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Heat Exchangers Design and Construction

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Title: Heat Exchangers Design and Construction Author: Baher Last modified by: sai Created Date: 2/4/2009 7:19:26 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Heat Exchangers Design and Construction


1
Heat Exchangers Design and Construction
  • Chemicoz

2
Introduction
  • Shell and tube heat exchangers are one of the
    most common equipment found in all plants
  • How it works?

3
What are they used for?
  • Classification according to service .
  • Heat Exchanger

Both sides single phase and process stream
  • Cooler

One stream process fluid and the other cooling
water or air
  • Heater

One stream process fluid and heating utility as
steam
  • Condenser

One stream condensing vapor and the other cooling
water or air
  • Reboiler

One stream bottom stream from a distillation
column and the other a hot utility or process
stream
4
Design codes
  • Code

Is recommended method of doing something
ASME BPV TEMA
  • Standard

is the degree of excellence required
  • API 660-ASME B16.5ASME B36.10MASME B36.19-ASME
    B16.9ASME B16.11
  • Specifications
  • Is a detailed description of construction,
    materials, etc
  • Contractor or Owner specifications

5
Main Components
8- Shell
1- Channel Cover
2- Channel
9- Baffles
3- Channel Flange
10- Floating Head backing Device
4- Pass Partition
11- Floating Tubesheet
5- Stationary Tubesheet
12- Floating Head
6- Shell Flange
13- Floating Head Flange
7- Tube
14 Shell Cover
6
TEMAHeat Exchanger
7
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Front Head Type

A - Type
B - Type
C - Type
8
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Shell Type

E - Type
F - Type
J - Type
K - Type
9
TEMA Heat Exchanger
  • Rear End Head Types

M - Type
S - Type
T - Type
Fixed Tubesheet
Floating Head
Pull-Through Floating Head
10
Classification
  • U-Tube Heat Exchanger
  • Fixed Tubesheet Heat Exchanger
  • Floating Tubesheet Heat exchanger

11
Example
AES
12
Example
AKT
13
Heat Exchangers Mechanical Design
  • Terminology
  • Design data
  • Material selection
  • Codes overview
  • Sample calculations
  • Hydrostatic test
  • Sample drawing

14
Terminology
  • ASME
  • TEMA
  • API
  • MAWP
  • MDMT
  • PWHT
  • NPS DN NB NPT
  • Sch - BWG

15
Design Data
  • Heat Exchanger Data Sheet
  • TEMA type
  • Design pressure
  • Design temperature
  • Dimensions / passes
  • Tubes ( dimensions, pattern)
  • Nozzles Connections
  • Baffles (No. Type)

16
Material Selection
17
Strength
B
A
  • A Yield Strength

C
  • B Tensile Strength
  • C Rupture point

18
Strength
  • Creep Strength
  • a slow plastic strain increased by time and
    temperature (time and temperature dependant) for
    stressed materials
  • Fatigue Strength
  • The term fatigue refers to the situation
    where a specimen breaks under a load that it has
    previously withstood for a length of time
  • Toughness
  • The materials capacity to absorb energy,
    which, is dependant upon strength as well as
    ductility

19
ASME code Overview
Sec.I Power Boilers
Sec.II Materials
Sec.III Nuclear Fuel Containers
ASME BPV code
Sec.IV Heating Boilers
Sec. V Non Destructive Examination
Sec. VI Operation of heating boilers
Sec. VII Operation of power boilers
Sec. VIII Pressure vessels
Sec. IX Welding and Brazing
Sec. X Fiber-Reinforced plastic PV
Sec. XI Inspection of nuclear power plant
Sec. XII Transport tanks
20
ASME code overview
  • Sec. II Materials
  • Part A Ferrous material specifications
  • Part B Non-Ferrous material specifications
  • Part C Specifications of welding rods,
    electrodes and filler metals
  • Part D Properties
  • Sec. VIII Rules of construction of pressure
    vessels
  • Division 1 3 Subsections mandatory Annex
    non mandatory Annex
  • Division 2 Alternative rules
  • Division 3 Alternative rules of high pressure

21
ASME code overview
22
TEMA code overview
  • TEMA classes
  • Class R Generally severe requirements for
    petroleum
  • and related processing applications
  • Class C Generally moderate requirements of
    commercial
  • and general processing applications
  • Class B Chemical Process service
  • TEMA subsections
  • 10 subsection

23
Sample Calculations
  • Shell thickness calculations under Internal
    Pressure
  • t Min. Required Shell Thickness
  • P Design Pressure of Shell Side
  • S Max. Allowable Stress of Shell Material
  • R Shell Inside Radius (corroded conditions)
  • E Joint Efficiency
  • CA Corrosion Allowance
  • UT Under Tolerance (if applicable)

24
Sample Calculations
  • Channel thickness calculations under Internal
    Pressure
  • t Min. Required Channel Thickness
  • P Design Pressure of Tube Side
  • S Max. Allowable Stress of Channel Material
  • R Channel Inside Radius (corroded conditions)
  • E Joint Efficiency
  • CA Corrosion Allowance
  • UT Under Tolerance (if applicable)

25
Sample Calculations
  • Body Flanges

26
Sample Calculations
  • Body Flanges
  • Trial and error calculations
  • Gasket seating conditions
  • Operating conditions
  • No. of bolts and size
  • Bolt circle diameter
  • Inside and outside diameters
  • Check min. and max. bolt spacing
  • Detailed analysis of the flange
  • Forces calculations
  • Moment calculations
  • Stresses calculations

27
Sample Calculations
  • Precautions in body flanges design and
    installations
  • Pairs of flanges
  • Bolt holes shall straddle center line
  • Corrosion Allowance
  • Cladding
  • Bolts shall be multiple of 4
  • Bolting shall be allowed to be removed from
    either side
  • Calculated thickness not include the RF

28
Sample Calculations
  • Nozzles and standard flanges
  • Flange Rating (ASME B16.5)
  • Area replacement calculations
  • Nozzle neck thickness calculations
  • Impingement protection

Sample
29
Sample Calculations
  • Tubesheet
  • Tubesheet is the principal barrier between shell
    side and tube side
  • Made from around flat piece of metal with holes
    drilled for the tubes
  • Tubes shall be uniformly distributed
  • Tubesheet thickness shall be designed for both
    sides
  • Tubesheet shall be designed for bending stresses
    and shear stresses
  • Corrosion allowance

30
Sample Calculations
  • Tubesheet
  • Tubesheet thickness for bending
  • T Effective tubesheet thickness
  • S Allowable stress
  • P Design pressure corrected for vacuum if
    applicable at the other side

? Ligament efficiency
  • G Gasket effective diameter

F Factor
31
Sample Calculations
  • Tubesheet
  • Tubesheet thickness for Shear
  • T Effective tubesheet thickness
  • DL Effective diameter of the tube center
    parameter DL4A/C
  • C Perimeter of the tube layout

A Total area enclosed by the Perimeter C
  • P Design pressure
  • S Allowable stress
  • do Outside tube diameter

32
Tube-to-Tubesheet joint
  • Expanded
  • Strength welded
  • Seal welded

33
Hydrostatic Test
  • Test pressure 1.3 X MAWP
  • Test Procedure
  • Gasket change

34
Sample drawing
  • Construction drawing is the design output

Sample drawing 1
Sample drawing 2
35
Thank You
Chemicoz chemicozz_at_gmail.com
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