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Young Worker Safety and Health Training for the Healthcare Industry

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Title: Young Worker Safety and Health Training for the Healthcare Industry


1
Young Worker Safety and Health Training for the
Healthcare Industry
  • Training Module 4

This material was produced under grant number
SH-22227-11 from the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.
It does not necessarily reflect the views or
policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor
does mention of trade names, commercial products,
or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S.
Government.
2
Acknowledgement of Sources
http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/talkingsafety/
Introduction to OSHA
http//www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction_gene
ralindustry/teachingaids.html
Work Safe, Work Smart Health and Safety
Awareness for Working Teens curriculum.
University of Washington Dept. of Environmental
and Occupational Health Sciences. Washington
State Dept. of Labor and Industries. OSHAs 11
An OSHA 10 Hour General Industry Curriculum
University of Washington Dept. of Environmental
and Occupational Health Sciences. Washington
State Dept. of Labor and Industries.
3
Course Agenda Objectives
  • In this session you will learn
  • Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP)
  • What is a bloodborne pathogen?
  • How are healthcare workers exposed to BBP?
  • How do you prevent exposure to BBP and what do
    you do if you are exposed at work?
  • Respiratory Protection
  • What is a respirator?
  • When do you need to wear a respirator (hazards in
    healthcare settings most likely to require the
    use of a respirator)?
  • What are the limitations of a respirator?

4
Course Agenda Objectives (continued)
  • Ergonomics
  • What does ergonomics mean and how does it
    affect healthcare workers?
  • How do I prevent an ergonomic-related injury?
  • Workplace Violence
  • Why are healthcare workers at risk of workplace
    violence?
  • What are the risk factors and how do you minimize
    them?
  • Emergency Response
  • What are examples of the types of emergencies
    experienced in a healthcare setting?
  • How does your employer prepare for these types of
    emergencies?

5
Tying it All Together
  • The Puzzle piece represents an activity that
    participants can do individually or as a group
  • The Movie reel represents ways to integrate media
    into training
  • The Microphone represents ways to encourage
    participation

6
Healthcare Industry Includes
  • Public and Private Hospitals
  • Nursing and residential care facilities
  • Offices of physicians, dentists, etc.
  • Home healthcare services
  • Outpatient care centers
  • Ambulatory health care services
  • Medical and diagnostic laboratories

7
How is healthcare different from other jobs?
  • In the healthcare setting there is a
  • diversity of job titles and duties
  • unique "business" of caring for the ill
  • societal behaviors related to caregiving role
  • exotic and unique exposures
  • suspension of usual self-protection behaviors
  • emphasis on confidentiality

8
Did You Know?
  • Healthcare is the largest industry in the
    American economy (EEOC, 2011)
  • Slips, trips and falls are among the leading
    cause of injury in healthcare facilities
  • 600,000 800,000 needlestick injuries annually
  • Nurses sustain the most needlestick injuries

Source CDC, 2004
9
Healthcare isnt always healthy.
  • Risk of infection
  • Exposure to chemicals and drugs
  • Injuries from lifting and repetitive motion
  • Stress

10
Bloodborne Pathogens and Infection Control
  • Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood
    Capacity Building Grant SH-20848SHO

11
Whats a Pathogen?
  • Infectious microorganisms present in blood that
    can cause disease in humans.
  • Viruses
  • Cold Flu
  • Hepatitis B C
  • HIV
  • Bacteria
  • Staph infections
  • Tuberculosis

12
Did you know?
  • The Hepatitis C virus can live in dried blood for
    up to 30 days.
  • Hepatitis C is the leading cause of liver failure
    in the U.S.
  • Up to 4 million Americans are infected with Hep C
  • There is no immunization for Hepatitis C

13
Bloodborne Pathogens
  • At work, most biological pathogens are
    transmitted from
  • Accidental puncture from a contaminated sharp
    object
  • Contact between broken skin and infected body
    fluids
  • Contact between mucous membranes and infected
    body fluids

REMEMBERBlood or body substances do not have to
be visible for an infection to be transmitted
14
Injuries
  • 600,000 800,000 needlestick injuries annually
  • Nurses sustain the most needlestick injuries
  • 1/3 all sharps injuries occur during disposal
  • CDC estimates 60 80 can be prevented
  • Other exposure incidents
  • Splashes
  • Contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin

15
Prevention Strategies
Example single-use, disposable equipment
(needles, scalpels, patient gowns)
  • Examples
  • Training on infectious disease and transmission
  • Universal Precautions rule
  • Handwashing rules
  • Hepatitis B vaccination
  • Example
  • Disposable gloves for use during procedures and
    cleaning equipment

16
Cleaning Disinfecting Strategies
The products and chemicals used to clean and
disinfect can be dangerous if you are not trained
on their use and use them properly
  • Hospital grade disinfectants
  • Quats (Quaternary ammonium compounds)
  • Glutaraldehyde
  • Ethyl Alcohol
  • Bleach solutions
  • Must be made daily
  • Autoclave
  • Heat Steam
  • Good for objects
  • Ultrasonic cleaner
  • Vibration disinfectant

Your employer is required to train you on the
hazards of working with chemicals on the job.
17
What to do if you are exposed to a bloodborne
pathogen
  • Flush area with water
  • Irrigate eyes with water or saline
  • Report to teacher or employer immediately
  • Seek counseling/care (time makes a difference)

18
  • Proper Glove Removal Practice

19
Hand washing
  • Lather well rub hands vigorously for at least 20
    seconds.
  • Hand sanitizer is NOT a replacement for washing
    hands with soap and water!
  • Hand sanitizer does NOT remove chemicals from
    your hands

20
Respiratory Protection in the Healthcare Industry
  • Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood
    Capacity Building Grant SH-20848SHO

21
Respiratory Protection
  • Is a filtering face piece a respirator?
  • How about a one-strap mask?
  • How about a two-strap mask?
  • What about a surgical mask?
  • Why would you wear a respirator?

22
Respiratory Protection
  • Mask vs. respirator
  • 1 2 3
  • Dust mask (not NIOSH approved)
  • Surgical mask (not a respirator and not PPE)
  • NIOSH approved filtering face piece respirator

23
What is a Respirator?
  • Respirators are devices that protect workers
    from inhaling harmful airborne substances.
  • Some respirators also ensure that workers do not
    breathe air that contains dangerously low levels
    of oxygen (O2).
  • (OSHAs Small Entity Compliance Guide, 9/30/98)

24
When do we need respirators?
  • Engineering or administrative controls are not
    always possible
  • Confinement of infectious agent may be difficult
    or impossible
  • Improved ventilation may not be practical or
    feasible
  • Employees may be exposed to a widevariety of air
    contaminants
  • infectious agents
  • chemical agents
  • Environmental controls may not befeasible

25
Limitations of Respirators
  • All respirators have limitations
  • improper fit
  • improper donning
  • damage
  • contamination

26
Respiratory Concerns
  • The minimal acceptable level of respirator
    protection for TB is the N95 respirator
  • SARS
  • Smallpox
  • Measles
  • Varicella (Chicken Pox)
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Chemical agents

REMEMBER Surgical masks are not considered
respirators and are not approved to protect from
infectious disease or chemicals.
27
Ergonomics in the Healthcare Industry
  • Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood
    Capacity Building Grant SH-20848SHO

28
High prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints
  • Awkward, prolonged working postures
  • Elevated arms (stocking supplies)
  • Bent back (making a bed)
  • Bent head (microscope work)
  • Repetitive movements
  • Heavy, awkward lifting
  • Lifting patients
  • Positioning patients
  • Transferring patients

29
An Exercise in Strength
30
What is Ergonomics?
  • Fitting the task to the person

BEST FIT
31
Questions to ask yourself
  • Are you gripping or squeezing any of the
    implements too tightly?
  • What types of repetitive motions are you doing
    throughout the day?
  • Are you holding your arms away from you body for
    extended periods of time?
  • Do you find yourself bending forward or twisting
    into awkward positions to reach the patient?

Graphic used courtesy of VCU
32
Prevention Strategies
Workplace Example Transferring a Patient
  • Example
  • Use patient lifting devices
  • Examples
  • Allow for stretching intervals
  • Keep neck and back straight
  • Lift with legs
  • Move patient as close as possible before lifting
  • Example
  • Choose appropriate footwear that is non-slip and
    supportive

33
Workplace Violence in the Healthcare Industry
  • Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood
    Capacity Building Grant SH-20848SHO

34
Workplace Violence
  • 48 of all non-fatal injuries from occupational
    assaults occurred in health care and social
    services
  • Nurses, aides, orderlies and attendants suffered
    the most non-fatal assaults.

35
Risk Factors
  • What are some reasons that healthcare settings
    have a higher risk for workplace violence than
    other workplaces?

36
Hazard Prevention
  • Provide better visibility and good lighting
  • Implement safety measures to deter handguns
    inside facility
  • Use of security devices like surveillance
    cameras, beepers, panic buttons, etc.
  • Control access to work areas
  • Use curved mirrors at hallway intersections or
    concealed areas
  • Provide adequate staffing even during night shift
  • Increase staffing in areas where assaults by
    patients are likely (e.g., ER)

37
Emergency Response in Healthcare Industry
  • Information Provided under OSHA Susan Harwood
    Capacity Building Grant SH-20848SHO

38
Types of Emergencies
  • Natural Disasters
  • Human Related
  • Hazardous Materials
  • Bioterrorism Emergencies (Anthrax, smallpox,
    etc.)
  • Chemical Emergencies (train derailment)
  • Radiation Emergencies (3 Mile Island)
  • Mass Casualties (school shooting, plane crash,
    etc.)
  • Hurricane
  • Tornado
  • Flood

39
Emergencies make a hard job harder
  • What are some essential services for a medical
    facility? (electricity, water, supply chain
    (medications, food))
  • Could these be lost during an emergency?
  • How would this affect their ability to perform
    their job?

40
What you need to know
  • Your employer should have a plan
  • Emergency Management Goals
  • Continuity of care
  • Safety of patients, families, and staff
  • Support to community
  • Preservation of vital records and property
  • OSHA has established standards and regulations
    that pertain to healthcare during disaster
    situations.

41
Your Right to a
  • The creation of OSHA provided workers the right
    to a safe and healthful workplace.

Section 5(a)(1) of the OSH Act states Each
employer shall furnish to each of his employees
employment and a place of employment which are
free from recognized hazards that are causing or
are likely to cause death or serious physical
harm to his employees."
www.osha.gov or call 1-800-321-OSHA
42
Building Resources Healthcare Specific
  • http//www.health.state.mn.us/index.html
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/hospital/index.htm
    l
  • http//www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/nursinghome/index.
    html
  • http//www.cdc.gov/nhsn/hps.html
  • http//www.mtpinnacle.com

43
Building Resources
National Resources
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA) www.osha.gov and http//www.youth2work.go
    v/
  • National Institute of Occupational Safety and
    Health (NIOSH) http//www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/yo
    uth/
  • Youngworkers.org http//www.youngworkers.org/home.
    htm The California Resource Network for Young
    Workers Health and Safety and home of The
    National Young Worker Safety Resource Center
  • United States Department of Labor, Wage and Hour
    Division (WHD) Youth Rules! http//www.youthrules.
    dol.gov/teens/default.htm
  • Gulf Coast Safety Institute www.com.edu/gcsi

44
Building Resources
Georgia Local Resources
  • Georgia Department of Education
    http//www.doe.k12.ga.us/ http//www.gadoe.org/
  • Georgia Department of Education Career,
    Technology and Agricultural Education
    http//www.gadoe.org/ci_cta.aspx
  • SkillsUSA www.skillsusageorgia.org and
    www.skillsusa.org
  • Georgia Technology Student Association
    www.gatsa.org
  • Georgia Engineering and Technology Education
    Association www.getea.org
  • Georgia Health Occupations Students of America
    www.georgiahosa.org Construction Education
    Foundation of Georgia www.cefga.org
  • Trade and Industrial Educators of Georgia
    http//tiega.org/
  • Project Safe Georgia www.projectsafegeorgia.org
  • American Society of Safety Engineers
    (ASSE)- Georgia Chapter http//georgia.asse.org/ 
  • Georgia Local Section- American Industrial
    Hygiene Association (GLS-AIHA) http//www.georgiaa
    iha.org/

45
For More Information
  • Email youngworker_at_gtri.gatech.edu
  • Website www.youngworker.gatech.edu
  • Twitter _at_youngworker
  • Facebook http//www.facebook.com/!/Young.Worker.
    at.GTRI
  • Phone 404-407-8089
  • Address
  • Center for Young Worker Safety and Health at
    GTRI
  • 260 14th Street
  • Atlanta, GA 30332-0837
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