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Exploring How Composts Affect the Soil

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Exploring How Composts Affect the Soil s Plant and Microbial Community Review of paper from South Korea Analysis of paper Outline of my research plan for 2- year ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Exploring How Composts Affect the Soil


1
Exploring How Composts Affect the Soils Plant
and Microbial Community
2
  • Review of paper from South Korea
  • Analysis of paper
  • Outline of my research plan for 2- year field
    study of compost applied to an established grass
    pasture

3
Review of paper Effect of food waste compost on
microbial population, soil enzyme activity and
lettuce growth
  • Jae-Jung Lee, Ro-Dong Park, Yong-Woong Kim,
    Jae-Han Shim, Dong-Hyun Chae, Yo-Sup Rim,
    Bo-Kyoon Sohn, Tae-Hwan Kim, Kil-Yong Kim
  • Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Institute
    of Biotechnology, Chonnam National University,
    South Korea, in Bioresources Technology

4
Introduction
  • Food wastes are significant part of the waste
    stream in South Korea but they can be high in Na
    due to cooking practices
  • Disposal of food wastes
  • Landfilling creates groundwater problems
  • Incineration costly, environmental problems
  • Feeding to animals not healthy or practical
  • Composting good feedstock high in Nitrogen, low
    in salts, high moisture, but elevated levels of Na

5
Description of methods
  • Lettuce germinated in commercial medium
  • Lettuce transplanted to pot, 4 kg soil
  • Amendments added to pots
  • Lettuce grown 6 weeks
  • Biological measurements, lettuce weights taken at
    end
  • 9 authors!

6
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7
Fig. 1. Population of fungi in rhizospheres of
lettuce in pots as affected by CON, CC, MF,
FW0.5, FW1.0, FW1.5.
8
Fig. 2. Population of bacteria in rhizospheres
of lettuce in pots as affected by CON, CC, MF,
FW0.5,FW1.0,FW1.5. Means with same letters are
not sig. different at plt0.05 when compared by
LSD, means avg. 3 reps.
9
Fig. 3. Microbial biomass in rhizosphere of
lettuce in pots as affected by CON, CC, MF,
FW0.5, FW1.0, FW1.5
10
Enzymes measured
  • Acid phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase
  • Hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage
    of chemical bonds
  • Dehydrogenase
  • Calalyze oxidation-reduction reactions important
    in fermentation and respiration pathways

11
Fig. 4. Acid phosphatase activity in
rhizospheres of lettuce in pots as affected by
CON, CC, MF, FW0.5,FW1.0,FW1.5. Means with same
letters are not sig. different at plt0.05 when
compared by LSD, means avg. 3 reps.
12
Fig. 5. Alkaline phosphatase activity in
rhizospheres of lettuce in pots as affected by
CON, CC, MF, FW0.5, FW1.0, FW1.5. Means with
same letters are not sig. different at plt0.05
when compared by LSD, means avg. 3 reps.
13
Fig. 6. Dehydrogenase activity in rhizospheres
of lettuce in pots as affected by CON, CC, MF,
FW0.5, Fw1.0, FW1.5.
14
Fig. 7. Fresh weight of lettuce in pots as
affected by CON, CC, MF, FW0.5,FW1.0,FW1.5.
Means with same letters are not sig. different at
plt0.05 when compared by LSD, means avg. 3 reps.
15
Nutritional Needs of Lettuce
  • N 60-80 /A
  • P2O5 200/A
  • K2O 200/A
  • From litterature, not site specific

16
Measurable Parameters that Indicate Quality in
Compost
  • CO2 evolution maturity
  • CN
  • NH4-NNO3-N
  • pH
  • EC

17
Comparison of CC and FW
  • Commercial Compost
  • Composted 4 months
  • High CN (381)
  • Low Total N
  • Made with a high proportion of sawdust (probably
    high in C, difficult to degrade)
  • Food Waste Compost
  • Made in a lab
  • Unknown additative Miracalous Soil
    Microorganisms
  • Composted for 1 year
  • CN 121

18
Analysis of Paper
  • Objective Look at change in soil microbial
    population ?
  • Information about soil? Silty clay from a wheat
    field at Ag Ext. Station no data about initial
    fertility of soil to understand control with no
    amendments added
  • No background data on population of soil
    microorganisms in soil used in pots
  • Unclear about how rates of soil amendments xwere
    chosen
  • Description of sampling of rhizosphere soil
    lacking

19
Applying Composted Horse Manure to Grass Pasture
  • Pasture planted in spring, 2004
  • Compost made fall, 2004 and present
  • Compost to be tested for quality, first batch
  • CN 121
  • Spring 2005 application of
  • mineral fertilizer (MF) at agronomic rate based
    on fall soil tests and expected yield of hay (185
    lbs N/A, 0 lbs. P2O5/A)
  • Compost at same rate of N as MF
  • uncomposted horse manure at same rate of N as
    compost
  • compost tea (split plot?), 5 gal/A weekly May -
    September

20
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22
Challenges
  • To compare equivalent rates of available N among
    treatments
  • Unknown mineralization rate of compost
  • Assume manure 50 in year 1
  • Unknown effects of compost tea may affect
    mineralization rates of N
  • Border effects from tea applications

23
More Challenges
  • Little good qualatitive info available about
    compost tea
  • How to measure quality of tea
  • How to replicate tea every week over summer

24
More Challenges
  • Measuring changes in soil microbial community!
  • Explore effect of microbial soil life on plant
    response
  • both biomass and nutritional quality
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