency Management: An Overview Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools (REMS) Technical Assistance (TA) Center Office of Safe and Healthy Students (OSHS) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: School Emergency Management: An Overview


1
School Emergency Management An Overview
  • Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools
    (REMS) Technical Assistance (TA) Center
  • Office of Safe and Healthy Students (OSHS)
  • Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
    (OESE)
  • U.S. Department of Education (ED)

2
Section 1 IntroductionSchool Emergency
Management Overview
3
Four Phases of SchoolEmergency Management
4
School Emergency Management Plan
  • A school emergency management plan
  • Is the first step to securing our schools
  • Addresses a wide range of events (e.g., natural,
    man-made) that can disrupt teaching and learning
    and
  • Addresses events that occur in and outside of the
    school day.

5
Key Elements of School Emergency Management Plans
  • Framed by the four phases
  • Uses an all-hazards approach
  • Tailored to the unique school
  • Developed with community partners
  • Incorporates the Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Communicated as appropriate
  • Practiced consistently
  • Continually reviewed and revised

6
Section 1- Introduction Summary
  • What you can do
  • Review your plan to ensure it includes key
    elements
  • Contact community partnerships and schedule a
    meeting
  • Assess and prioritize hazards and risks
  • Plan an exercise or drill aimed at revising your
    plan

7
Section 2PreventionMitigation Phase
8
Prevention-Mitigation PhaseObjectives
  • Define Prevention and Mitigation
  • Demonstrate how Prevention-Mitigation measures
    emerge from an assessment
  • Provide sample strategies

9
PreventionMitigation Phase
  • Prevention is the action schools and districts
    take to decrease the likelihood that an event or
    crisis will occur.
  • Mitigation actions are steps that eliminate or
    reduce the loss of life or property damage for
    events that cannot be prevented.
  • Many hazards have both and components.

10
Prevention Mitigation Phase
  • Designed to assess and address
  • Safety and integrity of facilities
  • Security
  • Culture and climate of schools
  • Uses an all-hazards approach
  • Builds on what schools are already doing
  • Reliant on community partnerships and leadership
  • Is an ongoing process
  • Directly linked to the other three phases

11
Prevention and Mitigation Examples
  • Fencing hazardous areas
  • Anchoring outdoor equipment
  • Installing building access control measures
  • Conducting school vulnerability assessments
  • Establishing wellness programs
  • Establishing policies promoting health, safety,
    and security

12
Assessment Prioritization
13
Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
(CPTED)
  • CPTED is a multi-disciplinary four-strategy
    approach to deterring criminal behavior and
    supporting a safe school environment
  • Natural Surveillance
  • Territorial Reinforcement
  • Natural Access Control
  • Target Hardening

14
Example Building Accessand Exits
  • Know who is entering school buildings
  • Lock doors when practical
  • Access cards or coded entry locks
  • Anticipate exit routes during an emergency

15
Example Building Materialsand Structures
  • Roofing structurally sound? Materials fastened
    securely?
  • Awnings will they hold up in a storm?
  • Outdoor utility connections protected?

16
Prevention-MitigationSchool Grounds
  • School grounds - buffer between school buildings
    and the outside world
  • Campus entry points
  • Trees and shrubs around buildings and hidden
    areas
  • Emergency vehicle access
  • Unsafe equipment

17
Preventing ViolenceSchool Culture and Climate
  • Positive culture climate Less likelihood of
    violence
  • Welcoming
  • Connectedness
  • Respect
  • Cooperation

18
Culture and Climate Assessment
  • Useful for violence prevention and other
    important objectives
  • Culture and climate improvement requires a
    long-term strategy
  • Includes program-based solutions, e.g.
    anti-bullying program

19
PreventionMitigation Phase Summary
  • What you can do
  • Work with community partners to conduct an
    assessment of school buildings, grounds, and
    surrounding community
  • Develop customized plans and procedures related
    to assessment outcome
  • Work to improve school culture/climate and
    implement violence prevention programs

20
Section 3 Preparedness Phases
21
What is the Preparedness Phase?
  • The Preparedness phase is designed to strengthen
    the school community by coordinating with
    community partners through
  • Developing an emergency plan, policies and
    protocols
  • Adopting the Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Conducting staff training and drills
  • Goal is to facilitate a rapid, coordinated, and
    effective response in the event of an emergency

22
Steps for Developing an Emergency Management Plan
  • Step 1 Collect existing resources
  • Step 2 Conduct assessments
  • Step 3 Identify gaps and weaknesses
  • Step 4 Assemble plan

23
Steps for Developing an Emergency Management Plan
  • Step 5 Incorporate vulnerability data
  • Step 6 Conduct trainings and exercises
  • Step 7 Revise plans based on outcomes of
    trainings and exercises
  • Step 8 Disseminate plan to stakeholders
  • Step 9 Establish accountability measures

24
Elements to be Addressed in an Emergency
Management Plan
  • All-hazards emergency procedures
  • Emergency supplies
  • Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Communication plans
  • Family reunification plans
  • Training and exercises
  • Recovery planning
  • Annual review and revision

25
Persons with Disabilities and Other Access and
Functional Needs
  • Include district special needs experts on your
    planning team to address needs
  • Visual and hearing
  • Mobility
  • Cognitive
  • Attentional
  • Emotional
  • Medical
  • Communication

26
NIMS ICS
  • The National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  • Used by all first responders, at all levels
  • Creates a common operating picture and mutual
    goals
  • Puts forth the Incident Command System (ICS)
  • The Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Put forth by NIMS
  • Uses a single management system
  • Facilitates effective response

27
Key NIMS and ICS Principles
  • Emergencies require certain tasks or functions to
    be performed ICS provides structure
  • Nature of the incident determines level of ICS
    activation ICS is expandable and collapsible
  • Incident command - one incident commander
  • May vary for different types of incidents
  • May change during incident response
  • Clear, pre-determined responsibilities and
    reporting lines
  • Uses common terminology and plain language

28
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29
Emergency Management Drills
  • Define frequency, responsibilities and procedures
    for
  • Fire evacuation drills
  • Severe weather drills
  • Lockdown drills
  • Include students and staff
  • Use Curve ball contingencies
  • Conduct after-action reporting

30
Tabletop Exercises
  • Informal gathering of partners to orally review
    and practice the emergency plans elements
  • Provides an opportunity to
  • Clarify roles of involved parties during an
    emergency
  • Identify resources needed in an emergency
  • Identify and address gaps that may exist in
    current plan
  • Build relationships

31
Full-Scale Exercises
  • Requires extensive planning and a planning team
  • Conducted in collaboration with community
    partners including law enforcement and fire
    personnel
  • Focuses on specific elements of an emergency
    scenario
  • Used to help identify and address gaps that may
    exist in current plan and identify training needs

32
Take Precautions
  • Ensure everyone involved understands the event is
    a drill and not an actual incident. 
  • Use Website, community announcements, school
    communications,
  • Use signs and other notices for observers and
    passersby or observers
  • Discuss with students before

33
Communication with the Media and Parents/Guardians
  • Public Information Officer reports directly to
    the Incident Commander responsible for
    communications during an emergency
  • Template media statements
  • Prior communications with parents/guardians
  • Staff and students

34
Student Accountability Procedure
  • Define in advance how students will be accounted
    for
  • Before classes
  • During classes
  • In between classes
  • After classes, and
  • In the case of an emergency

35
Parent/GuardianReunification Procedure
  • Need for accurate contact information
  • Define notification procedures
  • Need for clear instructions to parents/guardians
    photo identification

36
Preparedness Phase Summary
  • What you can do
  • Integrate the Incident Command System
  • Define Response protocols and procedures
  • Address the needs of persons with disabilities
  • Develop communications procedures and templates
  • Develop student accountability procedures
  • Develop reunification procedures
  • Practice tabletops, drills, and full-scale
    exercises

37
Section 4 Response Phase
38
What is the Response Phase?
  • When emergency management plans are activated to
    effectively contain and resolve an emergency
  • Activate the Plan
  • Deploy Resources
  • Activate Communications Plan
  • Work with Community Partners/First Responders
  • Account for Students and Staff
  • Make Informed Decisions

39
Key Elements of Response
  • Activate the plan and the ICS
  • Work with first responders and other community
    partners
  • Assess of the problem and determine response
  • Deploy resources and make informed decisions
  • Account for students, faculty, and staff
  • Reunify parents/guardians with students
  • Initiate transition to the Recovery Phase
  • Conduct an after-action assessment as a tool for
    learning and improvement

40
Response Actions
  • During an emergency, there are three primary
    responses
  • Evacuation
  • Lockdown
  • Shelter-in-place
  • Each response decision will depend on the
    specifics and the severity of the situation

41
Response Actions Evacuation
  • Use when locations outside the school are safer
    than inside the school
  • Identify multiple evacuation routes in
    coordination with community partners
  • Determine how teachers will account for students
  • Ensure teachers, staff members, and
    administrators have appropriate Go-kits

42
Response Actions Lockdown
  • Use when there is an immediate threat of violence
    in, or immediately around, the school.
  • Lock all exterior doors, if safe to do so
  • Ensure public safety officials can enter the
    building
  • Follow predetermined policy about closing blinds,
    turning off lights, and using status cards
  • Move all staff and students to an area not
    visible from windows or doors

43
Response Actions Shelter-in-Place
  • Use when students and staff must remain indoors
    during an extended period of time
  • Close all windows and turn off all heating and
    air conditioning systems
  • Plan for interrupted class schedules with
    substitute activities
  • Provide accommodations for eating, sleeping and
    personal hygiene
  • Have staff activate family emergency plans

44
Response Communications
  • Messages to students and staff (plain language
    vs. codes, use of placards)
  • Messages to parents
  • Discourage external cellular communications by
    students and staff during emergencies

44
45
Post-Incident Review
  • Hot wash vs. After-action reviews
  • Hot wash A brief meeting shortly after an event
    intended to capture immediate impressions or
    explanations of actions.
  • After-action review A thorough debrief and
    evaluation approximately a week following an
    event to capture key lessons learned from
    emergency response and make recommendations for
    improvements.

46
Response Phase Summary
  • What you need to do during Response
  • Activate the ICS
  • Coordinate with first responders
  • Adapt to an evolving situation
  • Decide on Response strategies
  • Account for students reunify with
    parents/guardians
  • Communicate with parents/guardians and the media

47
Section 5 Recovery Phase
48
Recovery Phase
  • Designed to assist students, staff, and their
    families in the healing process and to restore
    educational operations in schools.
  • Has four primary components
  • Physical/structural recovery
  • Business/fiscal recovery
  • Restoration of the learning environment
  • Psychological/emotional recovery
  • Connected to other phases
  • Uses an all-hazards approach
  • Supported with community partners

49
Physical and Structural Recovery
  • Physical/structural recovery addresses
  • Assessment and repair of facilities
  • Possible need for alternative sites or buildings
    due to extensive damage
  • Business and fiscal recovery addresses
  • Payroll and financial systems
  • Student registration systems
  • Record Management

50
Academic Recovery
  • Academics the primary purpose of schools
  • Important in restoring normalcy in the school
    environment
  • Close link to Physical and Structural Recovery
    Strategies
  • Doubling up classes
  • Utilizing portable classrooms and community
    buildings
  • Distance learning
  • Emotional recovery can also greatly impact
    academic recovery

51
What is Psychological/Emotional Recovery?
  • Purpose Promote coping and support resiliency
    for students and staff following an emergency
  • Key steps to take with community partners
  • Recognize factors that may impact recovery
  • Provide Psychological First Aid
  • Establish a system for identifying and monitoring
    children and staff who may need additional
    support
  • Develop short- and long-term interventions as
    needed

52
Adjustment Over Time in Crisis
A baseline functioning B event C vulnerable
state D usual coping mechanisms fail E
helplessness, hopelessness F improved
functioning
G continued impairment (PTS) H return to
baseline I post-traumatic growth
I
B
A
H
C
G
F
E
D
53
Spectrum of Mental Health Interventions
54
Why Psychological First Aid?
  • When bad things happen children and adolescents
    are the most vulnerable victims.
  • The day before I started high school my mom
    found my brother and his wife, dead.
  • There was a man who had a gun and ran into our
    school. We had to put the school on lockdown.
  • The water came through the house and I was
    drowning, and I didnt see my parents nowhere.

55
How Do Some Adults Deal with Child Trauma?
  • I dont know what to say and Im afraid Ill
    make it worse
  • Resulting Student Perceptions
  • I had a couple teachers that did not get the
    point at all.
  • I dont really talk to them because they dont
    know where Im coming from, like nobody
    understands my pain.

56
How Do Students Deal with Trauma?
  • Sometimes I talk to some of my teachers because
    I have my favorites, they ones I feel comfortable
    talking to.

57
With Psychological First Aid?
  • Every Adult On Campus
  • Plays an Important Role

58
The Responsibility of Caring Adults
Psychological First Aid after School Crises
  • Listen
  • Protect
  • Connect
  • Model
  • Teach

59
Recovery Phase Summary
  • What you can do
  • Inventory assets and estimate replacement values
  • Assess damages using a damage assessment team
    effectively manage reparations
  • Partner with mental health resources in the
    community make counseling available
  • Identify/implement creative alternatives to
    continue learning

60
REMS TA Center
  • For additional information, resources and
    technical assistance, please contact the
    Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools
    (REMS) Technical Assistance (TA) Center
  • Phone (855) 781-7367 (REMS)
  • Email remstacenter_at_seiservices.com
  • Website http//rems.ed.gov
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