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DISASTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE A PILLAR OF DISASTER RESILIENCE

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DISASTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE A PILLAR OF DISASTER RESILIENCE Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: DISASTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE A PILLAR OF DISASTER RESILIENCE


1
DISASTER EMERGENCY RESPONSEA PILLAR OF DISASTER
RESILIENCE
Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster
Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA
2
The Timely And Intelligent Concentration of a
Citys Resources to Meet Extremely Urgent Needs
During the Initial Hours, Days, and Weeks After
a Natural Hazard Strikes
3
THE FOCUSFROM UNABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY
TO INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE
4
AN INTELLIGENT CITY KNOWS WHAT IS HAPPENING AND
WHAT TO DO WHEN PEOPLE, BUILDINGS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE ARE THREATENED
5
COMMUNITY
DATA BASES AND INFORMATION
HAZARDS GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE
SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN
UP AFTERSHOCKS
6
A DISASTER OCCURS WHEN A CITYS PUBLIC POLICIES
ALLOW IT TO BECOME
  • UNPREPARED
  • UNPROTECTED
  • UNABLE TO RESPOND EFFECTIVELY
  • NONRESILIENT IN THE RECOVERY PHASE

7
A CITY BECOMES DISASTER RESILIENT WHEN IT IS
  • PREPARED FOR THE INEVITABLE NATURAL HAZARDS THAT
    ARE LIKELY TO OCCUR AT THE WRONG TIME AND IN THE
    WRONG PLACE RELATIVE TO THE CITYS SOCIAL
    CONSTRUCTS

8
A CITY BECOMES DISASTER RESILIENT WHEN
  • ITS PEOPLE, BUILDINGS, INFRASTRUCTURE, ESSENTIAL
    AND CRITICAL FACILITIES ARE PROTECTED BY CODES,
    STANDARDS, ETC AGAINST THE POTENTIAL DISASTER
    AGENTS OF LIKELY NATURAL HAZARDS

9
A CITY BECOMES DISASTER RESILIENT WHEN
  • IT IS ABLE TO A) RESPOND INTELLIGENTLY IN REAL
    TIME TO MOVE PEOPLE OUT OF HARMS WAY, B) MEET
    THEIR NEEDS IN AN EMERGENCY, AND C) RESTORE THE
    CITYS BASIC FUNCTIONS

10
A CITY BECOMES DISASTER RESILIENT WHEN
  • ITS POLICIES NOT ONLY ENABLE IT TO RESIST
    DISASTERS WITHOUT FAILING, BUT ALSO FACILITATES
  • A QUICK, SUSTAINABLE RECOVERY
  • AFTER THE EMERGENCY PHASE

11
DISASTER RESILIENCE REQUIRES PUBLIC POLICIES
THAT INTEGRATE RESEARCH, SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE,
AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES ON THE FOUR PILLARS OF
DISASTER RESILIENCE WITH THE CITYS POLITICAL
PROCESS
12
NATURAL HAZARDS THAT CAN CAUSE DIVERSE
EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
13
CHINA, 2007 FLOODING CREATED EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
  • When Planet Earths water cycle produced too
    much water for the drainage system to handle,
    major flooding occurred.

14
CAUSES OF DAMAGE AND DISASTER
LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN
INUNDATION
INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER
FLOODS
WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS)
CASE HISTORIES
EROSION AND MUDFLOWS
CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER
15
JAPAN 2011 TYPHOON ROKE CREATED EMERGENCY
SITUATIONS
  • When the water temperatures and atmospheric
    conditions were right, Typhoon Roke occurred and
    traveled in the Pacific Ocean.

16
CAUSES OF DAMAGE/DISASTER
WIND AND WATER PENETRATE BUILDING ENVELOPE
UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM
FLYING DEBRIS PENETRATES WINDOWS
STORM SURGE AND HEAVY PRECIPITATION
SEVERE WINDSTORMS
IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN
CASE HISTORIES
POOR WORKMANSHIP
FAILURE OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
17
BAM, IRAN DEC. 26, 2011 THE EARTHQUAKE CREATED
EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
  • The earthquake was inevitable, but the
    disaster was caused when ground shaking
    interacted with sun-dried, clay
    brick-construction.

18
BAM, IRAN DEC. 26, 2003 CREATED EMERGENCY
SITUATIONS
19
CAUSES OF DAMAGE/DISASTER
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING
SOIL AMPLIFICATION
PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SOIL FAILURE AND SURFACE
FAULTING )
IRREGULARITIES IN MASS, STRENGTH, AND STIFFNESS
EARTHQUAKES
FLOODING FROM TSUNAMI WAVE RUNUP AND SEICHE
CASE HISTORIES
POOR DETAILING OF STRUCTURALSYSTEM
FAILURE OF NON-STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
20
THAILAND DEC. 26, 2004 THE TSUNAMI CREATED
EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
  • The tsunami wave generated by the M9.3
    earthquake near Banda Ache, Indonesia traversed
    the entire Indian Ocean.

21
CAUSES OF DAMAGE/DISASTER
HIGH VELOCITY IMPACT OF INCOMING WAVES
INLAND DISTANCE OF WAVE RUNUP
VERTICAL HEIGHT OF WAVE RUNUP
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE OF BUILDINGS
TSUNAMIS
FLOODING
CASE HISTORIES
NO WARNING, OR INADEQUATE WARNING
PROXIMITY TO SOURCE OF TSUNAMI
22
JAPAN JAN., 11, 2011 KIRISHIMAS ERUPTION
CREATED EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
  • When ongoing convergence of the Pacific and
    Eurasian plates reached a critical point, the
    volcano erupted explos-ively.

23
CAUSES OF DAMAGE/DISASTER
PROXIMITY TO LATERAL BLAST
IN PATH OF PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
IN PATH OF FLYING DEBRIS (TEPHRA)
IN PATH OF VOLCANIC ASH (AVIATION)
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
IN PATH OF LAVA AND PYROCLASTIC FLOWS
CASE HISTORIES
IN PATH OF LAHARS
IGNORING WARNING TO EVACUATE
24
AUSTRALIA, FEB. 2009 WILDFIRES CREATEd EMERGENCY
SITUATIONS
  • Wildfires occurred when hot temperatures and
    dry conditions intersected in Australia.

25
CAUSES OF DAMAGE AND DISASTER
LIGHTNING STRIKES
MANMADE FIRES
PROXIMITY OF URBAN AREA TO THE WILDLAND FIRE
WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION (DAY/NIGHT)
WILDFIRES
DRYNESS
DISASTER LABORATORIES
HIGH TEMPERATURES
LOCAL FUEL SUPPLY
26
SO. CALIF., 2007 LANDSLIDES CREATED EMERGENCY
SITUATIONS
  • When unstable slopes failed after prolonged
    precipitation, a major landslide occurred.

27
CAUSES OF DAMAGE AND DISASTERS
BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES
BUILDING ON SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS
BUILDING ON SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES
BUILDING ON SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO SPREADS
LANDSLIDES
BUILDING ON SOIL AND ROCK SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS
CASE HISTORIES
SLOPE FAILURE AFTER HEAVY PRECIPITATION
SLOPE FAILURE AFTER GROUND SHAKING
28
THE FOUR PILLARS OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • 1. PREPAREDNESS (HAZARD, VULNERABILITY, AND RISK
    ASSESSMENTS PREDICTIONS, FORECASTS AND WARNING
    DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIOS INSURANCE
    INTELLIGENT COMMUNITY)

29
THE FOUR PILLARS OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
(Continued)
  • 2. PROTECTION (IMPLEMENTATION OF BUILDING CODES
    AND LIFELINE STANDARDS SITE-SPECIFIC DESIGN AND
    PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR ESSENTIAL AND
    CRITICAL FACILITIES)

30
THE FOUR PILLARS OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
(Continued)
  • 3. EMERGENCY RESPONSE (EVACUATION MASS CARE
    SEARCH AND RESCUE EMERGENCY MEDICAL EMERGENCY
    TRANSPORTATION LOCAL, REGIONAL, AND
    INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE)

31
THE FOUR PILLARS OF DISASTER RESILIENCE
(Continued)
  • 4. RECOVERY (RECONSTRUCTION LOCAL, REGIONAL, AND
    GLOBAL BUSINESS RESUMPTION POST-DISASTER STUDIES
    FOR PRE-DISASTER PREPAREDNESS)

32
SUMMARY OF DISASTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE
33
KEY ELEMENTS OF INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • Communication
  • Evacuation
  • Mass Care
  • Search and Rescue

34
KEY ELEMENTS OF INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE
  • Emergency Medical
  • Emergency Transportation
  • Local, Regional, and International Assistance
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