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The Holy and Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom

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Title: The Holy and Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom


1
The Holy and Divine Liturgy of St John Chrysostom
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  • The point of the liturgy is not to become
    relevant to life, but rather the reverse, to
    make life relevant to the liturgy. On entering
    the church, we leave the world behind, and enter
    a life in heaven surrounded by the angels and the
    saints.

3
This is where I come to church
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The Sydney church, ancient, with a modern twist
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On entering the Church the first thing we see is
the iconostas
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On entering the church the priest says the
beginning prayers
  • These are prayers in front of the iconostas
  • These prayers are said in order to prepare the
    priest and the deacon to have to have the proper
    disposition in order to celebrate the Liturgy.
  • Essentially, we come from the world and enter
    heaven, when we come into the Church. WE are
    surrounded by icons of the angels and saints, and
    thus we need time and a prescribed form in order
    to be able to offer the Liturgy.

13
The Vesting prayers
  • These prayers are said while the priests vests
    himself to celebrate the Divine Liturgy.
  • What are vestments,
  • Why do we have them?
  • Why the prayers?
  • Imperial times

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Byzantine Bishop
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Byzantine Priest and deacon
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Byzantine sub-deacon and server, holding a
byzantine censor.. Note, 12 bells
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Proskomedia
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  • Before the Divine Liturgy begins, the priest and
    a deacon, if one is serving, begin by preparing
    the gifts of bread and wine for use in the
    service. This preparation is itself a
    considerable service. More than simply setting
    aside the bread and wine, a very symbolic ritual
    has developed.

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  • Five loaves of bread are used, reminiscent of the
    five loaves in the wilderness, from which the
    masses were fed. During the proskomedia, the
    priest cuts out a square called the Lamb from the
    main loaf of bread (prosphora). This will be
    consecrated during the Liturgy of the Faithful to
    become the holy body of Christ. He also removes
    small particles and places them on the discos (or
    paten) in commemoration of the Mother of God,
    various saints, and the living and departed
    faithful. The remainder of the bread is blessed
    and distributed to parishioners and visitors
    after the service this bread is called
    antidoron.
  • During the Proskomedia, the priest also blesses
    wine and water, which are poured into the
    chalice. Warm water will be added to the chalice
    after the epiclesis.
  • Naturally, the gifts are censed several times
    during the Proskomedia. The conclusion of the
    Proskomedia leads directly into the beginning of
    the Divine Liturgy.

20
If a bishop begins the Liturgy, he begins it by
blessing the four corners of the world
21
  • The deacon (or priest, if no deacon is serving)
    continues with the Great Ektenia, so called
    because it is longer than most litanies and its
    petitions touch on the needs of the world peace
    and salvation, the Church, her bishops, her
    faithful, captives and their health and
    salvation, deliverance from anger and need. It is
    concluded, as with most litanies, by calling to
    the remembrance of the faithful the witness of
    the Theotokos and the saints. In light of that
    powerful witness, the faithful are charged to
    commend their lives to Our Lord Jesus Christ. A
    closing prayer is exclaimed by the priest.

22
  • There follow three antiphon. The first two
    anitphons are followed by a shorter litany and a
    prayer. The third is followed by the small
    ektenia, which is followed by the small Entrance,
    at which is sung, "O Come, let us worship and
    fall down before Christ. O Son of God... save us
    who sing to You Alleluia!" "Son of God" is
    normally followed by an insertion, such as "risen
    from the dead," "wondrous in thy saints," or
    "through the prayers of the Theotokos," depending
    on the day.

23
  • Only Begotten Son and Word of God, Who willed for
    our salvation to be incarnate of the holy Mother
    of God and ever virgin Mary, Who did without
    change become man and was crucified, O Christ our
    God, Trampling down death by death, Who are one
    of the Holy Trinity, Glorified with the Father
    and the Holy Spirit, save us.

24
  • The hymn is very theological, composed in honor
    of the incarnate Jesus Christ. The hymn also
    served to clearly respond to multiple heresies
    that plagued the Church such as the meaning of
    the incarnation, changelessness of God,
    resurrection, Trinitarian theology.

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The small entrancepage 7
  • The origin of these entrances goes back to the
    early church, when the liturgical books and
    sacred vessels were kept in special storage rooms
    for safe keeping and the procession was necessary
    to bring these objects into the church when
    needed. Over the centuries, these processions
    have grown more elaborate, and nowadays are
    accompanied by incense, candles and liturgical
    fans. In the liturgical theology of the Church,
    the angels are believed to enter with the clergy
    into the sanctuary, as evidenced by the prayers
    which accompany the various entrances

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Deacon carrying the Gospel book , during the
small entrance
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  • The deacon carries the Gospel in a way that
    covers his face. This represents the coming of
    the Lord.
  • The Priest recites the following prayer"O
    Master, Lord our God, Who has appointed in Heaven
    legions and Hosts of Angels and Archangels for
    the service of your Glory, grant that with our
    entrance there may be an entrance of Holy Angels
    serving with us and glorifying your goodness for
    to you are due all glory, honor, and worship to
    the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy
    Spirit now and for ever and ever.  Amen

28
Tropar
  • is a short hymn of one stanza, or one of a series
    of stanzas. The word probably derives from a
    diminutive of the Greek tropos (something
    repeated, manner, fashion). The early
    tropars were also called sticheron (probably from
    stichos, verse) but currently the two terms
    are treated separately, with different melodies
    used for each.
  • Most troparia are chanted to one of the Eight
    Tones used in the Eastern liturgical tradition,
    though some have unique melodies to which they
    are chanted. Sometimes, troparia will be
    interpolated between verses of a psalm or other
    scripture.

29
Kondak
  • Historical format
  • A kontakion is a poetic form frequently
    encountered in Byzantine hymnography. It was
    probably based in Syriac hymnographical
    traditions, which underwent an independent
    development in Greek-speaking Byzantium. It could
    best be described as a sermon in verse
    accompanied by music. In character it is similar
    to the early Byzantine festival sermons in
    prosea genre developed by Isaac the Syrianbut
    meter and music have greatly heightened the drama
    and rhetorical beauty of the speakers often
    profound and very rich meditation.
  • The form generally consists of 18 to 24
    metrically identical stanzas called oikoi
    (houses), preceded, in a different meter, by a
    short prelude, called a koukoulion (cowl). The
    first letters of each of the stanzas form an
    acrostic, which frequently includes the name of
    the poet. The last line of the prelude introduces
    a refrain, which is repeated at the end of all
    the stanzas.
  • The main body of a kontakion was chanted from the
    ambo by a minister (often a deacon) after the
    reading of the Gospel, while a choir, or even the
    whole congregation, joined in the refrain. The
    length of many kontakiaindeed, the epic
    character of somesuggest that the majority of
    the text must have been delivered in a kind of
    recitative, but unfortunately, the original music
    which accompanied the kontakia has now been lost.

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  • Sacred Tradition ascribes the origin of the
    Kontak to St. Romanos the Melodist during the 6th
    century. Certainly, Romanos' inspired
    compositions represent the apex of the Golden Age
    of Byzantine hymnography. His masterpiece is the
    Kontakion for the Nativity of Christ. Up until
    the twelfth century, it was sung every year at
    the imperial banquet on that feast by the joint
    choirs of Hagia Sophia and of the Church of the
    Holy Apostles in Constantinople. Most of the poem
    takes the form of a dialogue between the Mother
    of God and the Magi, whose visit to the newborn
    Child is celebrated in the Orthodox Church on the
    25th of December, rather than on the 6th of
    January (the Feast of the Theophany on January 6
    celebrates the Baptism of Christ in the Orthodox
    Church).

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Note, the three choirs
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  • Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy
    on us.
  • ????? ? Te??, ????? ?s?????, ????? ????at??,
    ????s?? ?µ??.

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The Trisagionpage 10
  • The trisagion  is a pious and oft-repeated prayer
    in the liturgy. This prayer originated in a
    miracle which occurred in Constantinople in the
    middle of the fifth century. Emperor Theodosius,
    Patriarch Proclus, and all the people were
    beseeching God on open ground for deliverance
    from the destruction which threatened them from
    violent earthquakes. They suddenly saw a boy
    snatched up to heaven when he was returned to
    earth, he reported that he had heard the angels
    singing the trisagion. At the bidding of the
    Patriarch Proclus, the whole people sang it with
    devotion and the terrifying earthquakes ceased.

34
  • The Cherubikon was added to the Divine Liturgy by
    the Emperor Justin II (565 578)

35
The Gospel
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  • The petitions of this litany are similar to those
    of the Great Litany, but the augmented repetition
    of the words "Lord, have mercy" makes its
    petitions more fervent. Here we pray that the
    Lord will be compassionate toward us, for life,
    peace, health, salvation and the forgiveness of
    the sins of the "brethren of this holy and
    all-venerable temple" (the parishioners). The
    last petition of this litany refers to those who
    are active and do good works

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Cherubic hymnPage 17
  • The Cherubikon, or Cherubic Hymn, is the hymn
    normally sung at the Great Entrance during the
    Byzantine liturgy.. The hymn symbolically
    incorporates those present at the liturgy into
    the presence of the angels gathered around God's
    throne.
  • The Cherubikon is divided into two parts. The
    first is sung by the people before the celebrant
    begins the procession with the Gifts, and the
    second, immediately after the celebrant has
    completed the commemorations.

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Byzantine priest holding has hands up and forward
for the cherubicon
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Preparing for the Great Entrance
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I believe in one God
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Icon of St Constantine the Great and the Fathers
of the First Council of Nicaea of 325 as holding
the NicenoConstantinopolitan Creed of 381
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Disnyfication
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III

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III

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  • This Symbol of Faith was formulated by the First
    (325 A.D) and the Second (381 A.D.) Ecumenical
    Councils as the framework of truths of the
    Christian believer. It summarizes the basic
    dogmas from the vast treasures of Divine
    Revelation. The belief in the Holy Trinity is
    confessed in the first eight articles the
    remaining four articles refer to the destiny of
    man related to Gods desire for salvation

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Holy Holy Holy
  • th this hymn the worshipers glorify the Holy
    Trinity the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The
    hymn originates from the ecstasy of Isaiah in
    which he witnesses the angelic order of Seraphim
    crying "Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of Hosts"
    and from the vision of the Apostle John in which
    he saw worshipers in Heaven exclaiming "Holy,
    holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was, and is,
    and is to come!" (Is. 63, Rev. 48). Through the
    singing of this prayer, the Church raises the
    hearts of the believers to contemplation of the
    Lords glory and, together with the heavenly
    powers, to extol and worship Him.

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The eucharistic prayer
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  • What is the moment of consecration?
  • Answer There is non
  • The whole of the consecratory prayer is
    essential. The words of Christ, followed by the
    epiclesis are essentail.

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  • Following the Creed, the priest begins the
    anaphora, the great eucharistic prayer over the
    gifts, so called because of the initial phrase
    "Let us lift up our hearts." The two principal
    anaphoras in use in the Eastern Church are those
    of St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great.
  • After remembering the history of our fall and
    redemption and the institution of the eucharistic
    meal, the priest invokes the Holy Spirit, asking
    that he be sent down on the gifts. It is
    sometimes noted that this invocation, the
    epiclesis, is the climax of the change of the
    gifts of bread and wine into the body and blood
    of Christ, but there is not total agreement among
    Orthodox scholars whether the change can actually
    be pinpointed to a single moment in the service.
    It is certainly true that the prayers of the
    service treat the gifts as consecrated and
    changed after this point.

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  • Having invoked the Holy Spirit and consecrated
    the gifts, the priest commemorates the saints,
    beginning with the Theotokos. At this point, the
    assembled faithful chant the ancient hymn in
    honour of the Virgin, "It is truly meet to bless
    you, O Theotokos, ever-blessed and most pure, and
    the Mother of our God. More honorable than the
    cherubim, beyond compare more glorious than the
    seraphim, without corruption you gave birth to
    God, the Word. True Theotokos, we magnify you."
  • The priest prays that the bishop, in whose name
    he is celebrating the Liturgy, will be kept in
    the Orthodox Faith and preserved in health and
    years.

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  • Prayer before communion
  • Pg. 33
  • Prayer after communion pg. 34

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The Holy Eucharist
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