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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Masters/PhD

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Masters/PhD LECTURE REVIEW OF LITERATURE Assoc. Prof. Dr. Parmjit Singh OBJECTIVES By the end of this lecture you should: Understand what a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Masters/PhD


1
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYMasters/PhD
  • LECTURE
  • REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  • Assoc. Prof. Dr. Parmjit Singh

2
OBJECTIVES
  • By the end of this lecture you should
  • Understand what a literature review is
  • Discuss the main functions a review of literature
    serves in research
  • Differentiate among major reference sources in
    education
  • Detail a systematic progression of steps in
    organising the review of literature
  • Write a report of a literature review

3
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  • A literature review is basically a synthesis of
    relevant and significant literature on a research
    problem by accredited scholars and researchers in
    the specified area of interest.
  • Wiersma (1995 406), points out that the review
    of the literature provides the background and
    context for the research problem. It should
    establish the need for the research and indicate
    that the writer is knowledgeable about the area."

4
PURPOSE OF LIT. REVIEW
  • To convey to the readers what knowledge and ideas
    have been established with regards to the
    research topic, and what the limitations are.
  • A review of related literature will comprise the
    following
  • important findings within the stipulated research
    area
  • areas that still need to be investigated, and
  • whether your research is likely to add new
    information to the existing body of knowledge.

5
FUNCTIONS OF LIT. REVIEW
  • Enables researchers (Rs) to define the frontiers
    of their field
  • Helps Rs to place their questions in perspective
  • Aids Rs. to limit their research questions and to
    classify and define the concepts of the study
  • A critical review often leads to insights into
    the reasons for contradictory results in an area
  • Helps Rs learn which methodologies have proven
    useful and which seem less promising.
  • Avoids unintentional replication of previous
    studies
  • Places Rs in a better position to interpret the
    significance of their own results

6
FUNCTIONS OF LIT. REVIEW
  • Shows your knowledge on the subject being
    investigated
  • Indicates aspects of a research topic that have
    been studied adequately and those that have not
  • Presents challenges that one may encounter in the
    study
  • It demonstrates your understanding knowledge of
    the theoretical and research issues related to
    your RQ
  • It displays your awareness of what has been done
    so that you do not reinvent the wheel.

7
FUNCTIONS OF LIT. REVIEW
  • It exhibits your ability to critically evaluate
    the information in the relevant literature and
    formulate questions that need further research
  • It shows your ability to synthesize all the
    results into a summary of what is known and what
    is not known.
  • If the information obtained in the current
    literature exhibits a gap, you should be able to
    demonstrate how your research will help narrow
    the gap or make a contribution to the existing
    field of knowledge.

8
TYPES OF SOURCES
  • General References
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources

9
GENERAL REFERENCES
  • General References used to locate other sources
  • Most frequently used general references in
    educational research Education Index and SSCI
    (Social Science Citation Index)
  • Others include Government Publications,
    Dictionaries, Statistical Sources, The Internet,

10
GENERAL SOURCES
  • Alkins Encyclopedia of Educational Research
    (1992) 4 Volumes approx 200 topics contains a
    critical synthesis and interpretation of reported
    educational research
  • Walberg and Haertels International Encyclopedia
    of Enducational Evaluation (1990).
  • International Encyclopedia of Education
    Encyclopedia of Higher Education with CD-ROM
    entitled The Complete Encyclopedia
  • Handbook of Research on Teaching ( Gage 1963,
    Travers 1973, Wittrock 1985) review literature
    in field of teaching

11
PERIODICAL INDEXES CITATION INDEXES
  • The ERIC Database
  • Educational Resources Information Centre (ERIC)
    established by US Dept. of Education in 1966 to
    collect, store and disseminate information on
    education
  • Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI)
  • Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI)

12
PRIMARY SOURCES
  • Primary sources are publications in which
    researchers report the findings of their
    investigations.
  • Primary sources usually represent original,
    creative thinking such autobiographies, diaries,
    literary works, eyewitnesses, press reports and
    historical documents.
  • The value of the source will be determined by the
    source itself, e.g. a newspaper report on a
    certain situation could be unreliable if the
    reporter approached the event from a biased
    angle.
  • Descriptors are key words used by researchers to
    locate primary sources

13
SECONDARY SOURCES
  • Secondary sources are normally derived from the
    primary source
  • Secondary Sources publications where authors
    describe work of others
  • It is important that one study the secondary
    source carefully especially if these are
    translations that may have changed the original
    interpretation of the primary source.
  • The value of secondary sources depends greatly on
    the insight of the reporter, the accuracy of the
    interpretations and evaluations and the
    usefulness of the conclusions.

14
COMPUTER SEARCH (WWW)
  • Fast
  • Fairly inexpensive
  • Current
  • Access to wide variety of materials
  • Varied formats
  • Immediacy (open 24 hours)
  • Provide printouts
  • Provide researchers to search using more than one
    descriptor

15
COMPUTER SEARCH (WWW)
  • LIMITATIONS
  • Information disorganised
  • Time commitment
  • Lack credibility (sometimes)
  • Uncertain reliability
  • Ethical violations
  • Undue reliance

16
SOME CONSIDERATIONS
  • Length
  • Accuracy
  • Are factual statements supported with
    bibliographies, endnotes, links to useful
    sources?
  • Are statistics given dates are the sources
    cited?

17
SOME CONSIDERATIONS
  • Timeliness
  • When was information originally published?
  • When was web-based information last updated?
  • If links to outside Web pages are provided, are
    the links still active or are they linking to
    sites that have moved or changed address?
  • Useful introduction to Internet The Whole
    Internet The Next Generation A Completely New
    Edition of the First and best Users Guide to the
    Internet. (Krol Conner Sax, 1999), The Internet
    for Dummies (Levine, Baroudi Young, 2000).

18
STEPS IN A LITERATURE SEARCH
  • 1. Define the research problem as precisely as
    possible
  • 2. Locate relevant secondary sources
  • 3. Select appropriate textbooks (1-2)
  • 4. Formulate search terms (key words/phrases)
    pertinent to research problem.
  • 5. Search the general references for relevant
    primary sources.
  • 6. Read and summarise key points in the sources.

19
REPORT
  • Literature Review report should consist the
    following
  • Introduction
  • The body of review
  • A Summary
  • The researchers conclusion
  • Bibilography

20
WRITING A LITERATURE REVIEW 
  • STEP 1 Contextualize the research
  • STEP 2 Locate the resources
  • STEP 3 Read the literature
  • STEP 4 Compile and summarize the
  • information
  • STEP 5 Organise the literature review
  • STEP 6 Report the literature review
  •  

21
POINTS TO CONSIDER
  • At this initial stage, look into the theoretical
    framework of the research problem to demonstrate
    your familiarity with present currents and
    concerns.
  • Determine the focus in the specified fields
    theoretical themes.
  • The theoretical review presented must also
    justify the research question and help determine
    your research design.
  • Begin with general reference texts and move on to
    more specific materials such as journal articles,
    dissertations and other scholarly works.

22
POINTS TO CONSIDER
  • While reading, focus of the following information
    and make short notes
  • Why, where and by whom the research was conducted
  • What were the underlying assumptions of the study
  • How was the methodology conducted
  • What were the major findings
  • What contribution did the study make to the
    existing body of knowledge in the particular
    field
  • Which references are most useful to ones study

23
POINTS TO CONSIDER
  • After reading, compile and summarize the
    information
  • Make short notes or write an abstract of the
    relevant studies.
  • Next compile all the summarized information into
    an organizer such as database of a computer
    using software programmes like endnotes or
    electronic notes.
  • If you are one of those traditional paper and
    pen types you can write it down using 3x5 cards.
  • Remember each card should only contain
    information from a particular source and the
    topic being researched.

24
POINTS TO CONSIDER
  • Generally, a literature review is developed in
    such a way that it moves from general to specific
    perspectives.
  • It can also be presented chronologically or
    historically. Here one can either start by
    reviewing the past to the present / current
    research studies and beliefs or from the latest
    research to the least recent research /
    materials.
  • Another way is to organize it in such a way that
    each variable and research question /hypothesis
    of the research is substantiated by the relevant
    literature.
  • The writing of the sections is usually based on
    the variables mentioned in the title of your
    research
  • For certain research topics that are
    controversial or have differing schools of
    thought it is best to ensure that the review of
    literature is presented in a balanced manner.

25
Writing Lit. Review Logical Argument / A
Critique
  • A was the earliest writers to discuss . . .
  • B made a valuable contribution to the discussion
    of this problem . . .
  • C argued that D had not used the appropriate
    methods . . .
  • In the 1990s E proposed a completely different
    approach. . .
  • The best study of this problem is perhaps is by
    F . . .

26
ACTIVITY 1
  • The question / hypothesis in my study is _______
  • The general reference(s) I consulted
    was(were)_________________
  • The search term(s) I used were
  • 3 Journals I consulted were_____
  • My literature review report outline is as
    follows________________________

27
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION
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