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Managing Fatigue


Managing Fatigue Training Program for Supervisors and Gas Controllers Managing Fatigue For the Employee What is Fatigue Signs of fatigue What causes fatigue Fatigue ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Managing Fatigue

Managing Fatigue
  • Training Program for Supervisors and Gas

  • Managing Fatigue
  • For the Employee
  • What is Fatigue
  • Signs of fatigue
  • What causes fatigue
  • Fatigue mitigation strategies
  • Additionally, for the Supervisor
  • Fatigue regulations
  • Case Law Examples
  • Utility procedures

  • What is Fatigue
  • A reduction in physical and/or mental capability
    as the result of physical, mental or emotional
    exertion which may impair nearly all physical
    abilities including strength speed reaction
    time coordination decision making or balance.
  • Source International Maritime Organization,
    Maritime Safety Committee Circular

  • Signs of Fatigue

Signs of Fatigue
  • Constant yawning
  • Blurred vision
  • Heavy or sore eyes
  • Poor concentration
  • Slowed reaction time
  • Poor judgment
  • Speech slurred
  • Headaches
  • Decreased ability to exert force
  • Leg pain and cramps
  • Loss of appetite
  • Giddiness
  • Decreased ability to pay attention
  • Irregular heart beats
  • Heaviness in arms and legs
  • Decreased eye-hand coordination

  • What Causes Fatigue
  • Lack of Sleep
  • Quality of Sleep
  • Biological Clock (circadian rhythm) factors
  • Shift work
  • Extended Hours
  • Health (diet and/or illness)
  • Ingested chemicals (alcohol, drugs, caffeine)

  • Lack of Sleep (an off duty issue)
  • Individuals needs are unique
  • Recommended 7 8 hours of sleep per 24 hour
  • 5 stages of Sleep
  • Stage 1 Light Sleep - less than 10 of a
    night's sleep. If woken up, will claim was not
  • Stages 2-4 Deep Sleep - approximately 65 of a
    nights sleep metabolic rates vary between the
  • Stage 5 - REM Sleep Rapid Eye Movement Sleep
    approximately 25 of a night's sleep most vivid
  • Each cycle takes about 90 minutes 5-1/2 cycles
    per 8 hour night
  • Need all five stages for the bodys recovery from
    daily fatigue

  • Quality of Sleep (an off duty issue)
  • Sleep should be Uninterrupted
  • Try for long periods of sleep
  • Short naps can improve alertness for a short time
    (10 minute nap alertness improved for about an
    hour), but will not restore the body to normal
  • One seven hour period of sleep is much more
    restorative than seven one hour naps
  • Try for sufficient sleep before any periods you
    anticipate a sleep deficiency

  • Biological Clock
  • Most animals (including Humans) follow a daily
    routine (song birds in the morning, nocturnal
    animals, etc.)
  • Called Circadian Rhythm
  • Scientists have found that the time related
    information is controlled within the hypothalamus
    region of the brain and believe that it
    stimulates the production of a hormone called
    Melatonin. The increase in melatonin levels
    corresponds with the reduction in body
    temperature and alertness.

  • Biological Clock
  • Human Circadian Rhythm is actually on a 25 hour
  • Did you ever notice its easier to stay up late
    than it is to get up early?
  • Jet Lag is a symptom of the body trying to reset
    the biological clock to a new time zone.
  • It is easier to reset when flying east to west
    (You get to sleep-in in the morning) than when
    flying west to east (You have to get up earlier
    than your internal clock expects).
  • The internal clock can only adjust by an hour or
    two each day.
  • This is helped by environmental cues (such as

  • Biological Clock
  • Humans exhibit two Troughs or low points in
  • One between midnight and 6 am
  • One between 2 and 4 pm
  • Fatigue related motor vehicle accidents are
  • Twice as high at 2 pm as they are at 10 am
  • Six times as high at 2 am as they are at 10 am

  • Biological Clock
  • What do the following have in common?
  • Three Mile Island
  • Chernobyl
  • Bhopal
  • Exxon Valdez

  • The Midnight Shift
  • 1979 - Three Mile Island 4 am local time -
    Pressure relief valve opens dumping reactor
    coolant control room operators failed to
    recognize the event. Core meltdown
  • 1984 Bhopal, India shortly after midnight
    Methyl Isocyantate Gas (MIC) leak kills 3,800
  • 1986 - Chernobyl Reactor disaster 1223 am
    128 am local time - critical control room
    operator error in failing to reset a controller.
    Core meltdown and release
  • 1989 Exxon Valdez 1204 am ship hits Bligh
    Reef and spills 10.8 Million gallons of oil

  • Shift Work
  • Shift Work Considerations
  • Fixed shifts are better than rotating shifts.
  • Fixed shifts allow the body to adjust to the new
    circadian rhythm
  • Rotating Shifts require constant adjustments
  • If Rotating Shifts are required
  • Set up longer periods between rotation. Two to
    three month rotations allow the body to adjust
    vs. weekly rotations
  • Rotate the shifts clockwise vs. counterclockwise
    (easier to stay up later than to get up earlier)
  • Consider 0200 1000, 1000 1800, 1800
    0200 shifts to allow each shift some sleep time
    during normal sleep periods.

  • Shift Work
  • Shift Workers experience sleep deficits as their
    bodies fight the normal circadian rhythm and
    attempt to adjust to new schedules

  • Extended Hours
  • Normal work day and week 8 hours per day and 5
    days per week
  • Any schedule that requires more continuous hours
    or more consecutive days should be considered
    extended or unusual
  • Often used to maximize scarce personnel resources
    or during response and recovery phase of
  • OSHA recommendations
  • Managers should limit use of extended hours
  • Additional break periods or meals should be
  • Tasks that require heavy physical labor should be
    performed at the beginning of the shift
  • Managers and Supervisors should diligently
    monitor for the signs and symptoms of fatigue and
    plan for adequate replacement personnel

  • Extended Hours
  • A study by sleep researchers in Australia found
  • A person kept awake for 17 hours will exhibit
    behaviors and performance of someone with a Blood
    Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.05
  • A person kept awake for 24 hours will exhibit
    behaviors and performance of someone with a BAC
    of 0.10

  • Health Issues (an off-duty issue)
  • Fatigue can be associated with
  • Medical Conditions (such as heart problems) and
  • Illness (common cold or fever)
  • Diet can affect feelings of fatigue
  • Refined sugars can cause a short term energy
    boost but are often followed by a rapid drop in
    blood sugar levels causing weakness and
  • Eating a large meal before bedtime can disrupt
  • Psychological Issues of stress or family worries
    can disrupt sleep
  • There are Sleep Disorders such as insomnia or
    sleep apnea (waking up suddenly due to
    interrupted breathing)

  • Ingesting Chemicals (an off duty issue)
  • Some medications can aggravate fatigue issues by
    causing drowsiness
  • Caffeine can give short duration alertness but
    has side affects such as hypertension, headaches,
    mood swings and anxiety
  • Alcohol is a depressant and should logically help
    someone sleep. However, the important REM sleep
    is disrupted preventing body recovery.

  • Fatigue Mitigation Strategies
  • Develop a pre-sleep routine (warm shower, reading
    a book)
  • Sleep in a dark, quiet, cool environment
  • Avoid alcohol prior to sleep
  • Avoid caffeine at least six hours prior to sleep
  • Eat regular, well balanced meals
  • Drink a sufficient amount of water
  • Exercise regularly
  • Get enough proper sleep

  • Fatigue Mitigation Strategies
  • For Shift Workers who need to sleep during the
  • Make sleep a priority during off-duty hours
  • Install room darkening shades in the bedroom
  • Decrease room temperature
  • Consider ear plugs to block outside noise
  • Put a Do Not Disturb sign outside the door
  • Unplug the telephone
  • Do not exercise prior to sleeping. It raises body
    temperature and heart rate

  • Fatigue Mitigation Strategies
  • For Shift Workers who need to stay alert during
    their shift
  • Exercise when feeling fatigue
  • Schedule short breaks
  • Avoid unhealthy foods during the shift
  • Never rely on medications to enhance alertness
  • Exercise caution when driving home

  • Fatigue Issues for Supervisors

  • Fatigue Regulations
  • U.S. Labor Dept. Wage Hour Laws
  • Social policy to create more jobs and provide
    disincentive for overtime
  • Time a Half
  • Does not limit the number of hours that an
    employee can be required to work nor the number
    of days in a week.
  • Insert state requirements
  • OSHA Regulations
  • None

  • Fatigue Regulations
  • DOT Regulations
  • CDL Driver rest periods are mandated
  • Gas Control Room Management regulation
  • Each operator must implement the following
    methods to reduce the risk associated with
    controller fatigue.
  • Establish shift lengths and schedule rotations
    that provide controllers off duty time sufficient
    to achieve eight hours of continuous sleep
  • Educate Controllers and Supervisors in fatigue
    mitigation strategies and how off-duty activities
    contribute to fatigue
  • Train Controllers and Supervisors to recognize
    the effects of fatigue
  • Establish a maximum limit on Controller
    hours-of-service, which may provide an emergency
    deviation from the maximum limit if necessary for
    the safe operation of a pipeline facility.

  • Case Law Examples
  • Pilgrim v. Fortune Drilling Company
  • Employee worked 12 on / 24 hour off shift with a
    three hour commute each way
  • Supervisor knew he was exhausted but let him
    drive home.
  • Employee hit another vehicle
  • victim sued the employer claiming company should
    have supervised the employee
  • Suit thrown out on appeal

  • Case Law Examples
  • BUT
  • Robertson v. Lemasters
  • Employee worked 27 hours, no break
  • again accident on the way home
  • victim sued employer and won
  • There was an unreasonable risk of injury - The
    employer should have supervised the employee and
    found alternate transportation home.

  • Case Law Examples
  • AND
  • Truitt v. J. H. Kelly Construction Co.
  • Sleepless in Seattle case
  • Employee worked 36 hours straight
  • On his way home he fell asleep, veered off the
    road flipped the car and slammed into a telephone
  • Survived but permanent Brain Damage
  • Case was settled.
  • Employer should have driven him home or put him
    up in a motel.

  • Workers Compensation
  • Designed to limit Liability lawsuits
  • Worker does not have to show negligence on the
    part of the employer to collect Worker's Comp.
    must show only that injury arose out of
  • In turn, Worker gives up the right to sue the
    employer for damages - Called the Worker's
    Compensation Bar

  • Case Law Examples
  • Krushwitz v. McDonalds
  • 18 year old employee worked a 330 8 pm shift
    and then volunteered to work from midnight until
    821 am, was exhausted and told Supervisor he was
    too tired to work an upcoming afternoon shift.
  • Supervisor knew he was exhausted but let him
    drive home
  • He fell asleep at the wheel, hit another vehicle
    head on and was killed. His family sued the
  • Employer used the defense that the Workers
    Compensation Bar applied, that the accident was
    work related and that Workers Compensation was
    the only recourse. The circuit court agreed. But
    this was ultimately overturned by the State
    Supreme Court.
  • Interpretation - Workers Comp does not apply
    during the employee's commuting period. But the
    employer can still be held liable under a
    wrongful death charge for the actions of their
    employees after work.

  • Utility Policy
  • Insert discussion of utility procedures.

  • References
  • Driver fatigue - an accident waiting to happen,
    by academy staff of the Australian Academy of
    Science, June 2006
  • Guidance on Fatigue Mitigation and Management,
    MSC (Marine Safety Committee) Circular 1014,
    International Maritime Organization, June 12,
  • Extended/Unusual Work Shifts, Occupational
    Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),
    September, 2, 2004
  • Sleepless in Seattle injured workers case
    shows hazards of fatigue, Shoop, Julie Gannon,
    Publication Trial, Dec. 1, 1993
  • Personal Financial Health Scott, Diane E., RN
    MSN, Vermont Nurse Connection, Feb. 1, 2008
  • Circadian Rhythms and Shift Work American
    College of Emergency Physicians, September 2003