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INDOOR AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT Massachusetts Department of Public Health Bureau of Environmental Health Indoor Air Quality Program

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Title: INDOOR AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT Massachusetts Department of Public Health Bureau of Environmental Health Indoor Air Quality Program


1
INDOOR AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENTMassachusetts
Department of Public HealthBureau of
Environmental HealthIndoor Air Quality Program
  • Agassiz Community School
  • 20 Child Street
  • Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts

2
Outline
  • IAQ background
  • General IAQ assessment
  • Dates Visited
  • July 14, 2008
  • December 11, 2008
  • January 21, 2009
  • April 22, 2009
  • Health Effects Discussion
  • Recommendations
  • Questions

3
Common Factors Associated with IAQ Problems
  • Ventilation
  • Microbial Growth
  • Mold
  • Point Sources of Environmental Irritants

4
Conditions that Influence Indoor Air Quality
  • Poor Design
  • Poor Maintenance
  • Occupant Induced

5
Conditions that Influence Indoor Air Quality
  • Poor Design
  • Examples
  • Inadequate or Nonexistent HVAC Systems
  • Poor Construction/Design
  • Right Design/Wrong Climate
  • Over-Designed/Multiple Moving Parts

6
Conditions that Influence Indoor Air Quality
  • Poor Maintenance
  • Examples
  • Lack of Attention to Maintenance of HVAC System
  • HVAC System Operations Management
  • Failure to Maintain Building Envelope/Water
    Penetration

7
Conditions that Influence Indoor Air Quality
  • Occupant-Induced
  • Examples
  • Environmental Tobacco Smoke
  • VOC-containing Art/Office Supplies
  • Blockage of HVAC Vents
  • Poorly Stored Chemicals

8
Aerial View of School
9
(No Transcript)
10
1990s Repairs
  • Replacement of duct boards-taped ducts
  • Replacement of air handling units
  • Replacement of HVAC system chiller
  • Roof replaced
  • No slope
  • No additional roof drains

11
Environmental Measurements
12
Indoor Air Quality Ventilation
  • Parameter typically measured to ascertain
    ventilation equipment function
  • Carbon Dioxide Levels
  • 800 ppm indicates inadequate ventilation
  • 600-800 ppm acceptable air exchange
  • lt 600 ppm is preferable in elementary schools

13
Indoor Air Quality Ventilation
  • Carbon Dioxide Measurements
  • Above 800 ppm in 6 of 71 areas surveyed,
    indicating adequate ventilation in majority of
    the areas surveyed (December 11, 2008)
  • It is important to note that several
    classrooms had open windows and/or were
    empty/sparsely populated

14
Indoor Air Quality Ventilation
  • Additional Parameter Typically Measured To
    Ascertain Ventilation Equipment Function
  • Temperature
  • Comfort Range 70 o F to 78 o F
  • Relative Humidity
  • Comfort Range 40 to 60

15
Indoor Air Quality VentilationDecember 11, 2008
  • Temperature Measurements
  • 68o F to 74o F
  • Relative Humidity Measurements
  • 12 to 25

16
Low Relative Humidity
  • Relative Humidity lt 20
  • is found frequently during the winter indoors in
    New England during cloudless, below- freezing
    weather conditions
  • dry eyes, mucous membranes, throat irritation
  • exacerbate preexisting skin rashes
  • leads to increased
  • aerosolization of dusts
  • evaporation of VOCs

17
HVAC Equipment
Heat exchanger
18
Classroom supply vent
19
Classroom exhaust vent
20
Classroom exhaust vent near door
21
Classroom FCU
22
FCU settings
23
Occluded filter, note that filter is sitting in
FCU and off floor
24
Items placed in front of FCU
25
Indoor Air QualityPoint Source Irritants
  • Point source pollution parameters
  • Carbon monoxide
  • levels of fresh air introduced to a building
    should not exceed the NAAQS level of 9 ppm in an
    eight-hour average.
  • Airborne particles
  • Levels for particulate matter with a diameter of
    2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) should be maintained below
    the NAAQS level of 35 µg/m3 over a 24-hour
    average
  • The NAAQS were adopted by reference in the BOCA
    National Mechanical Code of 1993, which is now an
    HVAC standard included in the Massachusetts State
    Building Code.

26
Indoor Air QualityPoint Source
Irritants December 11, 2008
  • Carbon monoxide
  • ND in all areas surveyed
  • Particulate Matter (PM2.5)
  • Outdoors/Background 17 µg/m3
  • 7 - 15 µg/m3

27
Wall/Window Frame Temperature Analysis
  • Building occupants report temperature extremes
  • Building is unable to cool in the summer
  • Building in the winter is
  • Too cold in classrooms on the exterior walls
  • Too warm in rooms in the core of the building

28
Surface Temperature Survey January 21, 2009
  • Using a laser thermometer, the temperature of the
    following building components were measured
    inside the building
  • Window frames
  • Exterior door frames (where present)
  • Exterior walls
  • Walls dividing classrooms
  • Hallway walls

29
Surface Temperature Survey January 21, 2009
  • Assumption If properly insulated, temperatures
    of building components inside classrooms should
    be near the room air temperature.
  • Set point for the thermostat at the ACS is 68o F
  • Therefore the temperature of window frames,
    exterior door frames, exterior walls, walls
    dividing classrooms and hallway walls should be
    in a range of 63o F to 73o F (/- 5o F)

30
Surface Temperature Survey Results January 21,
2009
  • Window frames 0oF to 103oF
  • Exterior door frames 0o F to 26o F
  • Exterior walls 20o F to 63o F
  • Walls dividing classrooms 35o F to 67o F
  • Hallway walls 37o F to 69o F

31
Thermal Bridge
  • Thermal bridge is created when materials that are
    poor insulators come in contact, allowing heat to
    flow through the path created.
  • Repeating thermal bridges - where bridges occur
    following a regular pattern, such that made by
    wall ties penetrating a cavity wall.

32
Insulation
  • R Rating-A measure of the capacity of a material,
    such as insulation, to impede heat flow, with
    increasing values indicating a greater capacity
  • The higher the R-value, the greater the
    insulating effectiveness.

33
Thermal Bridge
  • If an object transverses the insulation (e.g., a
    steel bar), heat loss will occur, lowering
    temperature
  • It is as if the insulation is not in place

34
Repeating Thermal Bridges
35
Note Wire and Space in Wall
36
Windows are Single Pane with Non-insulated Window
Frames
37
Supply and return heating system pipes connected
from FCU to ceiling instead of along walls
38
Example of typical univent supply and return
heating system pipes configured to provide heat
for windows and walls, note radiator register
flanking the univent Granville Village School,
Granville, MA
39
Understanding Dew Point
  • When warm, moist air passes over a cooler
    surface, condensation can form.  Condensation is
    the collection of moisture on a surface at or
    below the dew point. 
  • The dew point is the temperature that air must
    reach for saturation to occur.  If a building
    material/component has a temperature below the
    dew point, condensation will accumulate on that
    material.
  • Over time, condensation can collect and form
    water droplets. 

40
Understanding Dew Point
  • American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and
    Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), if relative
    humidity exceeds 70, mold growth may occur due
    to wetting of building materials
  • It is recommended that porous material be dried
    with fans and heating within 24 to 48 hours of
    becoming wet (US EPA, 2001, ACGIH, 1989)
  • If porous materials are not dried within this
    time frame, mold growth may occur
  • Water damaged porous materials cannot be
    adequately cleaned to remove mold growth

41
Calculation for Dew Point January 21, 2009
  • Temperature indoors 68o F
  • Relative Humidity 46 outdoors
  • Dew Point 46o F
  • On this day, 41 windows were below the dew point
  • Therefore, a major contribution to wood rot on
    sills is likely due to condensation, with
    periodic moistening by rainwater penetration

42
Microbial GrowthConditions Needed to Grow Mold
  • spores
  • nutrients
  • temperature gt45o F
  • water (moisture)
  • Material should be dried within 24 - 48 hours of
    becoming moistened

43
Components of a Mold Colony That Can Be Allergenic
  • Mold
  • Spores
  • Mycotoxins
  • Mycelia Fragments
  • Mold Volatile Organic Compounds
  • killed by fungicides/sporicides

44
Why Does Mold Growth Occur Indoors?
  • Water is either entering or failing to exit the
    building interior.
  • Materials that can support mold growth are
    stored/placed in an area that can become
    moistened for an extended period (gt 24 hours).
  • Example storing books in a basement prone to
    condensation generation in the summer
  • condensation

45
Materials Unlikely To Grow Mold With an
Adequate Moisture Source
  • If mold appears, the mold growth medium is
    settled onto the surface of the material
  • Remediation recommendation Cleaning of surface
  • Cement
  • Cinderblock
  • Brick
  • Steel and other metal
  • Floor tiles
  • Hard Plastic

46
Materials Likely to Grow Mold with an Adequate
Moisture Source
  • carpet
  • ceiling tiles
  • drapery
  • gypsum wallboard
  • paper
  • books
  • particle board/plywood
  • cardboard
  • potting soil
  • fiberglass insulation
  • soft plastic
  • soft wood
  • Each material contains carbon, which serves as
    the food source for mold
  • Remediation recommendation
  • Removal of the material if moistened for an
    extended period of time

47
FCU insulation losing adherence to surfaces,
resulting in condensation
48
Condensation on surface of FCU
49
FCU in stairwell with floor stained from water
leaking
50
Cooling Coil
Drip Pan
FCU cooling coil and debris in drip pan
51
Auxiliary drain pan, note debris in pan, lack of
insulation on copper drain pipe elbow, rust on
cabinet components and water staining on floor of
cabinet
52
Filter sitting on floor due to missing brackets
53
Water damaged stained window frame wood
54
Staining from rainwater, note damaged window
frames
55
Damaged window frame
56
Breach in window frame where wooden sill was
removed
57
Spaces between stone panels
58
Water drip stains down wall
59
Stained/lifting floor tiles
60
Standing water on floor beneath filing cabinet
61
Plug in floor, note staining indicating water
leakage
62
Signs of water pooling against the building
63
Clogged roof drain
64
Accumulated water on roof below slope
65
Efflorescence around Plaster Patch, corresponds
to pooling water noted in previous slide
66
Accumulated materials on roof, note plant growth
67
Lifted repair sections on roof
68
Example of open seam between sink countertops and
walls
69
Dehumidifier operating with the window open
70
Other Concerns
71
Air purifier with ionizer
72
Air purifier using HEPA filter with no ionizer
73
Exposed fiberglass insulation
74
Tennis Balls on Chair Legs
75
Rodent infestation
  • Rodents can be a source of disease and
    infestation can result in indoor air quality
    related symptoms due to materials in their
    wastes.
  • Mouse urine and feces contain a protein that is a
    known sensitizer (US EPA, 1992).
  • A sensitizer is a material that can produce
    symptoms (e.g. rhinitis and skin rashes) in
    sensitive individuals.

76
Rodent infestation
  • A three-step approach is necessary to eliminate
    rodent infestation
  • removal of the rodents
  • cleaning of waste products from the interior of
    the building
  • reduction/elimination of pathways/food sources
    that are attracting rodents such as
    toasters/toaster ovens in classrooms

77
Rodent attractorPaper mâché
  • Paper mâché paste is a liquid adhesive usually
    made using flour and water.
  • It closely resembles wallpaper paste. It can be
    used as a paste for paper mâché projects and also
    decoupage, collage, and book binding.
  • One classroom floor had substantial paper mâché
    residue on its floor

78
Rodent attractorBait Trap Inappropriately Placed
Bait traps in AHU room
79
Noise in gymnasium
  • Reports concerning the noise in the gymnasium
    that is created by the HVAC system.
  • Factors increasing noise in gymnasium
  • The AHU is hung from the ceiling of the
    gymnasium.
  • The AHU and its ductwork are not externally
    insulated.
  • Ductwork does not appear to be internally
    insulated.
  • In this configuration, the HVAC system ductwork
    amplifies noise from the AHU fan and motors.
    Insulation on the ductwork would dampen the
    vibrations and reduce noise.

80
Health Concerns
81
Health EffectsInterview Results
  • All school personnel were offered opportunity to
    be interview by DPH staff. 15 agreed to be
    interviewed.
  • The predominant symptoms in this category were
    sinus congestion/infection and colds.

82
Health EffectsInterview Results General Indoor
Air Quality
  • variation in temperature (some individuals
    reported the building being too hot while others
    reported it being too cold)
  • variation in humidity (some individuals reported
    that the air is too dry while others reported
    that it is too moist)
  • water damage
  • poor ventilation
  • mold
  • pests
  • dust
  • general building deterioration

83
Health Effects Medical Record Reviews
  • Of the 15 employees interviewed, 5 consented to
    have their medical records reviewed and returned
    signed medical record release consent forms.
  • Despite repeated requests, MDPH staff were not
    able to obtain one set of medical records for one
    individual.
  • According to BEHs physician, several of the IAQ
    conditions observed may contribute to eye or
    respiratory irritation these include
  • low levels of humidity,
  • presence of particulates and dusts
  • VOCs
  • conditions conducive to attracting rodents
  • mold/moisture in areas prone to water damage

84
Health Effects Medical Record Reviews
  • The five cases reviewed show one commonality,
    rhinosinusitis (a condition involving
    inflammation in one or more of the paranasal
    sinuses) symptoms.
  • Typically, rhinosinusitis is the result of
    irritation, allergic reaction, or infection.

85
Health Effects Discussion
  • The symptoms reported among participants of this
    health investigation are generally those most
    commonly experienced in buildings with less than
    optimal indoor air quality.
  • The symptoms most frequently reported by
    individuals at the ACS were respiratory/irritant
    effects including allergies, headaches, sinus
    congestion or sore, hoarse or dry throat as well
    as headaches.
  • The diagnosis of rhinosinusitis among the 5
    individuals whose medical records were reviewed
    may be impacted by some conditions observed in
    the building

86
Recommendations
  • Short and Long-Term

87
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Remove/replace original, water-damaged wood sills
    from the base of all windows if wood is water
    stained or materially degrading.
  • Operate both supply and exhaust ventilation
    continuously during periods of school occupancy
    to maximize air exchange.
  • Clean accumulated debris from FCU drip pans on a
    regular schedule.
  • Install filter racks on FCUs to hold filters in
    place.

88
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Remove obstructions from FCU air intakes and
    diffusers.
  • Operate FCUs during periods of school occupancy
    to facilitate airflow in classrooms.
  • Close classroom doors to maximize air exchange.
  • Consider adopting a balancing schedule of every 5
    years for all mechanical ventilation systems, as
    recommended by ventilation industrial standards
    (SMACNA, 1994).
  • Remove rodent bait traps from HVAC system
    mechanical rooms.

89
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Use the principles of integrated pest management
    (IPM) to rid this building of pest.  Activities
    that can be used to eliminate pest infestation
    may include the following activities
  • Refrain from using recycled food containers. 
    Seal recycled containers in a tight fitting lid
    to prevent rodent access
  • Ensure that areas where paper mache is practiced
    are thoroughly cleaned after such activities.
  • Remove non-food items that rodents are consuming
  • Store foods in tight fitting containers.
  • Avoid eating at workstations.  In areas were food
    is consumed, periodic vacuuming to remove crumbs
    is recommended.

90
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Principles of IPM (cont.)
  • Regularly clean crumbs and other food residues
    from toasters, toaster ovens, microwave ovens
    coffee pots and other food preparation equipment.
  • Examine each room and the exterior walls of the
    building for means of rodent egress and seal
    appropriately.  Holes as small as ¼ is enough
    space for rodents to enter an area.  If doors do
    not seal at the bottom, install a weather strip
    as a barrier to rodents.
  • Reduce harborages (cardboard boxes) where rodent
    may reside.

91
Short-Term Recommendations
  • To control for dusts, a HEPA filter equipped
    vacuum cleaner in conjunction with wet wiping of
    all surfaces is recommended.
  • Avoid the use of feather dusters.
  • Drinking water during the day can help ease some
    symptoms associated with a dry environment
    (throat and sinus irritations).

92
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Change filters for air-handling equipment (e.g.,
    AHUs, FCUs and air purifiers) as per the
    manufacturers instructions or more frequently if
    needed. Vacuum interior of units prior to
    activation to prevent the aerosolization of dirt,
    dust and particulates. Ensure filters fit flush
    in their racks with no spaces in between allowing
    bypass of unfiltered air into the unit.
  • Ensure leaks are repaired. Remove/replace water
    damaged ceiling tiles. Examine the areas above
    and around for mold growth. Disinfect areas of
    water leaks with an appropriate antimicrobial.

93
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Remove dirt/debris from roof/drains to ensure
    proper drainage and to prevent plant growth.
    Consider methods to prevent water from pooling at
    the base of the sloped stairwell roof.
  • Consider regrading the apron of the building to
    prevent water pooling/penetration through the
    buildings foundation and slab.
  • Move plants away from FCUs in classrooms. Avoid
    over-watering and examine drip pans periodically
    for mold growth. Disinfect with an appropriate
    antimicrobial where necessary.

94
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Keep windows closed during hot, humid weather to
    maintain indoor temperatures and to avoid
    condensation problems when air conditioning is
    activated.
  • Clean and maintain humidifiers and dehumidifiers
    as per the manufacturers instructions.
  • Seal areas around sinks to prevent water-damage
    to the interior of cabinets and adjacent
    wallboard. Inspect wallboard for water damage
    and mold growth, repair/replace as necessary.
    Disinfect areas with an appropriate
    antimicrobial, as needed. Consider replacing
    with single piece molded countertops.

95
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Refrain from using plug-in air fresheners or
    other air deodorizers.
  • Clean and maintain aquariums and terrariums to
    prevent mold growth and associated odors.
  • Store cleaning products properly and out of reach
    of students. Ensure spray bottles are properly
    labeled. All cleaning products used at the
    facility should be approved by the school
    department with MSDS available at a central
    location.

96
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Relocate or consider reducing the amount of
    materials stored in classrooms to allow for more
    thorough cleaning of classrooms. Clean items
    regularly with a wet cloth or sponge to prevent
    excessive dust build-up.
  • Clean personal fans/heaters, air diffusers,
    return vents and exhaust vents periodically of
    accumulated dust.
  • Clean chalk and dry erase trays to prevent
    accumulation of materials.
  • Clean upholstered furniture and pillows on the
    schedule recommended in this report. If not
    possible/practical, consider removal from
    classrooms.

97
Short-Term Recommendations
  • Replace latex-based tennis balls with latex-free
    tennis balls or alternative glides.
  • Consider adopting the US EPA document, Tools for
    Schools, to maintain a good indoor air quality
    environment in the building (US EPA, 2000). This
    document can be downloaded from the Internet at
    http//www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/index.html.
  • Refer to resource manuals and other related
    indoor air quality documents for further
    building-wide evaluations and advice on
    maintaining public buildings. These materials
    are located on the MDPHs website at
    http//mass.gov/dph/indoor_air.

98
Long-Term Recommendations
  • An evaluation of FCUs should be done to ascertain
    whether this HVAC system component can be
    repaired to prevent condensation generation. If
    not repairable, consideration should be given to
    replacing FCUs.
  • Consider plans for repairing the roof and
    installing additional drainage.

99
Long-Term Recommendations
  • Consider having a building engineer evaluate the
    building envelope in order to ascertain whether
    the exterior wall of classrooms can be improved
    to prevent thermal bridges and more controlled
    heating and cooling of the ACS. Activities to
    consider include, but are not limited to the
    following
  • Installing an interior wall with insulation over
    the existing classroom exterior walls. Ensure
    proper integration with the new window systems
    planned for installation in 2009. It may also
    include separation of interior walls from the
    exterior walls to disrupt the likely temperature
    bridge that exists.

100
Long-Term Recommendations
  • Consider having a ventilation engineer examine
    the existing heat exchange system for adequacy of
    design.
  • Consider having exterior walls re-pointed and
    waterproofed to prevent water intrusion. This
    measure should include a full building envelope
    evaluation.
  • Examine the feasibility of insulating the FCUs
    and duct work in the gymnasium to reduce noise.
  • Consider plans for having an energy audit
    conducted.

101
MDPH IAQ Assessment Staff
  • Michael A. Feeney, R.Ph., J.D., C.H.O.
  • Director, Indoor Air Quality Program
  • Bureau of Environmental Health
  • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
  • Tel. No. (617) 624-5757
  • Website http//mass.gov/dph/indoor_air
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