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How Did We Get the Bible?

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... of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai ... Book of the Law ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How Did We Get the Bible?


1
(No Transcript)
2
How Did We Get the Bible?
3
How We Got the Bible
  • Lesson One
  • Divine Inspiration the Formation of the
    Old Testament

4
The Inspiration of Scripture
5
Bible Claims of Inspiration
All Scripture is given by inspiration of God,
and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for
correction, for instruction in righteousness,
that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly
equipped for every good work. (2 Timothy
316-17)
6
Bible Claims of Inspiration
...No Prophecy of Scripture is of any private
interpretation, for prophecy never came by the
will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they
were moved by the Holy Spirit. (2 Peter 120-21)
7
Bible Claims of Inspiration
For this reason we also thank God without
ceasing, because when you received the word of
God which you heard from us, you welcomed it not
as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the
word of God, which also effectively works in you
who believe. (1 Thessalonians 213)
8
The Nature of Inspiration
René Pache, The Inspiration and Authority of
Scripture found phrases like... Thus says the
Lord The word of the Lord came to 3808
Times (Chicago Moody Press, 1969, pp. 65, 81)
9
The Nature of Inspiration
  • Plenary Full Inspiration. Lat. plenus full.
    All of Scripture is inspired.
  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is
    inspired.
  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the
    personality and environment of the writer was
    allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held
    absolute control of the outcome.

10
The Nature of Inspiration
  • Plenary Full Inspiration. Lat. plenus full.
    All of Scripture is inspired.
  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is
    inspired.
  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the
    personality and environment of the writer was
    allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held
    absolute control of the outcome.

11
The Nature of Inspiration
  • Plenary Full Inspiration. Lat. plenus full.
    All of Scripture is inspired.
  • Verbal Inspiration. Every word of Scripture is
    inspired.
  • Dynamic Inspiration. Although the the
    personality and environment of the writer was
    allowed to show through - the Holy Spirit held
    absolute control of the outcome.

12
Written Language
13
The Language of the Bible
  • Hebrew -
    Most of the Old Testament.
  • Aramaic -
    A few passages of the Old Testament.
  • Koine Common Greek
    - The New Testament.

14
The Language of the Bible
  • Hebrew -
    Most of the Old Testament.
  • Aramaic -
    A few passages of the Old Testament.
  • Koine Common Greek
    - The New Testament.

15
The Language of the Bible
  • Hebrew -
    Most of the Old Testament.
  • Aramaic -
    A few passages of the Old Testament.
  • Koine Common Greek
    - The New Testament.

16
Tablets
17
Writing Material in Scripture
TABLETS The sin of Judah is written with a pen
of iron with the point of a diamond it is
engraved on the tablet of their heart, and on the
horns of your altars, (Jeremiah 171)
18
Writing Material in Scripture
TABLETS And when He had made an end of speaking
with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses two
tablets of the Testimony, tablets of stone,
written with the finger of God. (Exodus 3118).
19
Scrolls
20
Papyrus
21
Parchment
22
Writing Material in Scripture
SCROLLS Take a scroll of a book and write on it
all the words that I have spoken to you against
Israel, against Judah, and against all the
nations, from the day I spoke to you, from the
days of Josiah even to this day. (Jeremiah 362)
23
Writing Material in Scripture
SCROLLS Now when I looked, there was a hand
stretched out to me and behold, a scroll of a
book was in it. Then He spread it before me and
there was writing on the inside and on the
outside, and written on it were lamentations and
mourning and woe. (Ezekiel 29)
24
Early Writing Systems
  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic
    symbols).
  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).
  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).
  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent
    sounds).

25
Early Writing Systems
  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic
    symbols).
  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).
  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).
  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent
    sounds).

26
Hieroglyphics
27
Early Writing Systems
  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic
    symbols).
  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).
  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).
  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent
    sounds).

28
Cuneiform
29
Early Writing Systems
  • Ideographic (Ideas conveyed in pictographic
    symbols).
  • Hieroglyphic (Egypt).
  • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia, Persia, the Levant).
  • Alphabetic (Graphic symbols that represent
    sounds).

30
Proto-Sinaitic ca. 1500 BC
31
Alphabetic Development
Alphabet
Allowed writing to be more accessible
Ideographs
32
Alphabetic Development
The First Commandment You shall have no other
Gods before me
Proto-Sinaitic Alphabet
33
Alphabetic Development
The First Commandment You shall have no other
Gods before me
1500 BC
800 AD
34
Ten Commandments In Paleo-Hebrew
35
Modern Printed Hebrew Bible
36
Major Events for the Hebrew Text
37
Major Events for the Hebrew Text
  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).
  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign
    of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).
  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the
    Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).

38
Major Events for the Hebrew Text
  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).
  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign
    of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).
  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the
    Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).

39
Major Events for the Hebrew Text
  • The Giving of the Law of Moses (ca. 1400 BC).
  • The Recovery of the Book of Moses in the Reign
    of Josiah (ca. 621 BC).
  • The Restoration of the Jews to Palestine and the
    Reforms of Ezra (ca. 400 BC).

40
The Giving of the Law to Moses
41
The Giving of the Law of Moses
  • These are the commandments which the LORD
    commanded Moses for the children of Israel on
    Mount Sinai
  • (Leviticus 2734)

42
The Giving of the Law of Moses
  • These are the words of the covenant which the
    LORD commanded Moses to make with the children of
    Israel in the land of Moab, besides the covenant
    which He made with them in Horeb.
  • (Deuteronomy 291).

43
The Giving of the Law of Moses
  • Remember the Law of Moses, My servant, Which I
    commanded him in Horeb for all Israel, with the
    statutes and judgments.
  • (Malachi 44).

44
The Giving of the Law of Moses
  • Now all the people gathered together as one man
    in the open square that was in front of the Water
    Gate

45
The Giving of the Law of Moses
  • and they told Ezra the scribe to bring the Book
    of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded
    Israel.
  • (Nehemiah 81)

46
Man Says This Isnt True!
  • Julius Wellhausens
  • Documentary Hypothesis
  • The Penteteuch was not given by God, or written
    by Moses, but was formed by man from different
    sources
  • Source J Source E Source D Source P Jehovah
    Elohim Deuteronomist Priestly
  • Then compiled together from 900-400 BC.

47
What Is The Truth?
  • The Bible says it was given by God and written
    by Moses.

48
What Does The Bible Say?
  • In the Penteteuch we find the phrases...
  • The LORD spoke to Moses
  • 104 Times
  • The LORD said to Moses
  • 56 Times
  • The LORD commanded Moses
  • 28 Times

49
The Bible Says the Law of Moses...
  • Was written by Moses
  • ...have you not read in the book of Moses...
  • (Mark 1226).
  • Did not Moses give you the law...
  • (John 719).
  • Yet, it was given by God
  • The law was through Moses
  • (John 117).

50
What Is The Truth?
  • The Bible says it was written by Moses
    and given by God.
  • Ancient writers believed it
    was written by Moses.

51
Manetho Egyptian Historian ca. 240 BC
  • Speaking of Moses, says he was -
  • The man who gave them their constitution and
    laws
  • --Quoted by Josephus
  • (Against Apion, Book One 26.4).

52
Josephus Jewish Historian (Against Apion) ca.
80-90 AD
  • Speaking of Jewish Scriptures, says they are -
    justly believed to be Divine, and of them five
    belong to Moses, which contain his laws, and the
    traditions of the origins of mankind till his
    death
  • -- Book One 8.1

53
What Is The Truth?
  • The Bible says it was written by Moses
    and given by God.
  • Ancient writers believed it
    was written by Moses.
  • References to Elohim Jehovah
    are found together.

54
The Penteteuch Uses Elohim Jehovah
Together
  • LORD (Jehovah) God (Elohim)
    is found 47 times
  • (Genesis - 26 Exodus - 13 Deuteronomy - 8)
  • LORD (Jehovah) and God (Elohim)
    in the same verse are found 413 times
  • (Genesis - 37 Exodus - 50 Leviticus - 38
    Numbers - 11 Deuteronomy - 277)

55
What Is The Truth?
  • The Bible says it was written by Moses
    and given by God.
  • Ancient writers believed it
    was written by Moses.
  • References to Elohim Jehovah
    are found together.
  • There is no evidence for
    this false theory!

56
Recovery of the Book of the Law
57
Recovery of The Book of the Law
  • Then Hilkiah the high priest said to Shaphan the
    scribe, I have found the Book of the Law in the
    house of the LORD. And Hilkiah gave the book to
    Shaphan, and he read it.
  • (2 Kings 228)

58
  • Book of the Law
  • 19 Times in the Old Testament
  • (Deut. 2861 2921 3010 3126 Joshua 18
    831 34 236 2426 2 Kings 146 228 2211
    2 Chron. 179 3414 Nehemiah 81 83 818
    93).
  • 1 Time in the New Testament
  • (Galatians 310)

59
  • Book of the Law
  • Never Books of the Law

60
  • Book of the Law
  • Hebrew Books usually were not named.
  • The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the
    Greek translation.
  • Scrolls were usually written with four lines
    between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba
    Batra 13b).
  • The Book of the Law was one scroll (or group
    of scrolls) of all five books.

61
Opening Section of Isaiah from 1QIsaa The
Isaiah Scroll ca. 100 BC
No Title
62
Modern Printed Hebrew Bible
63
  • Book of the Law
  • Hebrew Books usually were not named.
  • The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the
    Greek translation.
  • Scrolls were usually written with four lines
    between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba
    Batra 13b).
  • The Book of the Law was one scroll (or group
    of scrolls) of all five books.

64
  • Book of the Law
  • Hebrew Books usually were not named.
  • The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the
    Greek translation.
  • Scrolls were usually written with four lines
    between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba
    Batra 13b).
  • The Book of the Law was one scroll (or group
    of scrolls) of all five books.

65
  • Book of the Law
  • Hebrew Books usually were not named.
  • The names Genesis, Exodus, etc. came from the
    Greek translation.
  • Scrolls were usually written with four lines
    between different books. (Babylonian Talmud, Baba
    Batra 13b).
  • The Book of the Law was one scroll (or group
    of scrolls) of all five books.

66
Recovery of The Book of the Law
  • Now it happened, when the king heard the words
    of the Book of the Law, that he tore his
    clothes.
  • (2 Kings 2211)

67
The Preservation of Gods Word
For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and
earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no
means pass from the law till all is
fulfilled. (Matthew 518)
68
The Preservation of Gods Word
Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words
will by no means pass away. (Matthew 2435)
69
The Preservation of Gods Word
...All flesh is as grass, And all the glory of
man as the flower of the grass. The grass
withers, And its flower falls away, But the word
of the LORD endures forever... (1 Peter 124-25)
70
The Preservation of Gods Word
The grass withers, the flower fades, But the
word of our God stands forever. (Isaiah 408)
71
The Preservation of Gods Word
... Forever, O LORD, Your word is settled in
heaven. (Psalm 11989)
72
Recovery of The Book of the Law
  • Teaching Restoration of the Law
  • (2 Kings 231-3)

73
The Restoration of Ezra
74
Restoration of Ezra
  • ...Ezra came up from Babylon and he was a
    skilled scribe in the Law of Moses, which the
    LORD God of Israel had given. The king granted
    him all his request, according to the hand of the
    LORD his God
  • upon Him (Ezra 76)

75
Restoration of Ezra
  • ...For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the
    Law of the LORD, and to do it, and to teach
    statutes and ordinances in Israel.
  • (Ezra 710)

76
Restoration of Ezra
  • Teaching Restoration of the Law
  • (Nehemiah 81-8)

77
The Great Assembly (or Great Synagogue)
  • Term used by the Jews for the group who restored
    the Law with Ezra.
  • Moses received the Torah on Sinai, and handed it
    down to Joshua Joshua to the elders the elders
    to the prophets and the prophets handed it down
    to the Men of the Great Assembly
  • (Jewish Mishnah, Perke Aboth, 1)

78
The Great Assembly (or Great Synagogue)
  • This period brings to an end Divine Inspiration
    of Scriptures in Old Testament times.
  • The Old Testament Canon is closed.
  • All other religious writing is viewed as being
    uninspired and of lesser value.

79
The Old Testament Canon
80
Books of the Old Testament
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
81
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
82
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakku
k Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Books of Law
83
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakku
k Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Books of History
84
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Books of Poetry
85
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Books of Prophecy
86
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakku
k Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Torah - hrWT
87
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Nevim - .ya3yb3n
88
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Ketubim - .yb3OtK5
89
Books of the Old Testament 39 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
90
Books of the Old Testament 38 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
91
Books of the Old Testament 37 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
92
Books of the Old Testament 36 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
93
Books of the Old Testament 35 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
94
Books of the Old Testament 34 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
95
Books of the Old Testament 33 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
96
Books of the Old Testament 22 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
97
Books of the Old Testament 24 Books (Ancient Jews
22 or 24)
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
98
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakku
k Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Torah - hrWT
99
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Nevim - .ya3yb3n
100
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1 Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Ketubim - .yb3OtK5
101
Luke 2444
  • These are the words which I spoke to you while
    I was still with you, that all things must be
    fulfilled which were written in the Law, the
    Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me.

102
Books of the Old Testament Divisions of the
Hebrew Bible
  • Genesis
  • Exodus
  • Leviticus
  • Numbers
  • Deuteronomy
  • Joshua
  • Judges
  • Ruth
  • 1 Samuel
  • 2 Samuel
  • 1Kings
  • 2 Kings
  • 1 Chronicles
  • 2 Chronicles

Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesia
stes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel
Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk
Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi
Ketubim - .yb3OtK5
103
Apocryphal Book of Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach) ca.
190 BC
  • Many and great things have been given to us by
    the LAW and the PROPHETS and by OTHERS my
    grandfather, Joshua, gave himself to the reading
    of the LAW and the PROPHETS and OTHER books of
    our fathers Discussing translation of Hebrew,
    he speaks of the LAW itself, and the PROPHETS
    and the REST of the books -- Prologue

104
Philo of Alexandria (On the Contemplative Life)
ca. 30 AD
  • Speaks of a Jewish monastic sect studying in
    that place the LAWS and the sacred oracles of God
    enunciated by the HOLY PROPHETS and HYMNS and
    PSALMS -- (25)

105
Josephus Jewish Historian (Against Apion) ca.
80-90 AD
  • We have22 books which contain the records of
    all the past times which are justly believed to
    be Divine5 belong to MOSESfrom the death of
    Moses to the reign of Artaxerxesthe PROPHETS
    wrote down what was done in 13 booksthe
    remaining 4 contain HYMNS to God and precepts for
    the conduct of life
    -- Book One 8.1

106
The Council of Jamnia
  • A theoretical council of Jews who some claimed
    closed the Old Testament Canon around 100 AD,
    in the city of Jamnia after the destruction of
    Jerusalem.
  • There is some evidence that the books of
    Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon were discussed
    but the canon was closed and well established
    long before this.

107
Did Councils Determine What was in the Bible?
  • Councils or declarations of men do not determine
    what is Divine, inspired or authoritative.
  • At best, they simply state what is already
    understood to be true.

108
The Old Testament into Greek
109
The Old Testament in Greek
  • The Conquest of Alexander the Great brought the
    Greek language to much of the Ancient World.

110
The Old Testament in Greek
  • During the reign of Ptolemy II (ca. 285-246 BC.).
    The Old Testament began to be translated into
    Greek.
  • The Letter of Aristeas tells of Ptolemy using 72
    Jewish scholars to carry out this work (Gr.
    Septuaginta 70 - LXX - The Septuagint).

111
The Old Testament in Greek
  • The Septuagint (LXX) utilized the Greek custom of
    naming books. (e.g. Exodus Gr. ex out -
    hodos road, way).

112
The Old Testament in Greek
  • Many of the names we use are from the LXX.
  • The arrangement we use of the books of the Old
    Testament (i.e. Law, History, Poetry, Prophecy)
    was derived from the LXX.
  • The LXX was the Old Testament of many early
    Christians.

113
Extra-Canonical Books
114
Extra-Canonical Books
  • The word canon, meaning rule, or measuring
    line, refers to the complete collection of
    Divinely inspired books.
  • After the time of Ezra the canon was closed.
  • Many religious historical works were produced
    during this period. These are called
  • The Apocrypha (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).
  • The Pseudepigrapha (ca. 200 BC - 200 AD).

115
  • The Apocrypha
    (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).
  • 14 Jewish historical religious texts
    (Maccabees, Tobit, Bel the Dragon, Sirach,
    etc.).
  • The Jews viewed these as uninspired supplementary
    reading which held no authority.

116
The Apocrypha
(ca. 300 BC - 70 AD). Josephus, Against Apion,
says of other works after Ezra that they hath
not been esteemed of the like authority with the
former by our forefathers because there hath not
been an exact succession of prophets from that
time (Bk. I, 8.1). The Babylonian Talmud, says
Zechariah and Malachi came at the end of the
prophets (Baba Batra, 14b).
117
  • The Apocrypha
    (ca. 300 BC - 70 AD).
  • While included in many copies of the LXX this was
    probably considered supplementary material.
  • Jesus and New Testament writers never quote from
    a single Apocryphal book (although almost every
    canonical book is quoted).
  • These books are included in Roman Catholic Bibles
    and were in the original 1611 King James Bible.
  • They may have historical value but are not
    inspired!

118
  • The Pseudepigrapha (ca. 200 BC -
    200 AD).
  • Fanciful texts under the pseudonym of ancient
    writers (Life of Adam Eve The Testaments of
    the12 Patriarchs Enoch Martyrdom Ascension of
    Isaiah).
  • While known among the Jews, these were
    like modern works of religious fiction.
  • In addition to Scriptural secular texts, the
    Dead Sea Scroll library has a number of
    Pseudepigraphic texts.

119
Old Testament Reliability
The Old Testament Law, Prophets and Writings
(Genesis - Malachi) were complete and viewed as
the Inspired word of God well before the First
Century. We can be assured that the Old
Testament we read in our English Bible is the
complete, accurate and wholly inspired word of
God.
120
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