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53D Wing Safety 101 Critical Days of Summer


53D Wing Safety 101 Critical Days of Summer Summer Critters SAFETY It s an ATTITUDE Reptiles and Snakes Reptiles/Snakes Reptiles and Snakes About Snakes Snakes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 53D Wing Safety 101 Critical Days of Summer

53D Wing Safety 101 Critical Days of Summer
Summer Critters
  • Its an ATTITUDE

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Reptiles/Snakes

Reptiles and Snakes
  • About Snakes
  • Snakes are reptiles. Reptiles are cold-blooded,
    have skin covered with scales, and lay eggs.
    (Some snakes don't actually lay their eggs, but
    hold them inside until they hatch.) Snakes have
    no legs and no ears. Skilled predators, snakes
    help maintain the balance of nature by eating
    prey that reproduces frequently, everything from
    earthworms to rabbits. Snakes are especially
    important in the control of rodents such as mice
    and rats.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Venomous Snakes in Texas
  • Texas is home to around 115 species and
    subspecies of snakes. The 15 venomous snakes in
    Texas make up less than 15 percent of the total
    number of snakes in the state. They are separated
    into four categories
  • Coral snakes
  • Copperheads
  • Cottonmouths (Water moccasins)
  • Rattlesnakes.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Coral Snake
  • Only one species of coral snake is native to
    Texas. Shy and rarely seen, it has, in order,
    brilliant red, yellow and black colors. (Other,
    harmless snakes have similar colors in a
    different order. The rhyme "red and yellow kill a
    fellow" has helped many remember that the coral
    snake's red and yellow colors touch, but the
    harmless milk snake's red and yellow don't
    touch.) The coral snake has a small mouth, and is
    usually non-aggressive. Its bites are dangerous,
    but extremely rare.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • What is a Pit Viper?
  • A pit viper is a type of venomous snake.
    Copperheads, cottonmouths and rattlesnakes are
    called pit-vipers because they have a pit near
    each nostril which is highly sensitive to heat.
    This pit helps the snake in locating warm-blooded

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Copperheads
  • With their bands of gray and/or brown, the four
    subspecies of Texas copperheads are colored to
    blend in with leaf-covered forest floors. It's
    possible to stare right at a copperhead without
    seeing it. Fortunately, copperheads are the least
    dangerous poisonous snake. Because they are so
    well camouflaged, most bites occur when a snake
    is accidentally picked up or sat or laid on.
    Always use care when picking up or flipping over
    logs, boards, old tin or other items where
    copperheads may be resting.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Cottonmouths
  • The cottonmouth, or water moccasin, rarely strays
    far from water and can be found in marshes,
    swamps, ponds, lakes, ditches, and canals in East
    and Central Texas and along the Gulf coast. It is
    a stubby, muscular snake and can grow to nearly
    six feet. Moccasins can bite underwater. These
    snakes can be very defensive and sometimes
    aggressive. Swimmers, bathers and anglers on
    river banks should always keep an eye open for
    these snakes.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • Rattlesnakes
  • Nine kinds of rattlesnakes are found in Texas,
    including the Desert Massasauga .
  • Rattlesnakes usually "rattle" before striking, but

if they are totally surprised, they may strike
before rattling.
Reptiles and Snakes
  • Snake venom is saliva, a highly modified saliva,
    and is produced by modified saliva glands.  It is
    a cocktail of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of
    different proteins and enzymes.

Reptiles and Snakes
Reptiles and Snakes
  • Preventing Snake Bites
  • Watching where you step, put your hands, or sit
    down is one of the best ways to prevent snake
    bites. Poisonous snakes live on or near the
    ground and often like rocks, wood piles and other
    spots that offer both a place to sun and a place
    to hide. Snakes avoid your huge body, but will
    definitely bite if stepped on or otherwise
    trapped. Most bites occur in and around the
    ankle. About 99 percent of all bites occur below
    the knee, except when someone accidentally picks
    up or falls on the snake.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • The fangs of venomous snakes, though long and
    sharp, are relatively fragile and easily
    deflected or broken. These fangs usually don't
    penetrate canvas tennis shoes and almost never
    penetrate leather shoes or boots. Watching where
    you step and wearing boots in tall grass can
    prevent most snake bites.
  • Snakes are not something to be feared, but rather
    a creature to be respected as a fascinating
    member of the outdoors.

Reptiles and Snakes
  • It is important to remember that not every snake
    is venomous, and that, while the very mention of
    the word often sends chills up the spine of many
    people, snakes do have an important role in our
    Texas ecosystem.

Their contribution in controlling rodents can
hardly be understated!
Reptiles and Snakes
  • Equally important is an understanding that
    envenomation is a defensive mechanism for the
    snake - snakes do not sit in the grass waiting
    for the unfortunate human to come by. Nor do they
    pursue or hunt humans. Bites are usually a result
    of the snake being surprised or cornered, or from
    someone handling snakes.

Safety Around the Home
  • Snakes in general, occur around a home for the
    specific purposes of seeking food and shelter.
    Keeping these things in mind provides us with
    guidelines to help prevent snakebite around the

Safety Around the Home
  • Keep wood piles, brush piles, trash dumps and
    livestock pens as far as possible from the
    residence. When working in these areas, exercise
    caution. Never put an arm or leg into something
    if you can not see the bottom.
  • Keep storage areas and barns as neat as possible.
    Treat materials stored on the floor as possible
    snake shelters. Treat overturned boats, tarps and
    similar objects as potential shelter for
    transient snakes moving through the area.

Safety Around the Home
  • Remember snakes are adept at finding their way
    through small openings. Keep this in mind when
    entering crawl spaces, basements, garages and
    similar areas.

Safety in the Field
  • Since venomous snakes are common in the rural
    areas of Texas, it is important for ranchers,
    hunters, rural residents, outdoor enthusiasts and
    other that frequent these areas to exercise
  • Be careful where you put your hands and feet -
    don't reach or step until you can see the bottom.
  • Never step over a log without first seeing what
    is on the other side. If you must move a log -
    use a long stick or garden tool first, to ensure
    snakes are neither under, on or around these
    favored habitats.

Safety in the Field
  • Use a flashlight when moving about, even in
  • your home yard, at night.
  • Animal burrows make excellent habitat for snakes
    - don't reach in without first checking.
  • Wear protective clothing if working in areas
    where you suspect snakes nearby. Heavy footwear,
    snake proof trousers and/or leggings will help
    reduce your risk.
  • Freeze when snakes are known to be nearby until
    you know where they are. Allow the snake to
    retreat. If you must move, back slowly and
    carefully away from the snake.

First Aid
  • First Aid for snake bites can prevent disability,
    disfigurement or death if it is applied
    effectively. The recommendations have changed
    drastically over the years, and remaining
    informed on effective first aid should be a
    priority of everyone working in snake habitat.
  • Assume envenomation has occurred even before
    symptoms appear.

First Aid
  • Identify the species of venomous snake with care.
    This could help with the medical treatment but
    will complicate the situation if we have more
    than one victim.
  • Keep the victim and yourself as calm as possible.
  • Know and treat for any symptoms of shock.
  • Wash the bite area with a disinfectant soap.
  • Remove restrictive clothing/jewelry in the area
    of the bite.
  • Prevent movement of the bitten extremity.
  • Get medical attention as soon as possible.
  • Under no circumstances should you cut between the
    punctures, or suck the venom out or apply
    electric shock.

First Aid
  • Decide how serious the bite is by considering
  •  The age, size and general health of the patient.
    A small child or elderly individual will
    probably react much more severely than a regular
  •  The depth, location and number of bites. A
    single, glancing blow by the fangs is much less
    dangerous than multiple wounds or wounds that
    penetrate the flesh deeply. A bite that
    penetrates a blood vessel is extremely dangerous.
  • The least dangerous bites occur on the
    extremities and in fatty tissue. Bites on the
    head or trunk are usually fatal. 

First Aid
  • The duration of the bite. The longer the bite,
  • the greater the amount of venom that may be
  • Clothing. A snake that bites through several
    layers of clothing will not leave as much venom
    as a snake that strikes bare skin.
  •  Maturity, type, and size of the snake. Small
    snakes usually do not produce enough venom to
    seriously harm an adult.

First Aid
  • Condition of the fangs and venom sacs. More
    venom will be injected if the fangs and venom
    sacs are in good condition.
  •  How angry or fearful a snake is. More venom
    will be injected if the snake is angry or fearful.

Preventing Snake Bites
  • 1. Be aware of your surroundings at all times.
    Don't just blindly wander through woods, weeds,
    trails, bushes, and the like.
  • 2. Avoid specific snake habitats like brush
    piles, debris mounds, logjams, root systems,
    abandoned buildings, watery areas, "cover" in
    general. Remember, they may be anywhere else
  • 3. Wear leather shoes or boots at least ankle
    high or better when walking in suspected snake
  • 4. Never sit or climb (feet and hands), or step
    over obstacles anywhere without first looking
    carefully prior to taking the move.

Preventing Snake Bites
  • 5. Observation is critical to avoidance - learn
    to check around with a sweeping glance for
    anything that seems out of place, for this may be
    your subconscious notice of a camouflaged critter
    lurking close by.
  • 6. Near water of any kind, be aware that many
    species "hang out" there and will likely be quite
    hidden from view while they are sleeping or
    hunting - just be more alert.

Preventing Snake Bites
  • 7. Remember that snakes have needs for shelter,
    water, and food basically in that order just to
    survive, so be aware of these "needs" and be
    alert when these are especially present in any
  • 8. Try not to stalk along quietly as snakes have
    many sensing devices to warn them of your
    presence - let these work freely with noise,
    movements, etc. and thus not make the snake think
    it may be the target of a predator when it would
    need to become more aggressive!

Preventing Snake Bites
  • 9. Take a pet along on outings since these
    animals have a much more effective set of senses
    when it comes to snakes - a point guard is often
    a good confidence builder and may serve as a
    beneficial warning.
  • 10. When a snake is spotted, leave it alone! So
    many bite victims have chosen to hit the snake or
    try to catch it. Remember, where there is one,
    there are likely others! Be alert!

Preventing Snake Bites
  • 11. Learn more about snakes in the area where you
    live or play so that you better understand their
    capabilities and behaviors.
  • 12. Learn basic snakebite first aid. Prepare
    yourself and always expect the unexpected..
  • 13. Be in tune with your environment - know that
    most critters, including snakes, try to avoid
    human contact. Practice skills that make you more
    aware of what is happening and what critical
    conditions are present as you move through the
    fields and streams.

Gila Monsters
  • Gila monster Our largest native US lizard comes
    in a gaudy color but is surprisingly hard to
    find. It spends over 98 of its time underground
    or at its den entrance. Though shy, the gila
    monster has a bad bite and clamps down with a
    tenacious hold. Venom is chewed in through grooves

in rear teeth of the lower jaw. Though it packs a
powerful nerve toxin, most prey are killed by the
bite, not the venom.
Gila Monsters
  • Gila monsters are listed as a threatened species,
    and state laws protect them throughout their US
  • On an interesting note, a component of Gila
    monster venom called Exendin-4 is currently being
    investigated as a promising new drug to treat
    type 2 diabetes. This peptide stimulates
    secretion of insulin in the presence of elevated
    blood glucose levels.
  • It also has the effect of slowing gastric
    emptying. Phase I clinical studies have recently
    begun with this exciting investigational drug.

Rodents Rodents can carry a variety of diseases
and behave in ways that are likely to contaminate
food and water. Keep all food and snacks stored
in impenetrable containers.
Insect Bites and Stings
  • Bites/Stings

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Insect bites and stings are common, and most are
    considered minor. It is only when the insect is
    poisonous or when the patient has an allergic
    reaction and runs the risk of developing
    anaphylactic shock that the situation becomes an
    emergency. Even under those conditions, accurate
    diagnosis and prompt treatment can save lives and
    prevent permanent tissue damage.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • The normal reaction to an insect sting is a
    sharp, stinging pain followed by an itchy,
    swollen, painful raised area.

The swelling may be there for several days but
usually goes away within 24 hours. Local
reactions are rarely serious or life-threatening
and can be treated with cold compresses.
Insect Bites/Stings
  • The stinging insects that most often cause
    allergic reactions belong to a group of the
    hymenoptera, the insects with membranous wings.

These include bees, wasps, hornets, and yellow
jackets. Stings from wasps and bees are the most
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Bees have a barbed stinger at the base of their
    abdomen which carries their venom. The bee forces
    the tip of the stinger through the skin of the
    victim and leaves the stinger, poison sack and
    attached muscle in the victim's skin. It may take
    hundreds of bee stings to inflict a fatal toxic
    dose of venom in a healthy adult.

However, one sting can cause a fatal anaphylactic
(allergic) reaction in a hypersensitive person.
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Only worker-honeybees can sting. The sting of the
    honeybee has only a defensive use. What is more,
    it is not possible for the insect to tear it out
    of the skin. It remains there with a part of the
    guts, so the honeybee dies. 
  • The poison is called apitoxin and is actually a
    colorless, limpid, bitter liquid with a pleasant
    smell. Its effects were known in the past as a
    successful method of healing rheumatism.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Africanized honey bees were imported to Brazil
    in 1956 to enhance honey production in the
    tropics. Some of the bees escaped into the wild
    and have gradually moved towards North America.
  • They are the temperamental cousin of the more
    common European honey bee. They often are called
    "killer bees", but in reality their stings are
    less potent and painful than the common bee
    sting. They defend their nesting sites very
    aggressively, sometimes stinging their victims
    hundreds of times.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • What to do if you are attacked
  •  Run as quickly as you can away from the bees.
    Do not flail or swing your arms at them, as this
    may further annoy them.
  •  Because bees target the head and eyes, cover
    your head as much as you can without slowing your
  •  Get to the shelter or closest house or car as
    quickly as possible. Don't worry if a few bees
    become trapped in your home. If several bees
    follow you into your car, drive about a quarter
    of a mile and let the bees out of the car.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Wasps
  • The wasp itself is a vegetarian but the larvae
    feed only on insects and arachnids. Therefore,
    as a loving mother, it is forced to hunt. 
  • The neurotoxin cannot cause death but it can lead
    to a clinical picture equal to the one of a
    honeybee sting. Wasp stings are more dangerous as
    a rule. It is important to notice that the sting
    rarely remains in the skin and the wasp usually
    flies away freely. 

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Preventive measures
  • Destroy all nests around your living place
  • Keep your feet covered outdoors
  • Avoid bright colored clothing/perfumery products
  • Prefer to wear tight rather than loose clothing
  • When you encounter the insect, stand still or
    retreat slowly. If it lands on skin, quickly
    brush it off. 
  • Use a personal first aid kit in individuals with
    a history of allergy

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Remember that wasps usually only sting when
    provoked, and having wasps around your home and
    garden can actually be an excellent way to
    naturally control pests.

A single wasp can remove as many as 225 insects
an hour from your home or garden!
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Black Widow Spider
  • The black widow is a spider with a shiny black
    body, thin legs and an hourglass shaped red/white
    mark on its abdomen. The female is much larger
    than the male and is one of the largest spiders
    in the United States. Males generally do not
    bite. Females bite only when hungry, agitated or
    protecting the egg sac. The black widow is not
    aggressive. They are usually found in dry,
    secluded, dimly lit areas. More than 80
    percent of all bite victims are adult men. 

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Black widow spider bites are the leading cause of
    death from spider bites in the United States.
    The venom is 14 times more toxic than rattlesnake

It is a neurotoxin that causes little local
reaction but does cause pain and spasms in the
larger muscle groups of the body within 30
minutes to three hours. Severe bites can cause
respiratory failure, coma and death.
Insect Bites/Stings
Brown Recluse Spider
  • The bite of the brown spider is a serious medical
    condition. The bite is non-healing and causes
    tissue death. Sometimes surgery is necessary.
  • The bite causes only a mild stinging sensation if
    any at all. Victims often are unaware they have
    been bitten. Several hours after the bite, the
    following signs and symptoms begin to result

Insect Bites/Stings
  • A small white area appears surrounded by a margin
    of redness, which may produce a mild itching
  • A blister appears surrounded by mild swelling and
  • A "bulls-eye" or "target" lesion develops.
  • There may be fever, chills, rash, hives, nausea
    and pain in the joints over the next few days.
  • The target lesion will enlarge over the next few
    days and produce extensive tissue death. There
    is no anti-venom. The lesion will have to be
    soaked in antiseptic and possibly antibiotics.
    Surgery may be necessary to cut out the dead

Insect Bites/Stings
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Scorpions
  •  There are many species of scorpions, but only
    one is potentially lethal. This is the bark
    scorpion. It is one of the smaller species being
    one to one and a half inches long. It prefers
    places dark and cool, woodpiles, palm trees,
    decorative bark. The severity of the sting

depends on the amount of venom injected but
scorpion stings can be fatal. Ninety percent of
all scorpion stings occur on the hands.
Insect Bites/Stings
  • When innocent bites go bad. Not all bug bites are
    harmless. If someone in your family has had a bad
    reaction to a bee or wasp sting, for example,
    it's a good idea to keep an emergency kit
    available. (Your dermatologist can tell you what
    to put in the kit.)

It's possible for a person to die from a severe
reaction to an insect sting.
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Fire Ants
  • Anyone who has lived in the South during the
    summer months has already had the unpleasant
    experience of being stung by fire ants. Fire ants
    are here to stay, but you don't have to put up
    with them in your yard or house.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Ants are tiny insects and their size varies from
    3mm to 3 cm. They are mostly drab colored -
    rusty, brown, black, and some can be yellow,
    green, purple or blue. Ants have a large head and
    a slender, oval abdomen joined to the thorax or
    midsection, by a small waist. The antennae are

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Addiction? Did you know that certain birds become
    addicted to ant poison? They sit on an ant-hill
    and let the ants crawl onto them. At that time,
    the bird loosens its wings, stares and looks
  • The biological reason for this phenomenon is the
    insecticide effect of the ants formic acid,
    protecting from parasites.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • The activities of ants occasionally bring them
    into conflict with humans. Some tropical ants,
    such as the Army ants and Driver ants, as well as
    the Australian bulldog-ant can cause painful
    wounds. The Fire ant sting leaves pus-filled,
    itchy bump that is easily infected. Ant
    envenomation may be very serious even fatal in
    some individual cases. Apart from the swelling,
    rash, facial edema and wheezing, life threatening
    systemic reactions such as shock, apnea, cardiac
    arrest and death may occur in allergic persons.

Insect Bites/Stings
Fire Ant Bites
Insect Bites/Stings
  • Signs/Symptoms of an allergic reaction include
  • Burning pain and itching at the bite site
  • Itching on the palms and soles of the feet
  • Itching on the neck and the groin
  • General body swelling
  • A nettle-like rash over the entire body
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Faintness, weakness
  • Nausea
  • Shock
  • Unconsciousness

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Interesting Facts About Ants
  • Queen ants in captivity have been known to live
    as long as 20 yrs.
  • Ants hate vinegar.
  • Some ants have eyes, some don't.
  • There is only one general in an army ant
    column...a queen.
  • South American soldier ants march about a mile
    every 3 hours.
  • Ants (and man) are the only animals that wage war
    in battle formations.
  • Ants follow an ant trail. If it intersects with
    itself to complete a circle, they may walk in
    that circle until they fall dead. Ants don't
  • Only female ants can sting.
  • Ants hate termites. Termites hate ants.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • One of the greatest economic impacts and dangers
    posed by the red imported fire ant results from
    short circuits and fires in electrical systems
    after fire ants move into circuit breakers,
    relays, motors, and other electrical devices. Why
    the ants are drawn to them is still something of
    a mystery, but researchers at Texas Tech are
    close to providing some methods for protecting
    electrical systems from these problem ants.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Being aware of your surroundings at all times is
    the way to avoid everything from car wrecks to
    rattlesnake bites. If fire ants do crawl onto
    your skin, they first bite with their mandibles
    in order to anchor for the thrust of the sting.
    As soon as you feel this pinching sensation,
    quickly sweep the ants off before they actually
    sting and you can avoid most of the damage! If
    you must work in proximity to fire ants, wear
    rubber boots and gloves powered with talc.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Some bug bites can cause bacterial infections
    (like impetigo). People with impetigo usually
    notice honey-colored, crusty patches that show up
    after they start scratching. Severe itching can
    also cause skin ulcers, scars, changes in skin
    color, swelling, allergic reactions, and
    thickened skin.
  • Some insects (ticks, for example) can cause
    serious illnesses, like Lyme disease and Rocky
    Mountain spotted fever. Many Northern,
    mid-Atlantic, and Western states are home to deer
    herds, and the ticks they carry.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Ticks
  • Each summer, new cases of tick-borne illnesses
    like Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease,
    and Ehrlichiosis surge in the United States. Hot
    zones for tick trouble include the Northeastern
    and Southeastern states, as well as parts of the
    Midwest, Texas, and California. Almost anywhere
    ticks lurk, however, you could find yourself in

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Although it is best to have any tick bite
    examined by a doctor, this is especially true if
    a rash more than an inch wide appears at the site
    of a bite. It could be a sign of Lyme disease. If
    you develop flu-like symptoms any time within a
    month after being bitten, it's also important to
    see a physician. The symptoms could be a sign of
    Ehrlichiosis, another serious tick-borne disease.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • How to keep the bugs away. Here are some ways to
    keep bugs from biting you.
  • When you're outside, DO
  • Make sure your picnic area is screened in.
  • Use insect repellent candles or electric bug
  • Wear a hat outdoors to cover your hair.
  • Wear light-colored clothing that's snug at the
    wrist and ankles.
  • Keep garbage cans closed and clean.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Wear long pants and tuck the legs into socks or
    boots. Some experts recommend putting tape around
    the area where pants and socks meet for added
  • Consider spraying insect repellent containing
    DEET on clothes.
  • Stick to the middle of hiking trails to avoid
    brushing against leaves or grasses where ticks
    lie in wait.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Wipe off sweat as soon as possible. (It attracts
  • If you've been swimming, shake out your towels
    and clothes before you use them.
  • Use DEET repellents!
  • Keep emergency department and poison control
    center phone numbers handy (and a kit if any
    family member is seriously allergic to stings).

Insect Bites/Stings
  • When you're outside, DON'T
  • Wear perfume, perfumed sun lotions, or hair
  • Wash with scented soaps, creams, or cosmetics.
  • Wear dark-colored clothes.
  • Go near rotting fruit (like apples that have
    fallen from trees) in picnic areas.
  • Kick or move logs.
  • Wear jewelry or shiny buckles.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • How much DEET do you need? If you're spending a
    couple of hours in the yard, try an insect
    repellent that's 10 to 30 DEET. If you're going
    camping or taking a long hike, you may need to
    use a repellent that's 40 to 50 DEET. Two
    tablespoons should be sufficient to cover the
    arms, legs, and face of the average adult. Note
    Kids shouldn't use more than 10 DEET at any

Insect Bites/Stings
  • Once you get home, inspect yourself carefully.
    Use a mirror to check difficult-to-observe parts
    of your body.
  • If you find a tick, don't panic. Removing it
    quickly can help prevent the transmission of
    disease. Forget the advice about using a lighted
    match or cigarette to force the tick to back out.
    Covering it with Vaseline doesn't work, either.
  • Instead, grasp the tick with fine tweezers as
    close to your skin as possible, and pull straight
    out. Then clean the area with a disinfectant.

Insect Bites/Stings
  • An Unusual Bite
  • A Tick Bite (Do Not Remove Tick)
  • Multiple Bites
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