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Air Toxics in Allegheny County: Sources, Airborne Concentrations, and Human Exposure

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... Diesel particulate matter Complex pollutant 40-80% BC or EC Organics Sulfate No way to directly measure Estimate using source apportionment model BC/EC ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Air Toxics in Allegheny County: Sources, Airborne Concentrations, and Human Exposure


1
Air Toxics in Allegheny County Sources, Airborne
Concentrations, and Human Exposure
  • Jennifer Logue, Andrew Lambe, Kara Huff-Hartz,
    Allen Robinson, Neil Donahue, Mitch Small, Cliff
    Davidson, Darrel Stern, Jason Maranche

2
Project Objectives
  • What are the concentrations and health risks of
    air toxics in Allegheny County?
  • How do the concentrations and risks in Allegheny
    County compare to other U.S. Cities?
  • What are priority air toxics for Allegheny
    County?
  • What are the sources of these priority toxics?

3
Baseline Monitoring (2/06-1/08)
Heavily Industrialized
Downtown
Flag Plaza
Regional background
(background)
  • 32 organic air toxics
  • 1 in 6 day sampling
  • Methods TO-11A TO-15

4
Air toxics considered in analysis
Baseline 38 HAPs
Intensives 38 HAPs
Archive
Acetaldehyde Ethyl benzene
Acrolein Formaldehyde
Benzene Hexachlorobutadiene
Benzyl chloride Hexane
Bromoform Methyl isobutyl ketone
Bromomethane Methylene chloride
Butadiene, 1,3- MTBE
Carbon disulfide Propionaldehyde
Carbon tetrachloride Styrene
Chlorobenzene Tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-
Chloroethane Tetrachloroethene
Chloroform Toluene
Chloromethane Trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-
Dibromoethane, 1,2- Trichloroethane, 1,1,1-
Dichlorobenzene, 1,4- Trichloroethane,1,1,2-
Dichloromethane, 1,1- Trichloroethene
Dichloroethane,1,2- Vinyl chloride
Dichloroethene, 1,1- Xylene, m/p
Dichloropropane, 1,2- Xylene, o-
Acetaldehyde Formaldehyde
Benzene Hexachlorobutadiene
Benzyl chloride Hexane
Bromoform Methyl isobutyl ketone
Bromomethane Methylene chloride
Butadiene, 1,3- MTBE
Carbon disulfide Styrene
Carbon tetrachloride Tetrachloroethane, 1,1,2,2-
Chlorobenzene Tetrachloroethene
Chloroethane Toluene
Chloroform Trichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-
Chloromethane Trichloroethane, 1,1,1-
Dibromoethane, 1,2- Trichloroethane,1,1,2-
Dichlorobenzene, 1,4- Trichloroethene
Dichloroethane, 1,1- Vinyl chloride
Dichloroethane,1,2- Xylene, m/p
Dichloroethene, 1,1- Xylene, o-
Dichloropropane, 1,2- Diesel particulate matter
Ethyl benzene POM
Antimony (PM10,PM2.5)
Arsenic (PM10,PM2.5)
Beryllium (PM10,PM2.5)
Cadmium (PM10,PM2.5)
Chromium (PM10,PM2.5)
Cobalt (PM10,PM2.5)
Lead (PM10,PM2.5)
Manganese (PM10,PM2.5)
Nickel (PM10,PM2.5)
Dibenz(A-H)Anthracene (PM10,PM2.5)
Selenium (PM10,PM2.5)
POM
5
Identifying Priority Toxics
  • Large Local Sources
  • High Concentrations Relative to National Data
  • High Risk

6
Comparisons with National Concentration Data
Sonoma Tech. provided national data
7
Air Toxics with Elevated Concentrations
8
Spatial variation and local sources
9
Cancer Risk
  • 3 toxics above 10-5
  • Formaldehyde
  • Benzene
  • Trichloroethene
  • 12 toxics above 10-6

10
Additive Cancer LIR at Baseline Sites
Trichloroethene
Flag Plaza
Avalon
Formaldehyde
Benzene
Stowe
South Fayette
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
0.8 1.0 1.2
Cancer LIR (x 10-4)
11
Comparison of LIR in Select U.S. Cities
12
Non-Cancer Risks
  • Chronic
  • Acrolein
  • No Acute

13
Other Air Toxics
  • Downtown
  • Diesel Particulate Matter
  • Avalon
  • metals
  • Archived CMU Supersite Data (regional background)
  • Diesel Particulate Matter
  • Metals
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

14
Diesel particulate matter
  • Complex pollutant
  • 40-80 BC or EC
  • Organics
  • Sulfate
  • No way to directly measure
  • Estimate using source apportionment model
  • BC/EC
  • Hopanes steranes
  • n-alkanes
  • aromatics

15
Diesel Particulate Concentrations and Risks
2.5
2.0
1.5
BC or EC (?g m-3)
Archived Data
1.0
0.5
0
Florence
Downtown
Hazelwood
Greensburg
Lawrenceville
Schenley Park
Based on CA Office of Environmental Health
Hazard Assessment URE for DPM
16
Risk of metals in different cities






1
2
4
3
5
6
7
Cancer LIR (x 10-5)
17
Risks for Different Classes of Air Toxics
18
Air Toxics of Interest
High Greatest Health Risks diesel
PM benzene formaldehyde
Medium Health Risks carbon
tetrachloride 1,3-butadiene tetrachloroethene
acetaldehyde trichloroethene acrolein
1,4-dichlorobenzene metals
Potential Concerns chloroform
propionaldehyde styrene ethylbenzene
toluene methylene chloride MIBK
xylenes
19
Intensive Monitoring
Downtown
Heavily Industrialized
Diamond Building
Carnegie Mellon
20
Automated Field Instrument Gas Chromatograph Mass
Spectrometer/ Flame Ionization Detector (GCMS/FID)
  • 1 hour resolution
  • 70 compounds
  • Low detection limit(lt.2mg/m3)
  • (Millet JGR, 2005)

21
High Time Resolved Measurements
Neville Island Downtown
22
High time resolved measurements
Concentration (mg/m3)
Concentration (mg/m3)
Hour of the day
23
Source Apportionment
0
Coke Factor
270
90
90
270
180
24
Benzene
25
Formaldehyde
  • Sources
  • Secondary Formation
  • Mobile sources
  • Point Sources 9 TPY
  • Predominately Secondary
  • Avalon is statistically significantly higher than
    other sites
  • 27 0 57 increase from SF

26
Tetrachloroethene
Downtown Avalon Background
  • Avalon ACSA
  • Downtown Dry Cleaning

Avalon
ACSA
27
Risk Apportionment
28
Industry Risk Apportionment
29
Risk Apportionment
30
Conclusions
  • Priority air toxics
  • Substantial risk from regional air toxics
  • Formaldehyde
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Local risk drivers
  • DPM
  • Benzene
  • Chlorinated compounds

31
Acknowledgments
  • Funding
  • Clean Air Fund
  • EPA

32
1,4-dichlorobenzene
Downtown
Downtown
Background
33
Trichloroethene Unknown Source
34
Acrolein
  • Sources
  • Mobile sources
  • Point Sources 9 TPY
  • HQgt1 at all sites
  • Predominately Diesel emissions

35
Regional Sources
  • Propionaldehyde is high throughout the county
  • Highest in Fall
  • Formaldehyde, Carbon Tetrachloride, and
    Chloromethane are on par with nation

36
Small Local Sources
  • Benzene in Avalon
  • Neville Industry
  • Mobile sources
  • Toluene both sites
  • Industry
  • Mobile sources

37
Large Regional Sources
  • Chlorinated Compounds downtown
  • Hydrogen sulfide and styrene at Avalon

38
Air Toxics Health Risks
Cancer Respiratory Problems Birth
Defects Neurological issues Developmental
Problems Other health issues
Air Toxics
  • Two types of risk
  • Cancer chronic
  • Non-Cancer Acute, intermediate or chronic
  • Risks are modeled using a linear no-threshold
    model

39
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40
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41
Regional Pollutants Formaldehyde Carbon
Tetrachloride
42
Local plumes contribute to elevated exposure
Toluene
43
Determining Sources Increased Resolutions of
Hourly measurements
44
Increases Measurement Resolution
45
Neville Island Downtown
  • Plume events drive local exposure

46
Benzene
  • Mobile Sources
  • Industrial Sources
  • High Relative to the National Data

47
Water Treatment Factor
0
30
330
60
300
90
270
Tetrachloroethylene
120
240
ACSA
Toluene
150
210
180
Factor Contribution vs. Wind Direction
ACSA Emission Profile
PMF Factor
48
Inlet for GCMS/FID
Automated Valve Assembly
Compound traps
Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Flame
Ionization Detector
49
Plume Events
Neville Island Downtown
Styrene Toluene Benzene
  • 40 Compounds were measured hourly

50
Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF)
Measured Data
PMF solves
compound
c11 c12 c13 c21 c22 c23 c31 c32 c33
time
scores loadings
compound
source
fs11 fs12 fs21 fs22 fs31 fs32
a11 a12 a13 a21 a22 a23
source
time
  • Main issue Identifying factor
  • Event profiles
  • Inventory profiles

51
Measurement Intercomparison Slopes varied from
.3 to 2
52
Quantitative Source Apportionment
Receptor Modeling
Goal To determine emissions rates/source
contributions
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